Publications by authors named "Rui Cai"

178 Publications

Synthesis and biological evaluation of NO-donor containing photosensitizers to induce ferroptosis of cancer cells.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Nov 20;116:105355. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, Liaoning, China; Ningbo Institute of Dalian University of Technology, Ningbo 315016, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address:

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment method for tumors by exciting photosensitizers (PS) upon light irradiation to generate cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the low oxygen concentration near the tumor tissue limits the therapeutic effect of PDT. Herein, we synthesized six chlorin e6 derivatives containing NO-donors to enhance their antitumor activity by synergistic effect of ROS and NO. The results revealed that the new NO-donor containing photosensitizers (PS-NO) exhibited more potent photodynamic activity than chlorin e6, and the introduction of NO donor moieties to chlorin e6 increased the level of NO and ROS in cells. The addition of Ferrostatin-1, a ferroptosis inhibitor, markedly reduced the photodynamic activity of PS-NO as well as the level of NO and ROS in cells. Mechanism studies further showed that PS-NO could reduce intracellular GSH level, inhibit GPX4 activity and promote malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation upon light irradiation, which suggested the ferroptosis mechanism underlying the PDT effect of PS-NO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.105355DOI Listing
November 2021

Integrated analysis of transcriptome and proteome for exploring the mechanism of guaiacol production by Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris.

Food Res Int 2021 10 21;148:110621. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China; Laboratory of Quality & Safety Risk Assessment for Agro-products (YangLing), Ministry of Agriculture, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China; National Engineering Research Center of Agriculture Integration Test (Yangling), Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China. Electronic address:

Alicyclobacillus spp. can cause commercially pasteurized fruit juices/beverages to spoil and the spoilage is characterized by the formation of a distinct medicinal or antiseptic off-odor attributed to guaiacol. The aim of this study was to reveal the mechanism of guaiacol production in A. acidoterrestris by combining transcriptomic and proteomic approaches. RNA-sequencing and iTRAQ analyses were conducted to investigate differences in expression levels of genes and proteins in A. acidoterrestris when producing (with 500 μM vanillic acid) and not producing (without vanillic acid) guaiacol. A total of 225 differentially expressed genes and 77 differentially expressed proteins were identified. The transcription of genes vdcBCD encoding subunits of vanillic acid decarboxylase were 626.47, 185.01 and 52.81-fold up-regulated, respectively; they were the most up-regulated genes involved in guaiacol production. Expressions of the benzoate membrane transport protein, fusaric acid resistance protein, resistance-nodulation- division transporter, some ATP-binding cassette transporters and major facilitator superfamily transporters were increased at either mRNA, protein or both levels, indicating that they participated in the uptake of vanillic acid and extrusion of guaiacol. In the metabolic process of vanillic acid to guaiacol in A. acidoterrestris, genes related to the pathway of tricarboxylic acid cycle and ribosome were up-regulated, while the expression of some genes associated with valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis was decreased. These findings provide novel insight to understand the mechanism of guaiacol production in A. acidoterrestris, which will serve as an important guide for developing strategies for the control of A. acidoterrestris problems in the fruit juice industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110621DOI Listing
October 2021

[Effect of acupuncture on analgesia and sedation in elderly patients with severe pneumonia during invasive mechanical ventilation].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2021 Sep;41(9):971-8

Department of Emergency, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029, Jiangsu Province, China.

Objective: To observe the analgesic and sedative effects of acupuncture in elderly patients with severe pneumonia during invasive mechanical ventilation.

Methods: A total of 188 elderly patients with severe pneumonia were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 94 cases in each group. Both groups were treated with routine nursing and treatment of severe pneumonia such as invasive mechanical ventilation, analgesia and sedation. Based on these, the observation group was treated with acupuncture at Neiguan (PC 6), Hegu (LI 4), Yintang (GV 29) and Baihui (GV 20), twice a day until the mechanical ventilation was offline. The critical care pain observation tool (CPOT) score and Richmond agitation-sedation score (RASS) were observed before treatment and 0.5 h after analgesia and sedation; the average time of reaching the standard, the reaching standard rate of shallow sedation and analgesia within 0.5 h and 72 h as well as the dosage of analgesic and sedative drugs and compilations were compared between the two groups. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and blood oxygen saturation (SpO) were observed before treatment and 0.5 h, 1 h and 2 h after analgesia and sedation. The levels of partial pressure of blood oxygen (PaO), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO) and lactic acid (Lac) were observed before treatment and 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, 120 h and 144 h after analgesia and sedation. The white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil percentage (NEUT%), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatinine (Cr) were observed before treatment and 72 h after analgesia and sedation. The tracheal intubation time and ICU hospitalization time were compared between two groups.

Results: At the time point of 0.5 h after treatment, the CPOT and RASS scores in the two groups were lower than those before treatment (<0.05); the average time of reaching the standard in the observation group was shorter than that in the control group (<0.01); the 30 min reaching standard rates of CPOT and RASS scores as well as the rate of reaching the shallow sedation and analgesia within 72 h in the observation group were higher than those in the control group (<0.01, <0.05). The dosage and duration of dexmedetomidine, propofol and butorphanol in the observation group were less than those in the control group (<0.05), and the occurrence times of hypotension, respiratory depression, bradycardia, constipation as well as average tracheal intubation time and average ICU hospitalization time in the observation group were less than those in the control group (<0.05). After 0.5 h, 1 h and 2 h of treatment, the HR and RR were lower than those before treatment in the two groups (<0.05), MAP and SpO were higher than those before treatment in the two groups (<0.05); the MAP 0.5 h after treatment in the observation group was higher than that in the control group (<0.05); the HR after 1 h and 2 h of treatment in the observation group was lower than that in the control group (<0.05). Compared before treatment, the levels of PaCO and Lac were reduced and the levels of PaO were increased 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, 120 h and 144 h after treatment in both groups (<0.05); compared before treatment, the WBC, NEUT%, hs-CPR, ALT and Cr were reduced 72 h after treatment in the two groups (<0.05), and the hs-CRP in the observation group was lower than that in the control group (<0.05).

Conclusion: Acupuncture has analgesic and sedative effect in elderly patients with severe pneumonia during invasive mechanical ventilation, which could reduce the dosage of sedative and analgesic drugs and the occurrence of complications, improve blood oxygen, and has good safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13703/j.0255-2930.20200903-k0004DOI Listing
September 2021

Reduced LINC00467 elevates microRNA-125a-3p to suppress cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer through inhibiting sirtuin 6 and inactivating the ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

Cell Biol Toxicol 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Radiotherapy, Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University, No.15 Lequn Road, Guilin, 541001, Guangxi, China.

Objective: The non-coding RNAs have been identified as potential biomarkers in cancers. This study aimed to investigate the effect of long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 467 (LINC00467)/microRNA (miR-125a-3p)/sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) axis on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: Expression of LINC00467, miR-125a-3p, SIRT6, and ERK1/2 signaling pathway-related factor in NSCLC was assessed. A549 and H1299 cells were induced by cisplatin (DDP) to establish DDP-resistant cell lines, and the drug resistance was detected. DDP-resistant cells were transfected with relative oligonucleotides and/or plasmids to observe the effects of LINC00467 and miR-125a-3p on NSCLC cells. The interaction among LINC00467, miR-125a-3p, and SIRT6 was detected using dual luciferase reporter gene assay and RNA pull-down assay. A tumor xenograft model was established, and Ki67 expression was detected in tumors.

Results: LINC00467 and SIRT6 were upregulated, miR-125a-3p was suppressed, and the ERK1/2 pathway was activated in NSCLC. LINC00467 or SIRT6 inhibition or miR-125a-3p elevation restricted malignancy and DDP resistance of NSCLC cells. Reduced miR-125a-3p reversed the effect of inhibited LINC00467 on NSCLC cells. LINC00467 competitively bound to miR-125a-3p, and miR-125a-3p targeted SIRT6. Inhibiting LINC00467 and SIRT6 or upregulating miR-125a-3p repressed tumor formation in vivo.

Conclusion: LINC00467 silencing upregulates miR-125a-3p to decrease DDP resistance in NSCLC cells via inhibiting SIRT6 and inactivating the ERK1/2 signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10565-021-09637-6DOI Listing
August 2021

Bottom-Up Synthesis of Helical Plasmonic Nanorods and Their Application in Generating Circularly Polarized Luminescence.

ACS Nano 2021 09 24;15(9):15114-15122. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

CAS Key Laboratory of Standardization and Measurement for Nanotechnology, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190, China.

Chiral growth and chirality transfer associated with plasmonic nanostructures have rejuvenated the field of chirality. As the precise regioselective growth of inorganic crystals into chiral shapes at the nanoscale is extremely challenging, "bottom-up" synthesis of intrinsically chiral nanoparticles with structural stability is obviously attractive and important. With the thiolated bimolecular cosurfactants, we demonstrated a chemical strategy for the synthesis of intrinsically helical plasmonic nanorods (HPNRs) with strong and tailorable plasmonic circular dichroism (PCD) responses, deriving from the zwitterionic interactions between the -NH and -COO groups of the cysteine molecules (Cys). The influence of structural parameters of HPNRs on PCD responses was analyzed systematically by theoretical simulations. Among the different structural parameters, the pitch depth was found to have the greatest impact on the PCD signals, in agreement with the experimental results. Moreover, the obtained HPNRs with the strong, tunable, and stable chiroptical properties were found to be able to induce circularly polarized luminescence of achiral luminophores. Due to the generality of this effect, this chiral plasmonic nanostructure may have great potential for use in the fields of chiral sensors, chiral catalysis, and displays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c05489DOI Listing
September 2021

Improving peroxidase activity of gold nanorod nanozymes by dragging substrates to the catalysis sites via cysteine modification.

Nanotechnology 2021 Sep 6;32(48). Epub 2021 Sep 6.

CAS Key Laboratory of Standardization and Measurement for Nanotechnology, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190, People's Republic of China.

Surface chemistry control is a key means to improve substrate selectivity and enhance catalytic activity of nanozymes, a kind of novel artificial enzymes. Herein, we demonstrated that apart from chemical properties of functional groups, their spatial distance to the catalytic sites is also very important to improve the catalytic performance of nanozymes. Using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) coated gold nanorods (AuNR) as the example, we showed that cysteine (Cys) surface modification can greatly enhance the peroxidase activity of AuNR for the oxidation of substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB). By using cysteine derivatives, the key role of the carboxylic group in cysteine is revealed in improving substrate binding and activity enhancement. The electrostatic interactions of carboxylic groups from adsorbed cysteine molecules with protonated amino groups of TMB bring TMB molecules to the surface Au active sites and thus markedly increase catalytic activity. In contrast, despite having two carboxylic groups, glutathione (GSH) surface modification only leads to quite limited improvement of catalytic activity. We speculated that due to large molecular size of GSH, the spatial distance between TMB-GSH and Au is larger than that between TMB-Cys and Au. Furthermore, Raman characterization indicated that at high Cys coverage, they form patches on rod surface via zwitterionic interactions, which may give additional benefits by decreasing the steric hindrance of TMB diffusion to surface Au atom sites. In all, our study highlights the importance of fine surface tuning in the design of nanozymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ac1e53DOI Listing
September 2021

Sulfur contributes to stable and efficient carbon-based perovskite solar cells.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2022 Jan 16;605:54-59. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

College of Materials and Chemistry, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018, PR China; Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 808-0196, Japan.

The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is already higher than those of other thin-film photovoltaic technologies, but the stability issue limits their applications. The introduction of sulfur-based compounds in PSCs could contribute to their stability. Herein, sulfur-based compounds have been embedded into each functional layer to stabilize carbon-based PSCs (C-PSCs). Results showed that the simultaneous introduction of sulfur-based compounds could decrease the trap states of perovskite film, enlarge the grain size of perovskite, and accelerate the charge transfer and extraction, leading to an improved performance. Comparing with the device without sulfide (10.77%), all sulfide C-PSCs obtained a PCE of 15.38%. The stability test showed much better resistance to humidity and thermal stress for all sulfide C-PSCs. They could retain 80% of initial PCE after aging about 700 h at relative humidity (RH) 45% ± 10% and 80 °C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.07.058DOI Listing
January 2022

Establishment of quantitative PCR assays for the rapid detection of Alicyclobacillus spp. that can produce guaiacol in apple juice.

Int J Food Microbiol 2021 Jul 13:109329. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China; Laboratory of Quality & Safety Risk Assessment for Agro-products (YangLing), Ministry of Agriculture, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China. Electronic address:

Alicyclobacillus species are one of the most significant qualities and safety factors in fruit juice and beverages. The growth of some Alicyclobacillus genus can lead to sour spoilage with the off-odor of medicinal, phenolic or antiseptic, which is mainly caused by the metabolites of guaiacol, dihalophenol and dibromophenol. Especially, guaiacol is regarded as the predominant taint in Alicyclobacillus-spoiled products. In this study, quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were proposed for the detection of A. acidoterrestris, A. acidiphilus, A. cycloheptanicus and A. herbarius that can produce guaiacol in fruit juice. The 16S rDNA sequences of these four kinds of Alicyclobacillus species were identified and the primers suitable for the qPCR assay were obtained. The sensitivity and specificity of the established methods were evaluated. The results indicated that the developed qPCR approaches were distinctive enough to detect A. acidoterrestris, A. acidiphilus, A. cycloheptanicus and A. herbarius with the sensitivity of 2.6 × 10 CFU/mL, 74 CFU/mL, 2.8 × 10 CFU/mL and 3.1 × 10 CFU/mL, respectively. The correlation coefficients of standard curves were from 0.9807 to 0.9985. Based on the pretreatment of filtration-culture, these bacteria with the initial concentration of 10 CFU/mL, 10 CFU/mL and 10 CFU/mL can be effectively detected in 2-20 h, which depended on the target bacteria and their initial concentration. The results displayed that the proposed procedures were effective for the rapid detection of Alicyclobacillus species that can produce guaiacol in apple juice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2021.109329DOI Listing
July 2021

Adsorption Mechanism of Patulin from Apple Juice by Inactivated Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Kefir Grains.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 06 22;13(7). Epub 2021 Jun 22.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

In the food industry, microbiological safety is a major concern. Mycotoxin patulin represents a potential health hazard, as it is heat-resistant and may develop at any stage during the food chain, especially in apple-based products, leading to severe effects on human health, poor quality products, and profit reductions. The target of the study was to identify and characterize an excellent adsorbent to remove patulin from apple juice efficiently and to assess its adsorption mechanism. To prevent juice fermentation and/or contamination, autoclaving was involved to inactivate bacteria before the adsorption process. The HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) outcome proved that all isolated strains from kefir grains could reduce patulin from apple juice. A high removal of 93% was found for juice having a 4.6 pH, 15° Brix, and patulin concentration of 100 μg/L by , named JKSP109, which was morphologically the smoothest and biggest of all isolates in terms of cell wall volume and surface area characterized by SEM (Scanning electron microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy). C=O, OH, C-H, and N-O were the main functional groups engaged in patulin adsorption indicated by FTIR (Fourier transform-infrared). E-nose (electronic nose) was performed to evaluate the aroma quality of the juices. PCA (Principal component analysis) results showed that no significant changes occurred between control and treated juice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins13070434DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8309945PMC
June 2021

Circular RNA hsa_circ_0110389 promotes gastric cancer progression through upregulating SORT1 via sponging miR-127-5p and miR-136-5p.

Cell Death Dis 2021 06 23;12(7):639. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Medical Oncology Department, Affiliated Cancer Hospital & Institute of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou Medical University, 510095, Guangzhou, China.

Increasing studies have found that circular RNAs (circRNAs) are aberrantly expressed and play important roles in the occurrence and development of human cancers. However, the function of circRNAs on environmental carcinogen-induced gastric cancer (GC) progression remains poorly elucidated. In the present study, hsa_circ_0110389 was identified as a novel upregulated circRNA in malignant-transformed GC cells through RNA-seq, and subsequent quantitative real-time PCR verified that hsa_circ_0110389 was significantly increased in GC tissues and cells. High hsa_circ_0110389 expression associates with advanced stages of GC and predicts poor prognosis. Knockdown and overexpression assays demonstrated that hsa_circ_0110389 regulates proliferation, migration, and invasion of GC cells in vitro. In addition, hsa_circ_0110389 was identified to sponge both miR-127-5p and miR-136-5p and SORT1 was validated as a direct target of miR-127-5p and miR-136-5p through multiple mechanism assays; moreover, hsa_circ_0110389 sponged miR-127-5p/miR-136-5p to upregulate SORT1 expression and hsa_circ_0110389 promoted GC progression through the miR-127-5p/miR-136-5p-SORT1 pathway. Finally, hsa_circ_0110389 knockdown suppressed GC growth in vivo. Taken together, our findings firstly identify the role of hsa_circ_0110389 in GC progression, which is through miR-127-5p/miR-136-5p-SORT1 pathway, and our study provides novel insight for the identification of diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for GC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03903-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8222372PMC
June 2021

Identification of a tumor microenvironment-associated prognostic gene signature in bladder cancer by integrated bioinformatic analysis.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2021 15;14(5):551-566. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Radiation Oncology Clinical Medical Research Center of Guangxi Nanning 530021, Guangxi, China.

Bladder cancer is a common malignancy in the urinary system. Stromal and immune cells in tumor microenvironments, including those in the bladder cancer microenvironment, can serve as prognostic markers. However, the complex processes of bladder cancer necessitate large-scale evaluation to better understand the underlying mechanisms and identify biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment. We used the Estimation of STromal and Immune cells in MAlignant Tumors using Expression data algorithm to assess the association between stromal and immune cell-related genes and overall survival of patients with bladder cancer. We also identified and evaluated differentially expressed genes between cancer and non-cancer tissues from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Patients were categorized into different prognosis groups according to their stromal/immune scores based on differential gene expression. In addition, the prognostic value of the differentially expressed genes was assessed in a separate validation cohort using the Gene Expression Omnibus microarray dataset GSE13507, which identified nine genes (, , , , , , , , and ) associated with overall survival. Multivariate regression analysis showed that three genes (, , and ) were possible independent prognostic markers for patients with bladder cancer. Multiple gene set enrichment analysis of individual genes showed strong correlations with stromal and immune interactions, indicating that these nine genes may be related to carcinogenesis, invasion, and metastasis of bladder cancer. These findings provide useful insight into the molecular mechanisms of bladder cancer development, and suggest candidate biomarkers for prognosis and treatment.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167492PMC
May 2021

One-pot synthesis of magnetic self-assembled carrageenan-ε-polylysine composites: A reusable and effective antibacterial agent against Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris.

Food Chem 2021 Oct 12;360:130062. Epub 2021 May 12.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, China; Laboratory of Quality & Safety Risk Assessment for Agro-products (Yangling), Ministry of Agriculture, Yangling 712100, China; College of Food Science and Technology, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, China. Electronic address:

Epsilon-polylysine (EPL) is a cationic polymer with broad antibacterial activity. Base on this property, anionic carrageenan (CG) was self-assembled with EPL and introduced into the one-pot coprecipitation process to fabricate the magnetic FeO-CG-EPL composites. To demonstrate the successful synthesis of composites, characterization techniques including XRD, FT-IR, TEM, XPS and VSM were employed. The prepared composites exhibited effective antibacterial activity against Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris with the minimum inhibitory concentration of 10.0 mg mL. Investigations into deciphering the antibacterial mechanism demonstrated that the presence of FeO-CG-EPL caused irreversible damage to the cell membrane and serious leakage of intracellular protein, resulting in the inactivation of bacteria. The aim of this work is to develop a new effective control method for A. acidoterrestris in food field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130062DOI Listing
October 2021

Apatinib for the treatment of metastatic or locoregionally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma after failure of chemotherapy: A multicenter, single-arm, prospective phase 2 study.

Cancer 2021 Sep 27;127(17):3163-3171. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University, Guilin, China.

Background: The authors aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of apatinib in patients with metastatic or locoregionally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).

Methods: A multicenter, single-arm, prospective phase 2 study was conducted on patients (18-70 years of age) with metastatic or recurrent NPC who had failed chemotherapy. Patients with recurrent disease involving vascular structure invasion were excluded. All enrolled patients received apatinib (500 mg daily) in continuous 4-week cycles until disease progression or development of unacceptable toxicity. The primary end point of this study was objective response rate (ORR), and the secondary end points were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03130270).

Results: Between January 2017 and June 2018, 33 patients were enrolled. At the end of the data collection (May 20, 2020), the 33 patients had completed a total of 261.2 cycles of apatinib. Although 12 patients achieved a partial response, no patient achieved a complete response; thus, the ORR in the 33 patients was 36.4% (95% CI, 19.0%-53.7%). At the end of follow-up (median, 30 months; 95% CI, 24.9-35.1), median OS and median PFS were 16 months (95% CI, 14.6-17.4 months) and 5.0 months (95% CI, 3.6-6.4 months), respectively. The most common adverse events (grade 1/2) were hand-foot syndrome (18 [54.5%]), hypertension (14 [42.4%]), oral ulcer (8 [24.2%]), and proteinuria (4 [12.1%]). Two patients (1 with diabetes and 1 with hypertension) developed cerebral infarction. Grade 3/4 toxicities were uncommon.

Conclusions: Apatinib shows promising activity, with manageable toxicities, in patients with metastatic or locoregionally recurrent NPC. Further evaluation of apatinib in large-scale studies is warranted.

Lay Summary: Clinical studies on vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-targeted therapy for recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are limited. A recent preclinical study that evaluated apatinib in models of NPC showed a high objective response rate and a favorable safety profile. Our data further confirmed good efficacy in patients with lung metastasis. Further studies of the efficacy and safety of apatinib combined with immune checkpoint inhibitors or chemotherapy in NPC is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33626DOI Listing
September 2021

Ebullition Controls on CH Emissions in an Urban, Eutrophic River: A Potential Time-Scale Bias in Determining the Aquatic CH Flux.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 06 18;55(11):7287-7298. Epub 2021 May 18.

Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science (Ministry of Education), School of Geographical Sciences, East China Normal University, 200241 Shanghai, China.

Rivers and streams contribute significant quantities of methane (CH) to the atmosphere. However, there is a lack of CH flux and ebullitive (bubble) emission data from urban rivers, which might lead to large underestimations of global aquatic CH emissions. Here, we conducted high-frequency surveys using the boundary layer model (BLM) supplemented with floating chambers (FCs) and bubble traps to investigate the seasonal and diurnal variability in CH emissions in a eutrophic urban river and to evaluate whether the contribution of bubbles is important. We found that ebullition contributed nearly 99% of CH emissions and varied on hourly to seasonal time scales, ranging from 0.83 to 230 mmol m d, although diffusive emissions and CH concentrations in bubbles did not exhibit temporal variability. Ebullitive CH emissions presented high temperature sensitivity ( = 0.6 and < 0.01) in this urban river, and eutrophication might have triggered this high temperature sensitivity. The ebullitive CH flux is more likely to be underestimated at low temperatures because capturing the bubble flux is more difficult, given the low frequency of ebullition events. This study suggests that future ebullition measurements on longer time scales are needed to accurately quantify the CH budgets of eutrophic urban rivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c00114DOI Listing
June 2021

Cost-effectiveness of the cell-based quadrivalent versus the standard egg-based quadrivalent influenza vaccine in Germany.

J Med Econ 2021 Jan-Dec;24(1):490-501

IQVIA (Global HEOR), Zaventem, Belgium.

Background: Standard influenza vaccines are produced using egg-based manufacturing methods. Through the process, the resulting egg-adapted viral strains may differ from the selected vaccine strain. Cell-derived influenza vaccine manufacturing prevents egg-adaptation of the antigen which can improve vaccine effectiveness. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of quadrivalent cell-derived influenza vaccine (QIVc) versus an egg-based quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIVe) in preventing seasonal influenza from German societal and payer perspectives.

Methods: Adapted version of the individual-based dynamic 4Flu transmission model was combined with a decision-tree to calculate the impact of QIVc versus QIVe on influenza over 20 seasons in Germany. Egg-adaptation, resulting in lower effectiveness of QIVe versus QIVc towards the H3N2 influenza strain, is sourced from a US retrospective study and assumed in 100% (base case) or 55% (conservative scenario) of years. Influenza-related probabilities of outpatient visits, hospitalizations, productivity loss, and mortality, with associated (dis)utilities/costs, were extracted from literature. Costs and outcomes were discounted 3.0%/year.

Results: Replacing QIVe with QIVc in subjects aged ≥ 9 years can annually prevent 167,265 symptomatic cases, 51,114 outpatient visits, 2,091 hospitalizations, and 103 deaths in Germany. The annual number of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) increased by 1,628 and healthcare costs decreased by €178 M from societal perspective. From payer perspective, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was €2,285 per QALY. Scenario analyses confirmed results robustness.

Conclusions: The use of QIVc compared to QIVe, in the German Immunization Program, could significantly prevent outpatient visits and hospitalizations and would enable substantial savings from a societal perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13696998.2021.1908000DOI Listing
September 2021

A Novel Molecular Method for Simultaneous Identification of 57 K-Serogroups Using Probe Melting Curve Analysis.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 26;11:594808. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

School of Public Health, University of South China, Hengyang, China.

The serotyping of , which is crucial to the surveillance and detection of outbreaks of vibriosis infection, has been widely used in many countries. In this study, we developed a molecular assay, named multiplex ligation reaction based on probe melting curve analysis (MLMA), for simultaneous identification of 57 K-serogroups. Based on the previous genomes of 418 strains including 39 K-serogroups and the 18 K-serogroups sequences from public databases, we obtained 57 K-serogroups specific gene sequences for designing primers and probes. The developed MLMA assay for identifying the 57 K-serogroups showed high reproducibility, with the intra- and inter-assay standard deviations and coefficients of variation of no more than 1°C and 1%, respectively. The limit of detection for all gene targets ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 ng/µl. We validated the MLMA assay with a double-blind test identifying 595  isolates using conventional serotyping methods for comparison. The results showed the kappa value between the MLMA assay and the traditional serological method was 0.936 and that there was a 96.97% consistency rate with conventional serotyping methods for all detected isolates. Additionally, five rare K-serogroups were identified using the MLMA assay, as well as 18 strains that could not be identified using the traditional serotyping method. Thus, the MLMA assay provides a rapid, robust, and promising tool for the molecular serotyping of K-serogroups and has the potential application to the detection of outbreaks and surveillance of infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.594808DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7953158PMC
June 2021

Designed Construction of SrTiO /SrSO /Pt Heterojunctions with Boosted Photocatalytic H Evolution Activity.

Chemistry 2021 May 17;27(25):7300-7306. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, 230009, Anhui, China.

Efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs is a crucial factor for high-performance photocatalysts. Effective electron-hole separation and migration could be achieved by heterojunctions with suitable band structures. Herein, a porous SrTiO /SrSO heterojunction is prepared by a sol-gel method at room temperature followed by an annealing process. XRD characterization suggests high crystallinity of the heterostructure. A well-defined interface between the two phases is confirmed by high-resolution (HR)TEM. The photocatalytic H evolution productivity of the SrTiO /SrSO heterojunction with Pt as co-catalyst reaches 396.82 μmol g  h , which is 16 times higher than that of SrTiO /Pt. The boosted photocatalytic activity of SrTiO /SrSO /Pt can be ascribed to the presence of SrSO , which promotes the transfer and migration of photogenerated carriers by forming the heterojunction and porous structure, which provides a large amount of active sites. This novel porous heterostructure brings new ideas for the development of high-efficiency photocatalysts for H release.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202100101DOI Listing
May 2021

Comparative Study of Nanocarbon-Based Flexible Multifunctional Composite Electrodes.

ACS Omega 2021 Feb 20;6(4):2526-2541. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

College of Civil Aviation, Shenyang Aerospace University, Shenyang 110136, China.

Although nanocarbon-based nanofillers have been widely used to improve the energy-storing and sensing functions of porous materials, the comparison of the effects of different nanocarbon-based fillers on the capacitive and flexible sensing properties of nanocarbon-based porous sponge composite supercapacitor electrodes by combining a carbon nanotube, graphene, and graphene oxide with porous sponge is incomplete. The specific capacitance of carbon nanotube-based electrodes is 20.1 F/g. The specific capacitance of graphene-based electrodes is 26.7 F/g. The specific capacitance of graphene oxide-based electrodes is 78.1 F/g, and the capacity retention rate is 92.99% under 20 000 charge-discharge cycles. Under a bending load of 180°, the capacitance retention rate of graphene oxide sponge composite electrodes is 67.46%, which indicates that the prepared electrodes of supercapacitor have the advantages of high capacitance and good flexibility at the same time. To demonstrate their performance, an array of three graphene oxide supercapacitors in series was constructed, which could light up a red light-emitting diode (LED). The tensile strength of carbon nanotube sponge composite electrodes is 0.267 MPa, and the tensile linearity is 0.0169. The experimental results show that graphene oxide-based sponge composite supercapacitor electrodes have the best capacitance performance and carbon nanotube sponge composites have the most potential as a flexible sensor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c04313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7859947PMC
February 2021

A narrative review of relationship between gut microbiota and neuropsychiatric disorders: mechanisms and clinical application of probiotics and prebiotics.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Feb 28;10(2):2304-2313. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Medical Technology School of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China.

The gut microbiota is a kind of fixed-value bacteria in the human intestine, characterized by a large quantity, a wide variety and interdependence with each other and with the host. The gut microbiota is considered to be an important link in maintaining health and pathogenic mechanism of many diseases. The gut microbiota affects the central nervous system under the action of the microbe-gut-brain axis through nerve, immune, endocrine and metabolic pathways. The gut microbiota not only regulates the gastrointestinal tract but plays a vital role in the development and function of the brain. More and more studies believe that normal gut microbiota is essential for the development of the central nervous system and emotional regulation. The imbalance of the gut microbiota can affect some neuropsychiatric diseases. Probiotics and prebiotics are active microorganisms beneficial to the human body and can regulate the microecological balance of the human intestinal tract. Current research shows that probiotics and prebiotics have a good preventive effect on Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression, autism spectrum disorders and other neurological and mental diseases. Based on this, we review the relevant research on the pathogenesis of probiotics and prebiotics and neuropsychiatric diseases, in an attempt to providing new ideas for exploring the treatment and prevention of neuropsychiatric diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-1365DOI Listing
February 2021

Lnc-ORA interacts with microRNA-532-3p and IGF2BP2 to inhibit skeletal muscle myogenesis.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jan-Jun;296:100376. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Laboratory of Animal Fat Deposition and Muscle Development, Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Shaanxi Province, College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

Skeletal muscle is one of the most important organs of the animal body. Long noncoding RNAs play a crucial role in the regulation of skeletal muscle development via several mechanisms. We recently identified obesity-related lncRNA (lnc-ORA) in a search for long noncoding RNAs that influence adipogenesis, finding it impacted adipocyte differentiation by regulating the PI3K/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. However, whether lnc-ORA has additional roles, specifically in skeletal muscle myogenesis, is not known. Here, we found that lnc-ORA was significantly differentially expressed with age in mouse skeletal muscle tissue and predominantly located in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of lnc-ORA promoted C2C12 myoblast proliferation and inhibited myoblast differentiation. In contrast, lnc-ORA knockdown repressed myoblast proliferation and facilitated myoblast differentiation. Interestingly, silencing of lnc-ORA rescued dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy in vitro. Furthermore, adeno-associated virus 9-mediated overexpression of lnc-ORA decreased muscle mass and the cross-sectional area of muscle fiber by upregulating the levels of muscle atrophy-related genes and downregulating the levels of myogenic differentiation-related genes in vivo. Mechanistically, lnc-ORA inhibited skeletal muscle myogenesis by acting as a sponge of miR-532-3p, which targets the phosphatase and tensin homolog gene; the resultant changes in phosphatase and tensin homolog suppressed the PI3K/protein kinase B signaling pathway. In addition, lnc-ORA interacted with insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 and reduced the stability of myogenesis genes, such as myogenic differentiation 1 and myosin heavy chain. Collectively, these findings indicate that lnc-ORA could be a novel underlying regulator of skeletal muscle development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100376DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8289116PMC
August 2021

MiR-146a-5p targeting SMAD4 and TRAF6 inhibits adipogenensis through TGF-β and AKT/mTORC1 signal pathways in porcine intramuscular preadipocytes.

J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2021 Feb 3;12(1):12. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Laboratory of Animal Fat Deposition and Muscle Development, College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, China.

Background: Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is a vital parameter for assessing pork quality. Increasing evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in regulating porcine IMF deposition. Here, a novel miRNA implicated in porcine IMF adipogenesis was found, and its effect and regulatory mechanism were further explored with respect to intramuscular preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation.

Results: By porcine adipose tissue miRNA sequencing analysis, we found that miR-146a-5p is a potential regulator of porcine IMF adipogenesis. Further studies showed that miR-146a-5p mimics inhibited porcine intramuscular preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation, while the miR-146a-5p inhibitor promoted cell proliferation and adipogenic differentiation. Mechanistically, miR-146a-5p suppressed cell proliferation by directly targeting SMAD family member 4 (SMAD4) to attenuate TGF-β signaling. Moreover, miR-146a-5p inhibited the differentiation of intramuscular preadipocytes by targeting TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) to weaken the AKT/mTORC1 signaling downstream of the TRAF6 pathway.

Conclusions: MiR-146a-5p targets SMAD4 and TRAF6 to inhibit porcine intramuscular adipogenesis by attenuating TGF-β and AKT/mTORC1 signaling, respectively. These findings provide a novel miRNA biomarker for regulating intramuscular adipogenesis to promote pork quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40104-020-00525-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7856799PMC
February 2021

Modified Simiaowan prevents articular cartilage injury in experimental gouty arthritis by negative regulation of STAT3 pathway.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 15;270:113825. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

School of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, 210023, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Modified Simiaowan (MSW) is a traditional Chinese medicine formula that is composed of six herbs. It has been widely used in the treatment of gouty arthritis.

Aim Of The Study: This study was designed to investigate the effect of MSW on gouty arthritis and explore the possible mechanisms.

Material And Methods: The rat gouty arthritis model was established by intra-articular injection of Monosodium Urate (MSU) crystal, and then treated with MSW for 5 days. The perimeter of the knee joints was measured in a time-dependent manner and serum samples were collected for the detection of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 protein levels by ELISA. The protein expressions of MMP-3, TIMP-3, STAT3, and p-STAT3 in cartilage tissues and C28/I2 cells were detected by Western blot, and the levels of proteoglycan in primary chondrocytes and cartilage tissues were determined by toluidine blue staining. In addition, AG490 and IL-6 were used in vitro to explore the function of IL-6/STAT3 pathway in the protective effect of MSU.

Results: MSW reduced the joint swelling rate in gouty arthritis model and inhibited MSU induced up-regulation of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 protein levels in serum and synovial fluid. IL-1β induced an increase in p-STAT3 and MMP-3 protein expression in C28/I2 cells, as well as a decrease in TIMP-3. MSW serum inhibited the protein expression changes induced by IL-1β in vitro. Furthermore, inhibition of STAT3 signaling negated the effect of MSW serum on p-STAT3, MMP-3, and TIMP-3 protein levels in C28/I2 cells. MSW also increased the content of proteoglycan significantly both in vivo and in vitro.

Conclusion: Our data indicated that MSW protected rats from MSU-induced experimental gouty arthritis and IL-1β/IL-6/STAT3 pathway played an essential role in the protective effect of MSU against GA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.113825DOI Listing
April 2021

Application of nanostructures as antimicrobials in the control of foodborne pathogen.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jan 11:1-18. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China.

Foodborne pathogens are the main cause of human foodborne diseases and pose a serious threat to food safety. The control of them has always been a significant issue in food industry. With good biocompatibility and stability, nanomaterials display excellent bactericidal properties against many kinds of bacteria. In this review, the generation and application of nanostructures as antibacterial in the control of foodborne pathogens was summarized. The antibacterial effects of photocatalytic and contact bacteriostatic nanomaterials agents were mainly introduced. The influence factors and mechanisms of nanomaterials on the inactivation of foodborne pathogens were displayed. The photocatalytic nanostructured bacteriostatic agents can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lead to charge transfer, which result in damaging of cell wall and leakage of small molecules under light irradiation. In addition, metals and metal oxide nanoparticles can kill bacterial cells by releasing metal ions, forming ROS and electrostatic interaction with cell membrane. Besides, the synergistic action of nanoparticles with natural antibacterial agents can improve the stability of these agents and their bactericidal performance. These current researches provided a broader idea for the control of microorganisms in food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1871586DOI Listing
January 2021

Rational Design of Ag/ZnO Hybrid Nanoparticles on Sericin/Agarose Composite Film for Enhanced Antimicrobial Applications.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Dec 24;22(1). Epub 2020 Dec 24.

State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Biological Science Research Center, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing 400715, China.

Silver-based hybrid nanomaterials are receiving increasing attention as potential alternatives for traditional antimicrobial agents. Here, we proposed a simple and eco-friendly strategy to efficiently assemble zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on sericin-agarose composite film to impart superior antimicrobial activity. Based on a layer-by-layer self-assembly strategy, AgNPs and ZnO were immobilized on sericin-agarose films using the adhesion property of polydopamine. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction spectroscopy were used to show the morphology of AgNPs and ZnO on the surface of the composite film and analyze the composition and structure of AgNPs and ZnO, respectively. Water contact angle, swelling ratio, and mechanical property were determined to characterize the hydrophilicity, water absorption ability, and mechanical properties of the composite films. In addition, the antibacterial activity of the composite film was evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results showed that the composite film not only has desirable hydrophilicity, high water absorption ability, and favorable mechanical properties but also exhibits excellent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It has shown great potential as a novel antimicrobial biomaterial for wound dressing, artificial skin, and tissue engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7794692PMC
December 2020

Teasaponin Ameliorates Murine Colitis by Regulating Gut Microbiota and Suppressing the Immune System Response.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 10;7:584369. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Xuzhou Key Laboratory of Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical Technology School of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China.

Dietary intervention is an exciting topic in current research of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The effect of teasaponin (TS) on IBD has not been fully elucidated. Here, we aim to investigate the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of TS in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model and identify potential mechanisms. We applied TS to mice with DSS-induced colitis and then monitored the body weight, disease activity index (DAI) daily. When sacrificed, the intestinal permeability was measured. The analysis of mucin and tight junction proteins was conducted. We detected the inflammatory cytokines, the immune cells and related inflammatory signaling pathways. In addition, the gut microbiota were analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing and we also performed fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). It showed that TS ameliorated the colonic damage by lowering the DAI, prolonging the colon length, reducing inflammatory cytokines and improving the mucus barrier. Parallel to down-regulation of the inflammatory cytokines, the fecal lipocalin 2, p-P65, p-STAT3, and neutrophil accumulation were also decreased in TS-treated mice. Microbiota characterization showed that , and were the key bacteria associated with IBD. In addition, TS could reverse the / (F/B) ratio and increase the beneficial bacteria, including Akkermansia and Bacteroides. TS ameliorated DSS-induced colitis by regulating the gut microbiota, and the gut microbiota could regulate gut inflammation. These studies demonstrated that TS ameliorated murine colitis through the modulation of immune response, mucus barrier and gut microbiota, thus improving gut dysbiosis. In addition, the gut microbiota may play an important role in regulating the host's innate immune system, and the two coexist and are mutually beneficial. We provide a promising perspective on the clinical treatment of IBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.584369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7758452PMC
December 2020

Immunomagnetic separation: An effective pretreatment technology for isolation and enrichment in food microorganisms detection.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2020 11 18;19(6):3802-3824. Epub 2020 Oct 18.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China.

The high efficiency and accurate detection of foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms in food are a task of great social, economic, and public health importance. However, the contamination levels of target bacteria in food samples are very low. Owing to the background interference of food ingredients and negative impact of nontarget flora, the establishment of efficient pretreatment techniques is very crucial for the detection of food microorganisms. With the significant advantages of high specificity and great separation efficiency, immunomagnetic separation (IMS) assay based on immunomagnetic particles (IMPs) has been considered as a powerful system for the separation and enrichment of target bacteria. This paper mainly focuses on the development of IMS as well as their application in food microorganisms detection. First, the basic principle of IMS in the concentration of food bacteria is presented. Second, the effect of different factors, including the sizes of magnetic particles (MPs), immobilization of antibody and operation parameters (the molar ratio of antibody to MPs, the amount of IMPs, incubation time, and bacteria concentration) on the immunocapture efficiency of IMPs are discussed. The performance of IMPs in different food samples is also evaluated. Finally, the combination of IMS and various kinds of detection methods (immunology-based methods, nucleic acid-based methods, fluorescence methods, and biosensors) to detect pathogenic and spoilage organisms is summarized. The challenges and future trends of IMS are also proposed. As an effective pretreatment technique, IMS can improve the detection sensitivity and shorten their testing time, thus exhibiting broad prospect in the field of food bacteria detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12656DOI Listing
November 2020

Fabrication of antibacterial sericin based hydrogel as an injectable and mouldable wound dressing.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Feb 8;119:111597. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Biological Science Research Center, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing 400715, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Sericultural Science, Chongqing Engineering and Technology Research Center for Novel Silk Materials, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing 400715, China. Electronic address:

Hydrogel-based wound dressings are ideal materials as they could provide a moist environment to promote wound healing. Silk sericin is a natural macromolecular protein produced by silkworms and has positive effects on fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Sodium alginate is a natural polysaccharide known as a mouldable matrix. To develop novel hydrogel wound dressings, sodium alginate was functionalized with silk sericin to yield an injectable and mouldable semi-interpenetrating network hydrogel (SA/Se) using calcium ions as the crosslinking agents. Meanwhile, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in situ by the phenolic hydroxyl group of tyrosine in sericin to enhance the antibacterial activity of the hybrid hydrogel. UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy demonstrated the successful synthesis of AgNPs with average size of 15.7 nm in SA/Se-Ag0.2. Field emission scanning electron microscopy showed the macroporous structure of the hydrogel. The hybrid hydrogel had a swelling ratio of 32 and more than 5% of retention ratio after 50 h. It exhibited effective antibacterial activity through irreversibly disrupting bacterial membrane structure to result in bacterial lysis and death. Cell counting kit-8 assay suggested the hybrid hydrogel was highly cytocompatible. The animal experiment showed the wound contraction ratio in SA/Se-Ag0.2 group was 99% after 12 days, indicating it can effectively promote wound healing. This novel hydrogel is promising for wound healing and tissue engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2020.111597DOI Listing
February 2021

Thiomyristoyl ameliorates colitis by blocking the differentiation of Th17 cells and inhibiting SIRT2-induced metabolic reprogramming.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jan 11;90:107212. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Gastroenterology, Drum Tower Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210008, China; Department of Gastroenterology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008, China. Electronic address:

Background: The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) has not been fully elucidated. However, a strong correlation between IBD and high T helper 17 (Th17) levels has been found. Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) has recently been found to play an important role in metabolic reprogramming, but its potential anti-inflammatory properties remain unclear.

Methods: The expression levels of SIRT2 and glucose metabolism-related proteins in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of IBD patients and healthy volunteers were detected. Human PBMCs were differentiated into Th17 cells in vitro and were treated with TM simultaneously. The ratio of Th17 cells and apoptotic cells and the production of Interleukin (IL)-17A and the expression levels of transcription factors of classical signaling pathway related to Th17 differentiation were determined. The acetylation of LDHA and glucose metabolism was assessed. Subsequently, C57BL/6J colitis mice induced by 2.5% dextran sulfatesodiumsalt (DSS) were treated with or without TM, Disease activity index, T cell subsets in the mice spleen, relevant inflammatory cytokines in serum, specific mRNA, and proteins in mice colon were evaluated respectively.

Results: SIRT2 and glucose metabolism-related proteins in PBMCs of patients were overexpressed. Compared with the positive control group, human PBMCs treated with TM had lower levels of IL-17A, percentage of Th17 cells, levels of phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription (p-STAT) 3 and phospho-nuclear transcription factor-κB (p-NF-κB), but higher levels of acetylated LDHA. Compared with colitis mice, TM-treated colitis mice had longer colons, reduced weight-losses, and lower disease activity index and histopathologic scores. Interestingly, although the expression levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-17A, and retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR)-γt were inhibited in the colons of TM-treated colitis mice, the expression of forkhead box protein P3 (FOXP3) didn't change. Consistently, relative to the high percentage of splenic Th17 cells in colitis mice, the percentage of splenic Th17 cells in TM-treated colitis mice was as normal as PBS-treated mice, while the percentage of Treg cells was not affected. Additionally, the TM group had reduced levels of IL-23 and hypoxiainduciblefactor-1α (HIF-1α), and an increased level of IL-10 in the colon, compared with the colitis group.

Conclusion: Our results indicate that TM reduces UC progression by reducing metabolic reprogramming and T cell differentiation. Specifically, TM prevented Th17 differentiation by reducing the expression of related transcription factors and promoting acetylation of LDHA (weakening glycolysis). SIRT2 may be a potential target for IBD treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107212DOI Listing
January 2021

Targeting the vanillic acid decarboxylase gene for Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris quantification and guaiacol assessment in apple juices using real time PCR.

Int J Food Microbiol 2021 Jan 3;338:109006. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China; Laboratory of Quality & Safety Risk Assessment for Agro-products (YangLing), Ministry of Agriculture, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China; National Engineering Research Center of Agriculture Integration Test (Yangling), Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China. Electronic address:

Alicyclobacillus spp. has recently received much attention due to its implication in the spoilage of pasteurized fruit juices, which is characterized by the formation of guaiacol. Previous researches indicate that not all Alicyclobacillus spp. are able to produce guaiacol. The aim of this study was to identify possible differences in the vanillic acid decarboxylase gene involved in guaiacol biosynthesis and then develop specific detection methods for guaiacol producing Alicyclobacillus. Agarose gel electrophoresis results showed that the partial vdcC gene was present in all the guaiacol producing Alicyclobacillus, but absent in non-guaicaol producing strains apart from A. fastidiosus DSM 17978. On the basis of the vdcC gene sequence, a primer pair specific to A. acidoterrestris was designed; then a SYBR Green I real time PCR was established for the direct quantification of A. acidoterrestris in apple juice, and the detection limit was 2.6 × 10 CFU/mL. The developed real time PCR system was used to detect A. acidoterrestris in 36 artificially contaminated apple juice samples and guaiacol production in the sample was also analyzed by GC-MS. The Gompertz model was employed to describe the relationship between A. acidoterrestris cell concentration and guaiacol content, and the value of R was 0.854. This work provides an alternative to conventional methods of guaiacol quantification and A. acidoterrestris detection and could be very useful for the early recognition of A. acidoterrestris contamination in fruit juices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2020.109006DOI Listing
January 2021

Negation of Pythagorean Fuzzy Number Based on a New Uncertainty Measure Applied in a Service Supplier Selection System.

Authors:
Haiyi Mao Rui Cai

Entropy (Basel) 2020 Feb 7;22(2). Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Business College, Southwest University, No.160 Xueyuan Road, Rongchang District, Chongqing 402460, China.

The Pythagorean fuzzy number (PFN) consists of membership and non-membership as an extension of the intuitionistic fuzzy number. PFN has a larger ambiguity, and it has a stronger ability to express uncertainty. In the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem, it is also very difficult to measure the ambiguity degree of a set of PFN. A new entropy of PFN is proposed based on a technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (Topsis) method of revised relative closeness index in this paper. To verify the new entropy with a good performance in uncertainty measure, a new Pythagorean fuzzy number negation approach is proposed. We develop the PFN negation and find the correlation of the uncertainty measure. Existing methods can only evaluate the ambiguity of a single PFN. The newly proposed method is suitable to systematically evaluate the uncertainty of PFN in Topsis. Nowadays, there are no uniform criteria for measuring service quality. It brings challenges to the future development of airlines. Therefore, grasping the future market trends leads to winning with advanced and high-quality services. Afterward, the applicability in the service supplier selection system with the new entropy is discussed to evaluate the service quality and measure uncertainty. Finally, the new PFN entropy is verified with a good ability in the last MCDM numerical example.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e22020195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7516624PMC
February 2020
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