Publications by authors named "Rui Deng"

161 Publications

Phytoremediation of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances: A review on aquatic plants, influencing factors, and phytotoxicity.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 4;418:126314. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082, China; Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha, Hunan 410082, China.

Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of emerging organic contaminants which are persistent to normal physicochemical treatments. The widespread use of PFASs has caused significant environmental issues. The bioaccumulation and distribution of PFASs within plant compartments have revealed great potentials for phytoremediation. In this review, the roles of aquatic plants in the process of PFASs remediation were highlighted. Moreover, there were different underlying mechanisms of PFASs uptake between terrestrial and aquatic plants. On the other hand, a wide range of influencing factors for bioaccumulation and translocation of PFASs within plant compartments are also presented and discussed. In response to exposure of PFASs, corresponding phytotoxic effects has affected the growth and metabolism of plants, which could provide beneficial guides of the phytotoxic tolerance for plant species selection in applications of phytoremediation. Finally, the discussion about whether phytoremediation is a viable option for PFASs removal and further research priorities are suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126314DOI Listing
June 2021

Recent advances of sorafenib nanoformulations for cancer therapy: Smart nanosystem and combination therapy.

Asian J Pharm Sci 2021 May 21;16(3):318-336. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Cancer Metastasis Chemoprevention and Chemotherapy, College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350116, China.

Sorafenib, a molecular targeted multi-kinase inhibitor, has received considerable interests in recent years due to its significant profiles of efficacy in cancer therapy. However, poor pharmacokinetic properties such as limited water solubility, rapid elimination and metabolism lead to low bioavailability, restricting its further clinical application. Over the past decade, with substantial progress achieved in the development of nanotechnology, various types of smart sorafenib nanoformulations have been developed to improve the targetability as well as the bioavailability of sorafenib. In this review, we summarize various aspects from the preparation and characterization to the evaluation of antitumor efficacy of numerous stimuli-responsive sorafenib nanodelivery systems, particularly with emphasis on their mechanism of drug release and tumor microenvironment response. In addition, this review makes great effort to summarize the nanosystem-based combination therapy of sorafenib with other antitumor agents, which can provide detailed information for further synergistic cancer therapy. In the final section of this review, we also provide a detailed discussion of future challenges and prospects of designing and developing ideal sorafenib nanoformulations for clinical cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajps.2020.07.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8261086PMC
May 2021

Study of the correlation between the noncanonical pathway of pyroptosis and idiopathic inflammatory myopathy.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jun 8;98:107810. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Qinghai University, 251 Ningda Road, Chengbei District, Xining City, Qinghai Province 810000, China.

Background: The pathogenesis of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) is complex and unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the noncanonical pathway of pyroptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of IIM, and the intervention effect of drugs glyburide and bright blue G (BBG).

Methods: After the drug intervention, we detected the expression of the caspase-4, caspase-5, caspase-11, GSDMD, pannexin-1, NLRP3 and P2X7R proteins in skeletal muscle tissues from the six groups using Western blotting. We detected the expression of the caspase-11, GSDMD, pannexin-1, NLRP3 and P2X7R mRNAs in skeletal muscle tissues from the six groups using RT-qPCR and detected the serum IL-18 and IL-1β levels in the six groups using ELISAs.

Result: Lower expression levels of the P2X7R and NLRP3 proteins were observed in the EAM + BBG group than in the EAM1 group (P < 0.05). The expression of NLRP3 in the EAM + glyburide group was lower than in the EAM2 group (P < 0.05). Lower expression levels of the P2X7R and NLRP3 mRNAs were detected in the EAM + BBG group than in the EAM1 group (P < 0.05). NLRP3 was expressed at lower levels in the EAM + glyburide group than in the EAM2 group (P < 0.05). Lower serum IL-1β levels were detected in the EAM + BBG group than in the EAM1 group (P < 0.05), and serum IL-1β and IL-18 levels in the EAM + glyburide group were lower than those in the EAM2 group (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Our results suggest that the noncanonical pathway of pyroptosis may be involved in the pathogenesis of IIM, and glyburide and BBG exert certain intervention effects on its pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107810DOI Listing
June 2021

[Efficacy and Safety of PEG-rhG-CSF in HSC Mobilization in 71 Normal Healthy Donors for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation].

Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jun;29(3):951-956

Department of Hematology, The General Hospital of Western Theater Command, Chengdu 610083, Sichuan Province, China.

Objective: To retrospectively analyze the efficacy and safety of pegylated recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (PEG-rhG-CSF) in hematopoietic stem cell mobilization in 71 normal healthy donors for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT).

Methods: From March 2018 to July 2019, 71 patients received allo-HSCT in The General Hospital of Western Theater Command were enrolled in the study, a single dose of PEG-rhG-CSF was injected subcutaneously at 12 mg to all the stem cell donors. After injection for 4 days, CD34 cell number were detected, stem cells were collected on day 4 or 5 according to the CD34 cell number. The successful collection criteria were CD34 cells≥2×10/kg, and the excellent collection criteria were CD34 cells≥4×10/kg. The side effects after mobilization were observed and the collection time, the success rate, excellent rate, and times of the collection were evaluated in the donors, as well as the infused cell number, the engraftment rate, the time of engraftment, and the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) of the recipients.

Results: Seventy-one healthy stem cell donors included 39 males and 32 females with a median age of 38 (16-58) years old. The median number of CD34 cells on day 4 was 46 (7.4-133)/μl, of which 39 cases with CD34 cells ≥ 40/μl were collected on day 4, 28 cases with CD34 cells 20-40/μl were collected on day 5, and 4 cases with CD34 cells <20/μl were collected on day 5 after a salvage treatment with rhG-CSF. Sixty-five cases were collected once, while 6 cases twice. The median number of collected CD34 cells was 6.1(3.1-18.1)×10/kg. The success collection rate was 100% (71/71), and the excellent collection rate was 81.6% (58/71). All the cases had varying degrees of muscle and bone soreness, 17 cases (23.9%) had headache, 11 cases (15.5%) had fatigue, and 3 cases (4.2%) had a mild fever. Among 71 recipients, the median number of infused mononuclear cells (MNC) was 8.3(5-23.3)×10/kg, the median number of infused CD34 cells and CD3 cells was 5.3(3.1-10.7)×10/kg and 1.9 (0.5-7.6)×10/kg, respectively. Among them, 68 cases (95.8%) had a stable engraftment, the median time of neutrophil engraftment was 11(8-19) days, and the median time of platelet engraftment was 12(8-23) days. Among the 68 cases who were engrafted, 15 cases (22%) had grade Ⅱ-Ⅳ aGVHD, including grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ aGVHD in 3 patients (4.4%), 2 cases (2.9%) died of severe aGVHD.

Conclusion: For allo-HSCT donor mobilization, PEG-rh-G-CSF is effective, safe, and convenient, providing more options for HSC mobilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19746/j.cnki.issn.1009-2137.2021.03.047DOI Listing
June 2021

Whole genome, exon mutation and transcriptomic profiling of acute myeloid leukemia: A case report.

Oncol Lett 2021 Jul 25;22(1):559. Epub 2021 May 25.

Hematology Department and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Center, The General Hospital of Western Theater Command, Chengdu, Sichuan 610083, P.R. China.

The present study aimed to observe previously unidentified gene mutation and expression profiles associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at the individual level, based on the blood samples of a father-son pair. Genomic DNA and RNA samples from blood serum were collected. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and whole-exome sequencing (WES), as well as mRNA sequencing of the son, were performed. For the father's sample, a total of 3,897,164 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 780,834 insertion and deletions (indels) were identified. Regarding amino acid translation, there were 11,316 non-synonymous, 12 stop-loss, 12,033 synonymous, 92 stop-gain SNPs, 63 frameshift insertions, 73 frameshift deletions, 242 non-frameshift insertions, 248 non-frameshift deletions, four stop-gains and two stop-loss for indel variants. Among the AML-related genes that had been previously identified, 14 genes were found in the father's exon region. For WES of the son's DNA, 96,639 SNPs were identified, including 10,504 non-synonymous SNPs. Seven mutant genes were found in sons' exon region compared with 121 AML-related genes. Based on the transcriptomic sequencing, there were 54 differentially expressed mRNAs, including 31 upregulated and 23 downregulated mRNAs. In the exon region, 10,072 SNPs were detected, and different types of alternative splicing in the son's sample were observed. Overall, whole genome, exon mutation and transcriptomic profiling of the present two patients with AML may provide a new insight into the molecular events governing the development of AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2021.12820DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161460PMC
July 2021

Remediation of Cd-Contaminated Soil by Modified Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron: Role of Plant Root Exudates and Inner Mechanisms.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 30;18(11). Epub 2021 May 30.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China.

In this study, the role of exogenous root exudates and microorganisms was investigated in the application of modified nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) for the remediation of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soil. In this experiment, citric acid (CA) was used to simulate root exudates, which were then added to water and soil to simulate the pore water and rhizosphere environment. In detail, the experiment in water demonstrated that low concentration of CA facilitated Cd removal by nZVI, while the high concentration achieved the opposite. Among them, CA can promote the adsorption of Cd not only by direct complexation with heavy metal ions, but also by indirect effect to promote the production of iron hydroxyl oxides which has excellent heavy metal adsorption properties. Additionally, the H dissociated from CA posed a great influence on Cd removal. The situation in soil was similar to that in water, where low concentrations of CA contributed to the immobilization of Cd by nZVI, while high concentrations promoted the desorption of Cd and the generation of CA-Cd complexes which facilitated the uptake of Cd by plants. As the reaction progressed, the soil pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC) increased, while organic matter (OM) decreased. Meanwhile, the soil microbial community structure and diversity were investigated by high-throughput sequencing after incubation with CA and nZVI. It was found that a high concentration of CA was not conducive to the growth of microorganisms, while CMC had the effect of alleviating the biological toxicity of nZVI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115887DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8197846PMC
May 2021

An alternative method for sourceless density measurement with boron sleeve gamma detectors.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Aug 23;174:109785. Epub 2021 May 23.

College of Geophysics and Petroleum Resources, Yangtze University, Wuhan, 430100, China.

Neutron gamma density measurement using dual gamma detectors (NGD-GD) is a popular density measurement method. Compared with other NGD methods, the NGD-GD method has many advantages in tool optimization, cost control, and density precision; however, it is easily affected by the salinity of formation water. To improve the NGD-GD method, the influence mechanism of formation water salinity was discussed, and a feasible improvement scheme using characteristic gamma information was proposed. A special boron sleeve gamma detector was designed to record the capture gamma rays from the boron-10 element. By analyzing the gamma spectrum, pure boron-10 gamma information was extracted from the total capture gamma spectrum for density calculation. Finally, a new NGD method with boron sleeve gamma detectors (NGD-BD) was developed. Results depict that although the NGD-BD method has a slight decrease in density accuracy and precision compared with the NGD-GD method, its performance is significantly improved in high-brine formations, and oil and gas formations. In addition, the NGD-BD method exhibits better performance in terms of density accuracy, density precision, and environmental impact than another NGD method that uses hydrogen capture gamma information. Moreover, the NGD-BD method is easily implemented with low cost and has little impact on existing NGD tools, and hence, it can coexist with other NGD methods to improve logging quality. Overall, the NGD-BD method is a very promising alternative to the NGD-GD method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2021.109785DOI Listing
August 2021

The role of Serpina3n in the reversal effect of ATRA on dexamethasone-inhibited osteogenic differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 05 17;12(1):291. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 76 Linjiang Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, 400010, China.

Background: Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is the most common secondary osteoporosis. Patients with GIOP are susceptible to fractures and the subsequent delayed bone union or nonunion. Thus, effective drugs and targets need to be explored. In this regard, the present study aims to reveal the possible mechanism of the anti-GIOP effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA).

Methods: Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9)-transfected mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were used as an in vitro osteogenic model to deduce the relationship between ATRA and dexamethasone (DEX). The osteogenic markers runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteopontin were detected using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunofluorescent staining assay. ALP activities and matrix mineralization were evaluated using ALP staining and Alizarin Red S staining assay, respectively. The novel genes associated with ATRA and DEX were detected using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). The binding of the protein-DNA complex was validated using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. Rat GIOP models were constructed using intraperitoneal injection of dexamethasone at a dose of 1 mg/kg, while ATRA intragastric administration was applied to prevent and treat GIOP. These effects were evaluated based on the serum detection of the osteogenic markers osteocalcin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, histological staining, and micro-computed tomography analysis.

Results: ATRA enhanced BMP9-induced ALP, RUNX2 expressions, ALP activities, and matrix mineralization in mouse embryonic fibroblasts as well as C3H10T1/2 and C2C12 cells, while a high concentration of DEX attenuated these markers. When DEX was combined with ATRA, the latter reversed DEX-inhibited ALP activities and osteogenic markers. In vivo analysis showed that ATRA reversed DEX-inhibited bone volume, bone trabecular number, and thickness. During the reversal process of ATRA, the expression of retinoic acid receptor beta (RARβ) was elevated. RARβ inhibitor Le135 partly blocked the reversal effect of ATRA. Meanwhile, RNA-seq demonstrated that serine protease inhibitor, clade A, member 3N (Serpina3n) was remarkably upregulated by DEX but downregulated when combined with ATRA. Overexpression of Serpina3n attenuated ATRA-promoted osteogenic differentiation, whereas knockdown of Serpina3n blocked DEX-inhibited osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, ChIP assay revealed that RARβ can regulate the expression of Serpina3n.

Conclusion: ATRA can reverse DEX-inhibited osteogenic differentiation both in vitro and in vivo, which may be closely related to the downregulation of DEX-promoted Serpina3n. Hence, ATRA may be viewed as a novel therapeutic agent, and Serpina3n may act as a new target for GIOP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02347-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8127316PMC
May 2021

[Posterior percutaneous endoscopy via vertical anchor technique combined with trench technique for single-segmental central cervical disc herniation].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 May;35(5):579-585

Department of Orthopedics-Spine Surgery Center, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400010, P.R.China.

Objective: To investigate the clinical feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of posterior percutaneous endoscopy via vertical anchor technique combined with trench technique for single-segmental central cervical disc herniation.

Methods: Between July 2017 and August 2019, 13 patients with the single-segmental central cervical disc herniation suffering from various neurologic deficits were treated with posterior percutaneous endoscopy via vertical anchor technique combined with trench technique. There were 6 males and 7 females with an average age of 50.5 years (range, 43-64 years). Disease duration ranged from 3 to 17 months (mean, 9.2 months). The clinical symptoms of 5 cases were mainly neck pain, radiculopathy, and numbness in upper limbs, and the visual analogue scale (VAS) score was 6.60±0.55. The clinical symptoms of 8 cases were myelopathy including upper extremities numbness, weakness, and trouble walking, and the modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) score was 12.75±0.71. The surgery-related complications, operation time, and intraoperative blood loss were recorded, and the results of clinical symptoms were measured by VAS scores and mJOA scores.

Results: All procedures were completed successfully, no severe complications such as dural tears or cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred. The operation time ranged from 83 to 164 minutes (mean, 101.2 minutes). The intraoperative blood loss was 25-50 mL (mean, 33.1 mL). After operation, 12 of 13 cases were followed up 10-24 months (mean, 17.6 months). The VAS scores of patients with preoperative pain symptoms were 2.40±0.55 on the first day after operation and 1.80±0.45 at last follow-up, which were significantly lower than those before operation ( <0.05). The mJOA scores of patients with the symptoms of spinal cord injury were 12.63±0.52 on the first day after operation and 14.29±0.95 at last follow-up, and the score at last follow-up was significantly higher than that before operation ( <0.05). Acute extremities weakness occurred for the postoperative hematoma formation in 1 case (disc herniation at C ) presented with myelopathy preoperatively, and muscle strength was recovered after the clearance of hematoma and spinal cord decompression under percutaneous endoscopy.

Conclusion: Posterior percutaneous endoscopy via vertical anchor technique and trench technique for single-segmental central cervical disc herniation was clinical feasible, safe, and effective, and could be an alternative approach to the treatment of central cervical disc herniation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1002-1892.202101011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8175194PMC
May 2021

Bilin-dependent regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis by GUN4.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(20)

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, 430070 Wuhan, China;

Biosyntheses of chlorophyll and heme in oxygenic phototrophs share a common trunk pathway that diverges with insertion of magnesium or iron into the last common intermediate, protoporphyrin IX. Since both tetrapyrroles are pro-oxidants, it is essential that their metabolism is tightly regulated. Here, we establish that heme-derived linear tetrapyrroles (bilins) function to stimulate the enzymatic activity of magnesium chelatase (MgCh) via their interaction with GENOMES UNCOUPLED 4 (GUN4) in the model green alga A key tetrapyrrole-binding component of MgCh found in all oxygenic photosynthetic species, GUN4, also stabilizes the bilin-dependent accumulation of protoporphyrin IX-binding CHLH1 subunit of MgCh in light-grown cells by preventing its photooxidative inactivation. Exogenous application of biliverdin IXα reverses the loss of CHLH1 in the bilin-deficient heme oxygenase () mutant, but not in the mutant. We propose that these dual regulatory roles of GUN4:bilin complexes are responsible for the retention of bilin biosynthesis in all photosynthetic eukaryotes, which sustains chlorophyll biosynthesis in an illuminated oxic environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2104443118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8158021PMC
May 2021

Jointed Synchronous Photocatalytic Oxidation and Chromate Reduction Enabled by the Defect Distribution upon BiVO: Mechanism Insight and Toxicity Assessment.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 13;13(15):17586-17598. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering and Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China.

Exploring active and ecological materials for the restoration of complex pollution system is highly desired. This study presents a facile defect-tailoring strategy for combined pollutants purification with BiVO photocatalysis in which the jointed synchronous reaction of oxidation and reduction is integrated instead of the sequential reaction in two individual systems. XPS and EPR reveal that BiVO with a suitable oxygen vacancies (OVs) concentration and distribution exhibits superior photocatalytic activity under the coexistence of TC-HCl and Cr(VI) with Cr(VI) reduction efficiency increased by 71 times compared with the individual Cr(VI) system along with TC-HCl removal efficiency comparable to a single TC-HCl system. The mechanism of synchronous redox reactions mediated by surface OVs is revealed by comprehensive characterization together with reaction kinetic analysis, and the electronic band structure adjustment induced by the OVs variation is confirmed. Active species identification tests and intermediate product analysis confirm that singlet oxygen (O) accounts for the selective oxidation of TC-HCl, while electrons dominate the reduction of Cr(VI), under a coexistent environment. The influence of water quality parameters (e.g., pH, cations, anions, and organic substances) on the photocatalytic activity is investigated considering the complexity of the real aquatic environment. Importantly, toxicity assessment with Gram-negative strain as a model bacterium validates that the toxicity of the intermediates can be reduced to low or even ultralow levels. This work is dedicated to the mechanistic study of defect photocatalysis over BiVO and provides a jointed synchronous reaction system for combined pollutant purification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c01998DOI Listing
April 2021

Application analysis on the different neutron gamma density (NGD) logging methods.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Jun 11;172:109672. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

College of Geophysics and Petroleum Resources, Yangtze University, Wuhan, 430100, China. Electronic address:

Neutron gamma density (NGD) logging is the most promising alternative to the traditional density logging (GGD), which is of significance for resolving the radiation and safety issues in oil industry. However, due to the different HI correction methods, multiple NGD methods based on the fast neutron, thermal neutron, and capture gamma detection coexist in the well-logging field, and show considerable differences in the tool specifications. To clarify these differences and guide the NGD development, three typical NGD methods using the fast neutron count ratio, thermal neutron count ratio, and capture gamma count ratio (abbreviated as NGD-FC, NGD-TC, and NGD-CC methods) are selected as representatives for comparative study. Using the Monte Carlo simulation, an integrated NGD tool model was established for studying the differences of three NGD methods in the logging responses, data processing methods, and environmental applications. Research shows that, although the three NGD methods have different measurement systems and data processing methods, the three methods can get rid of the HI effect and obtain accurate formation density. The changes of wellbore size and wellbore fluid have similar and significant impact on the three NGD methods and lead to large density errors, especially for the large-size wellbore or wellbore gas conditions. In the different lithology conditions, three methods have good performances, but the NGD-FC and NGD-CC methods have smaller density errors than NGD-TC method. Compared to the other two NGD methods, the NGD-FC method also has a perfect performance in the oil or gas-saturated formation, while NGD-TC and NGD-CC methods have extremely large errors in the gas-saturated formation. Besides, the NGD-FC method are hardly affected by the formation water salinity, the NGD-TC method is slightly affected, while the NGD-CC method is greatly affected. This study can provide a guidance for the tool design, data processing and environment correction of the NGD technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2021.109672DOI Listing
June 2021

Stabilization of lead in polluted sediment based on an eco-friendly amendment strategy: Microenvironment response mechanism.

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 25;415:125534. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082, China; Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha, Hunan 410082, China.

Stabilization is the most important remediation mechanisms for sediment polluted heavy metals. However, little research has been done on the identification of microenvironmental response and internal correlation, as well as synergistic mechanisms during heavy metal remediation. This study aims to investigate the inner response mechanisms of microenvironment after the lead (Pb) are gradually stabilized in sediment. An eco-friendly amendment strategy which firstly used 100% biodegradable sophorolipids (SOP) to modify chlorapatite (ClAP) for the fabrication of [email protected] was applied in this study. The stabilization efficiency of Pb was significantly improved by [email protected] compared with ClAP. Most importantly, the high-throughput sequencing showed that the dominant species in the sediment changed with the stabilization of Pb. The decrease of Proteobacteria and increase of Firmicutes, especially the Sedimentibacter within the phylum Firmicute directly suggested that large amounts of Pb were stabilized. This research is not only devoted to stabilize Pb in sediment by eco-friendly amendment strategy, but also keep a watchful eye on microenvironment response mechanisms during the Pb stabilization in sediment. Therefore, this study lays a foundation for the future application of more heavy metal amendment strategies in the sediment environment and improves the possibility of large-scale site amendment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125534DOI Listing
August 2021

Methodology-dependent performance of serum HBV RNA in predicting treatment outcomes in chronic hepatitis B patients.

Antiviral Res 2021 05 10;189:105037. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Viral Hepatitis Research, Department of Infectious Diseases, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: Whether different serum HBV RNA detection assays can consistently predict treatment outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis B remains controversial.

Methods: We enrolled 188 patients who had stopped nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) (STOP cohort-1, -2) and 78 receiving entecavir (ETV) therapy (ETV cohort) and used double-target (targeting both 5' and 3' ends of the HBV pregenome RNA [DT-RNA]) and three single-target (targeting the S-region [S-RNA], X-region [X-RNA], and poly-A tail of HBV RNA [PolyA-RNA]) assays to predict treatment outcomes.

Results: In STOP cohorts, DT-RNA, S-RNA and X-RNA at NAs cessation showed higher predictive powers for clinical relapse (time-dependent areas under the curve [AUCs] for years 1, 2, 3, and 4 ranged between 0.724 and 0.772 in cohort-1, and between 0.741 and 0.824 in cohort-2) than the PolyA-RNA (AUCs between 0.604 and 0.611 in cohort-1; and between 0.530 and 0.584 in cohort-2). The predictive power for 2-year HBeAg loss of the four targeted RNAs in the ETV cohort at 6 months were similar (AUCs, 0.848, 0.838, 0.825, and 0.801), and superior to that of the HBV DNA level at 6 months (AUC, 0.721).

Conclusion: The outcome prediction performance of serum HBV RNAs is methodology-dependent. PolyA-RNA detection was not recommended to predict off-treatment relapses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105037DOI Listing
May 2021

Application of CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing for congenital heart disease.

Clin Exp Pediatr 2021 Jun 2;64(6):269-279. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Cardiology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) is an ancient prokaryotic defense system that precisely cuts foreign genomic DNA under the control of a small number of guide RNAs. The CRISPR-Cas9 system facilitates efficient double-stranded DNA cleavage that has been recently adopted for genome editing to create or correct inherited genetic mutations causing disease. Congenital heart disease (CHD) is generally caused by genetic mutations such as base substitutions, deletions, and insertions, which result in diverse developmental defects and remains a leading cause of birth defects. Pediatric CHD patients exhibit a spectrum of cardiac abnormalities such as septal defects, valvular defects, and abnormal chamber development. CHD onset occurs during the prenatal period and often results in early lethality during childhood. Because CRISPR-Cas9-based genome editing technology has gained considerable attention for its potential to prevent and treat diseases, we will review the CRISPR-Cas9 system as a genome editing tool and focus on its therapeutic application for CHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3345/cep.2020.02096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8181018PMC
June 2021

Improved responsivity of MgZnO film ultraviolet photodetectors modified with vertical arrays ZnO nanowires by light trapping effect.

Nanotechnology 2021 May;32(20):205401

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022, People's Republic of China.

The light trapping effect of ZnO nanowires (NWs) is attracting increasing attention as it effectively enhances the photoelectric effect. In this paper, high-density ZnO NWs are grown on a metal-semiconductor-metal structure MgZnO film UV photodetector (PD) as a light trapping unit. The photogenerated carriers diffuse along the longitudinal axis of the ZnO NWs, then diffuse onto the thin film and are collected by an applied bias electrode. When the device is connected to the NWs, the responsivity is about 12 times higher than that of the pure MgZnO film UV PD with a large light-dark current ratio (4.93 × 10). The array structure of the ZnO NWs enhances the number of photogenerated carriers at the top interface and provides a longer optical path length and a larger surface area. The resulting light trapping effect endows the device with excellent photoelectric properties. In this work, the introduction of NWs not only fundamentally improves the performance of the MgZnO thin film UV PD, but the resulting photodetector also demonstrates a sharp contrast between light trapping UV PD and the MgZnO thin film UV PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abe43bDOI Listing
May 2021

Colon tissue-accumulating mesoporous carbon nanoparticles loaded with cecropin for ulcerative colitis therapy.

Theranostics 2021 19;11(7):3417-3438. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Bioactive Substances, School of Life Science and Biopharmaceutics, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, 280 Wai Huan Dong Road, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center, Guangzhou 510006, People's Republic of China.

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a modern refractory disease with steadily increasing incidence worldwide that urgently requires effective and safe therapies. Therapeutic peptides delivered using nanocarriers have shown promising developments for the treatment of UC. We developed a novel colon-accumulating oral drug delivery nanoplatform consisting of cecropin (MDC) and mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs) and investigated its effects and mechanism of action for the treatment of UC. An optimized one-step soft templating method was developed to synthesize MCNs, into which MDC was loaded to fabricate [email protected] MCNs and [email protected] were characterized by BET, XRD, and TEM. MDC and [email protected] resistance to trypsin degradation was measured through Oxford cup antibacterial experiments using as the indicator. Uptake of MDC and [email protected] by NCM460 cells was observed by fluorescence microscopy. The biocompatibility of MDC, MCNs, and [email protected] was evaluated in three cell lines (NCM460, L02, and NIH3T3) and C57BL/6 mice. Dextran sulphate sodium was used to establish models of NCM460 cell injury and UC in mice. MTT assay, flow cytometry, and mitochondrial membrane potential assay were applied to determine the effects of [email protected] on NCM460 cells injury. Additionally, a variety of biological methods such as H&E staining, TEM, ELISA, qPCR, Western blotting, and 16s rDNA sequencing were performed to explore the effects and underlying mechanism of [email protected] on UC . Colonic adhesion of MCNs was compared in normal and UC mice. The oral biodistributions of MDC and [email protected] in the gastrointestinal tract of mice were also determined. [email protected] were successfully developed and exhibited excellent ability to resist destruction by trypsin and were taken up by NCM460 cells more readily than MDC. studies showed that [email protected] better inhibited DSS-induced NCM460 cells damage with lower toxicity to L02 and NIH3T3 cells compared with MDC. results indicated that [email protected] have good biocompatibility and significantly improved colonic injury in UC mice by effectively inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress, maintaining colonic tight junctions, and regulating intestinal flora. Moreover, [email protected] were strongly retained in the intestines, which was attributed to intestinal adhesion and aggregation of MCNs, serving as one of the important reasons for its enhanced efficacy after oral administration compared with MDC. [email protected] alleviated DSS-induced UC by ameliorating colonic epithelial cells damage, inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress, enhancing colonic tight junctions, and regulating intestinal flora. This colon-accumulating oral drug delivery nanoplatform may provide a novel and precise therapeutic strategy for UC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.53105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847694PMC
July 2021

[Retracted] The inhibitory effect of MEG3/miR-214/AIFM2 axis on the growth of T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma.

Int J Oncol 2021 02 22;58(2):275. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Hematology and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation and Cell Immunotherapy Center, Chengdu Military General Hospital of PLA, Chengdu, Sichuan 610083, P.R. China.

Following the publication of this paper, it was drawn to the authors' attention by an interested reader that a row of the tumour images featured in Fig. 8A of the above paper were strikingly similar to those featured in Fig. 6A of an article appearing in Oncology Reports that had been published by a different research group at a different institution [Zhang L, Liang X and Li Y: Long non‑coding RNA MEG3 inhibits cell growth of gliomas by targeting miR‑93 and inactivating PI3K/AKT pathway. Oncol Rep 38: 2408‑2416, 2017]. The Editor asked the authors for an explanation to account for the appearance of strikingly similar data in their paper independently, although the authors proved to be uncontactable in this regard, and did not respond to various queries. The Editor has therefore taken an executive decision to retract this paper from International Journal of Oncology without the agreement of the authors. The Editor apologizes to the readership for any inconvenience caused. [the original article was published in International Journal of Oncology 51: 316‑326, 2017; DOI: 10.3892/ijo.2017.4006].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2020.5162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7864005PMC
February 2021

Letter to the Editor: Can the Ratio of Serum HBV RNA to DNA Reflect the Reverse-Transcription Efficiency of Viral pgRNA?

Hepatology 2021 Jul;74(1):532-533

State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Viral Hepatitis Research, Department of Infectious Diseases, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31691DOI Listing
July 2021

Healthcare for migrant workers in destination countries: a comparative qualitative study of China and Malaysia.

BMJ Open 2020 12 2;10(12):e039800. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Gender Violence & Health Centre, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Objectives: This paper explores policies addressing migrant worker's health and barriers to healthcare access in two middle-income, destination countries in Asia with cross-border migration to Yunnan province, China and international migration to Malaysia.

Design: Qualitative interviews were conducted in Rui Li City and Tenchong County in Yunnan Province, China (n=23) and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (n=44), along with review of policy documents. Data were thematically analysed.

Participants: Participants were migrant workers and key stakeholders with expertise in migrant issues including representatives from international organisations, local civil society organisations, government agencies, medical professionals, academia and trade unions.

Results: Migrant health policies at destination countries were predominantly protectionist, concerned with preventing transmission of communicable disease and the excessive burden on health systems. In China, foreign wives were entitled to state-provided maternal health services while female migrant workers had to pay out-of-pocket and often returned to Myanmar for deliveries. In Malaysia, immigration policies prohibit migrant workers from pregnancy, however, women do deliver at healthcare facilities. Mandatory HIV testing was imposed on migrants in both countries, where it was unclear whether and how informed consent was obtained from migrants. Migrants who did not pass mandatory health screenings in Malaysia would runaway rather than be deported and become undocumented in the process. Excessive attention on migrant workers with communicable disease control campaigns in China resulted in inadvertent stigmatisation. Language and financial barriers frustrated access to care in both countries. Reported conditions of overcrowding and inadequate healthcare access at immigration detention centres raise public health concern.

Conclusions: This study's findings inform suggestions to mainstream the protection of migrant workers' health within national health policies in two middle-income destination countries, to ensure that health systems are responsive to migrants' needs as well as to strengthen bilateral and regional cooperation towards ensuring better migration management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-039800DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7713184PMC
December 2020

Pentachlorophenol and ciprofloxacin present dissimilar joint toxicities with carbon nanotubes to Bacillus subtilis.

Environ Pollut 2021 Feb 11;270:116071. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

Discharged carbon nanotubes (CNTs) likely interact with co-existing organic contaminants (OCs) and pose joint toxicity to environmental microbes. Herein, hydrophobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) and hydrophilic ciprofloxacin (CIP) were used as representative OCs and their joint toxicities with CNTs to Bacillus subtilis were systematically investigated at cellular, biochemical, and omics levels. The 3-h bacterial growth half inhibitory concentrations of CNTs, PCP, and CIP were 12.5 ± 2.6, 3.5 ± 0.5, and 0.46 ± 0.03 mg/L, respectively, and they all could damage cell membrane, increase intracellular oxidative stress, and alter bacterial metabolomics and transcriptomics; while CNTs-PCP and CNTs-CIP binary exposures exhibited distinct additive and synergistic toxicities, respectively. CNTs increased bacterial bioaccumulation of PCP and CIP via destabilizing and damaging cell membrane. PCP reduced the bioaccumulation of CNTs, while CIP had no significant effect; this difference could be owing to the different effects of the two OCs on cell-surface hydrophobicity and CNTs electronegativity. The additive toxicity outcome upon CNTs-PCP co-exposure could be a result of the balance between the increased toxicity from increased PCP bioaccumulation and the decreased toxicity from decreased CNTs bioaccumulation. The increased bioaccumulation of CIP contributed to the synergistic toxicity upon CNTs-CIP co-exposure, as confirmed by the increased inhibition of topoisomerase Ⅳ activity and interference in gene expressions regulating ABC transporters and lysine biosynthesis. The findings provide novel insights into environmental risks of CNTs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116071DOI Listing
February 2021

Evaluation of VEGF mediated pro-angiogenic and hemostatic effects and chemical marker investigation for Typhae Pollen and its processed product.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Mar 16;268:113591. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Chinese Medicinal Resources Industrialization, National and Local Collaborative Engineering Center of Chinese Medicinal Resources Industrialization and Formulae Innovative Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, 210023, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Typhae Pollen (TP) is a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to remove blood stasis. Carbonized Typhae Pollen (CTP), a processed product of TP after being stir-fried, has been widely applied to clinical practice with its capability of hemostasis. However, the underlying mechanism of TP and CTP are still not fully elucidated and discrimination against TP and CTP remains a challenge.

Aim Of Study: The aim of this study is to investigate whether TP could remove blood stasis by promoting angiogenesis and the process of carbonizing it could enhance hemostatic effect. Meanwhile, some chemical markers for quality control of CTP had better to be found.

Material And Methods: The changes of constituents between TP and CTP were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. We investigated pro-angiogenic and hemostatic effects of TP and CTP in two zebrafish models: VRI-induced ISV insufficiency model and Ator-induced cerebral hemorrhage model. Subsequently, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was applied to investigate the mechanism of pharmacological effects. Finally, chemometric method was applied to find chemical markers.

Results: A total of 19 compounds were identified in qualitative analysis. The loss rate of each compound was calculated and compared. Two compounds (huaicarbon A/B) could only be detected in CTP and the content of flavonoid glycosides in CTP was significantly decreased compared with TP. The average content of the three identified flavonoid aglycones (quercetin, isorhamnetin and kaempferol) was increased about 30 percent in CTP. TP promoted pro-angiogenesis by up-regulating the expression of VEGFA, flt1 and kdr. After heating process, the pro-angiogenic activity was reduced and hemostatic activity was enhanced in CTP. Then qRT-PCR analysis found that CTP could significantly up-regulate the expression of VEGFA and vWF. In the discovery of markers, 6 chemical markers for discrimination of TP and CTP were obtained by chemometric method.

Conclusion: Our research indicated that the pro-angiogenic activity of TP was involved in VEGF signaling pathway. After processing, hemostatic activity of CTP has been enhanced by up-regulating the expression of VEGFA and vWF. A chemical marker database was established to provide a scientific evidence for quality control, mechanism and the clinical application of TP and CTP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113591DOI Listing
March 2021

PD-L1 Expression is Highly Associated with Tumor-Associated Macrophage Infiltration in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

Cancer Manag Res 2020 12;12:11585-11596. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the most abundant immune cells in the tumor microenvironment and provide a barrier against the cytotoxic effector functions of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Recently, TAMs have become increasingly recognised as an attractive target in combination therapy with PD-1/PD-L1 immuno-checkpoint blockades (ICBs). However, the relationship between PD-L1 expression and TAMs remains unknown in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).

Patients And Methods: A total of 212 NPC patients from Nanfang hospital were collected in this study. We evaluated the expression of PD-L1 in tumor cells, CD68 (pan-macrophages), and CD163 (M2-like macrophage) in NPC tissues using immunohistochemical (IHC) staining.

Results: The positivity of PD-L1 on tumor cells was 61.3% (130/212). The infiltration densities of CD68+ cells and CD163+ cells in PD-L1-positive NPC tissues were significantly higher than those in PD-L1-negative NPC tissues (=0.0012 for CD68; <0.0001 for CD163). Logistic regression analysis showed that high densities of CD68+ macrophages and CD163+ TAMs were significantly associated with increased PD-L1 expression. Subgroup analyses demonstrated that a positive PD-L1 expression on tumor cells in combination with lower CD163+ TAMs density was significantly associated with favorable prognosis, whereas negative PD-L1 expression on tumor cells with higher CD163+ TAMs density was associated with worse prognosis.

Conclusion: The PD-L1 expression in tumor cells was positively correlated with TAMs density in tumor microenvironment of NPC, suggesting TAMs as a new target for combination therapy to improve the response rate of ICBs in NPC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S274913DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7669506PMC
November 2020

Microplastics and nanoplastics in the environment: Macroscopic transport and effects on creatures.

J Hazard Mater 2021 04 29;407:124399. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, PR China; Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082, PR China.

Industrial progress has brought us an important polymer material, i.e. plastic. Because of mass production and use, and improper management and disposal, plastic pollution has become one of the most pivotal environmental issues in the world today. However, the current researches on microplastics/nanoplastics are mainly focused on individual aquatic, terrestrial and atmospheric environments, ignoring the fact that the natural environment is a whole. In this regard, the transport of microplastics/nanoplastics among the three environment compartments, including reciprocal contributions and inherent connections, and the impact of microplastics/nanoplastics on organisms living in multiple environments are research problems that we pay special attention to. Furthermore, this paper comprehensively reviews the transport and distribution of microplastics/nanoplastics in individual compartments and the toxicity of organisms, either alone or in combination with other pollutants. The properties of microplastics/nanoplastics, environment condition and the growth habit of organisms are critical to the transport, distribution and toxicity of microplastics/nanoplastics. These knowledge gaps need to be addressed urgently to improve cognition of the degree of plastic pollution and enhance our ability to deal with pollution. Meanwhile, it is hoped that the paper can provide a relatively complete theoretical knowledge system and multiple "leads" for future innovative ideas in this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124399DOI Listing
April 2021

Posterior Percutaneous Transpedicular Endoscopic Approach for Treating Single-Segment Cervical Myelopathy.

Biomed Res Int 2020 22;2020:1573589. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, No. 76 Linjiang Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, China.

Background: Standard posterior percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy (PECD) is considered an effective minimally invasive surgery. Although standard PECD can be used to treat radiculopathy with relatively minimal trauma, it is still a challenge to use this approach for treating myelopathy.

Objective: This report is aimed at first describing a posterior transpedicular approach under endoscopy for myelopathy and evaluating the feasibility and short-term clinical effects of this approach.

Methods: In our retrospective analysis between Feb. 2016 to Mar. 2017, 16 patients managed with PECD using the posterior transpedicular approach for symptomatic single-segment myelopathy. Surgery involved drilling 1/2 to 2/3 of the medial portion of the pedicle under endoscopy to provide sufficient space and an appropriate angle for inserting the endoscope into the spinal canal, followed by ventral decompression of the spinal cord. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were used to evaluate pedicle healing and spinal cord decompression. The primary outcomes included a visual analog scale (VAS) scores of axial neck pain and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores of neurological conditions.

Results: All patients completed a 1-year follow-up examination. The mean duration of surgery was 95.44 ± 19.44 min (52-130 min). The fluoroscopy duration was 5.88 ± 1.05 (4-7). The VAS scores of axial pain significantly improved from 6.94 ± 0.75 preoperatively to 2.88 ± 1.22 postoperatively ( < 0.05). The mean JOA scores improved from 8.50 ± 1.12 preoperatively to 14.50 ± 1.46 at the final follow-up ( < 0.05). The effects were excellent in 8 cases, good in 6 cases, and fair in 2 cases. After partial pedicle excision, the width of the remaining pedicle was 1.70 ± 0.22 mm postoperatively and significantly recovered to 3.38 ± 0.49 mm at the 1-year follow-up. There were no surgery-related complications, such as dural tearing, spinal cord injury, nerve root injury, pedicle fracture, and cervical hematocele or infection.

Conclusions: The posterior transpedicular approach is an effective method for the treatment of myelopathy in select patients and is a supplement to the described surgical approach for PECD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/1573589DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7603541PMC
May 2021

EBV-EBNA1 constructs an immunosuppressive microenvironment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma by promoting the chemoattraction of Treg cells.

J Immunother Cancer 2020 10;8(2)

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China

Background: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is primarily caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in NPC endemic areas. EBNA1 is an EBV-encoded nuclear antigen, which plays a critical role in the maintenance and replication of EBV genome. However, the mechanisms of EBNA1-promoted NPC immune escape are unknown. Regulatory T (Treg) cells are among the key regulators in restraining antitumor responses. However, the mechanisms of accumulation of Treg cells in NPC have not been defined. This study attempted to identify the detailed mechanisms of EBNA1 functions as a tumor accelerator to promote NPC immune escape by enhancing chemoattraction of Treg cells.

Methods: mRNA profiles were determined by next-generation sequencing in NPC cells. In vitro and in vivo assays were performed to analyze the role of EBNA1 in regulation of recruitment of Treg cells. Colocation and coimmunoprecipitation analyzes were used to identify the SMAD3/c-JUN complex. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and dual luciferase reporter assays were designed to demonstrate c-JUN binding to miR-200a promoter and miR-200a targeting to CXCL12 3'Untranslated Regions. The hepatocellular carcinoma models were designed to demonstrate universality of the CXCL12-CXCR4-Treg axis in promoting immune evasion of various tumors.

Result: A novel molecular mechanism was identified that involves EBV-EBNA1-stimulated chemotactic migration of Treg cells toward NPC microenvironment by upregulation of the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1)-SMAD3-PI3K-AKT-c-JUN-CXCL12-CXCR4 axis and downregulation of miR-200a. EBV-EBNA1 promotes the chemoattraction of Treg cells by governing the protein-protein interactions of the SMAD3/c-JUN complex in a TGFβ1-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo. TGFβ1 suppresses miR-200a by enhancing the SMAD3/c-JUN complex. miR-200a negatively regulates the CXCL12 chemokine by direct targeting of the CXCL12 3'UTR region. However, CXCL12 acts as the target gene of miR-200a and as an inhibitor of miR-200a transcription, and inhibition of miR-200a by CXCL12 is mediated by c-JUN, which directly binds to the miR-200a promoter and forms a c-JUN-miR-200a-CXCL12-c-JUN feedback loop. In addition, enhanced CXCL12 efficiently attracts CXCR4-positive Treg cells to remodel an immunosuppressive microenvironment.

Conclusions: EBV-EBNA1 promotes chemotactic migration of Treg cells via the TGFβ1-SMAD3-PI3K-AKT-c-JUN-miR-200a-CXCL12-CXCR4 axis in the NPC microenvironment. These results suggest that EBV-EBNA1 may serve as a potential therapeutic target to reshape the NPC microenvironment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-001588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7597532PMC
October 2020

Dexmedetomidine improves postoperative neurocognitive disorder after cardiopulmonary bypass in rats.

Neurol Res 2021 Feb 19;43(2):164-172. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Department of Anesthesiology, Hospital (T.C.M)) Affiliated to Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, Sichuan, China.

Purpose: To investigate whether dexmedetomidine can improve postoperative neurocognitive function after cardiopulmonary bypass in rats.

Methods: A total of 45 male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into sham group, control group, and dexmedetomidine (Dex) group. The rats in the sham group received skin excision and blood vessel ligation treatment, rats in the control group received cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), and rats in the Dex group received CPB and Dex treatment. Morris water maze test and open-field tests were used to evaluate the rats' cognition. The expression of inflammatory mediators in the rats' central and peripheral regions, Aβ and Tau in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, and apoptosis in brain tissue were measured.

Results: The CPB model rats were found to have significantly decreased cognitive function, increased expression of caspase-3 and Bax in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus DG, increased apoptosis and activated microglia, and increased plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and TNF-α. Dexmedetomidine reduced apoptosis in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus DG region of rats, decreased the expression of caspase-3 and bax, inhibited microglia activation in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus DG region of rats, and decreased the plasma levels of IL-β, IL-6, and TNF-α.

Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine plays a neuroprotective role by inhibiting inflammation, apoptosis, and microglia activation in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampal DG region, and attenuates the cognitive deficit identified in the control group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01616412.2020.1833154DOI Listing
February 2021

Is World Health Organization HBV DNA Standard Appropriate for Standardizing Serum HBV RNA Assay?

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Oct 3. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Viral Hepatitis Research, Department of Infectious Diseases, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1503DOI Listing
October 2020

Garlic Allelochemical Diallyl Disulfide Alleviates Autotoxicity in the Root Exudates Caused by Long-Term Continuous Cropping of Tomato.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Oct 8;68(42):11684-11693. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, People's Republic of China.

Continuous cropping obstacles seriously affect the sustainable production of tomatoes ( L.). Researchers have found that intercropping with garlic ( L.) could alleviate tomato continuous cropping obstacles. Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is the main allelochemical in garlic. However, the mechanism of DADS in alleviating tomato continuous cropping obstacles is still unknown. In this research, aqueous extracts of tomato continuous cropping soil were used to simulate the continuous cropping condition of tomato. Our results showed that DADS increased root activity and chlorophyll content and improved the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL)) and the metabolism of nonenzymatic antioxidants (glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG)) in tomato plants. DADS treatment reduced the content of fatty acid esters in tomato root exudates (e.g., palmitate methyl ester, palmitoleic acid methyl ester, oleic acid methyl ester) and increased the level of substances such as dibutyl phthalate and 2,2'-methylenebis(6--butyl-4-methylphenol). The higher concentrations of palmitate methyl ester inhibited tomato hypocotyl growth, while oleic acid methyl ester inhibited tomato root growth. Moreover, the application of DADS significantly inhibited the secretion of these esters in the root exudates. Therefore, it suggests that DADS may increase tomato resistance and promote tomato plant growth by increasing root activity and photosynthetic capacity and development to reduce autotoxicity of tomato.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c03894DOI Listing
October 2020

Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the GSK gene family in Solanum tuberosum L. under abiotic stress and phytohormone treatments and functional characterization of StSK21 involvement in salt stress.

Gene 2021 Jan 16;766:145156. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China. Electronic address:

Plant Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK3)/SHAGGY-like kinase (GSK) proteins play important roles in modulating growth, development, and stress responses in several plant species. However, little is known about the members of the potato GSK (StGSK) family. Here, nine StGSK genes were identified and phylogenetically grouped into four clades. Gene duplication analysis revealed that segmental duplication contributed to the expansion of the StGSK family. Gene structure and motif pattern analyses indicated that similar exon/intron and motif organizations were found in StGSKs from the same clade. Conserved motif and kinase activity analyses indicated that the StGSKs encode active protein kinases, and they were shown to be distributed throughout whole cells. Cis-acting regulatory element analysis revealed the presence of many growth-, hormone-, and stress-responsive elements within the promoter regions of the StGSKs, which is consistent with their expression in different organs, and their altered expression in response to hormone and stress treatments. Association network analysis indicated that various proteins, including two confirmed BES1 family transcription factors, potentially interact with StGSKs. Overexpression of StSK21 provides enhanced sensitivity to salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Overall, these results reveal that StGSK proteins are active protein kinases with purported functions in regulating growth, development, and stress responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2020.145156DOI Listing
January 2021
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