Publications by authors named "Rufus Akinyemi"

89 Publications

The copy number variation and stroke (CaNVAS) risk and outcome study.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(4):e0248791. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States of America.

Background And Purpose: The role of copy number variation (CNV) variation in stroke susceptibility and outcome has yet to be explored. The Copy Number Variation and Stroke (CaNVAS) Risk and Outcome study addresses this knowledge gap.

Methods: Over 24,500 well-phenotyped IS cases, including IS subtypes, and over 43,500 controls have been identified, all with readily available genotyping on GWAS and exome arrays, with case measures of stroke outcome. To evaluate CNV-associated stroke risk and stroke outcome it is planned to: 1) perform Risk Discovery using several analytic approaches to identify CNVs that are associated with the risk of IS and its subtypes, across the age-, sex- and ethnicity-spectrums; 2) perform Risk Replication and Extension to determine whether the identified stroke-associated CNVs replicate in other ethnically diverse datasets and use biomarker data (e.g. methylation, proteomic, RNA, miRNA, etc.) to evaluate how the identified CNVs exert their effects on stroke risk, and lastly; 3) perform outcome-based Replication and Extension analyses of recent findings demonstrating an inverse relationship between CNV burden and stroke outcome at 3 months (mRS), and then determine the key CNV drivers responsible for these associations using existing biomarker data.

Results: The results of an initial CNV evaluation of 50 samples from each participating dataset are presented demonstrating that the existing GWAS and exome chip data are excellent for the planned CNV analyses. Further, some samples will require additional considerations for analysis, however such samples can readily be identified, as demonstrated by a sample demonstrating clonal mosaicism.

Conclusion: The CaNVAS study will cost-effectively leverage the numerous advantages of using existing case-control data sets, exploring the relationships between CNV and IS and its subtypes, and outcome at 3 months, in both men and women, in those of African and European-Caucasian descent, this, across the entire adult-age spectrum.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0248791PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8055008PMC
April 2021

Prevalence and 1-year incidence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) in adults aged ≥50 years attending standard HIV clinical care in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

Int Psychogeriatr 2021 Mar 24:1-12. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Objectives: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) are prevalent in older people living with HIV (PLWH) worldwide. HAND prevalence and incidence studies of the newly emergent population of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated older PLWH in sub-Saharan Africa are currently lacking. We aimed to estimate HAND prevalence and incidence using robust measures in stable, cART-treated older adults under long-term follow-up in Tanzania and report cognitive comorbidities.

Design: Longitudinal study.

Participants: A systematic sample of consenting HIV-positive adults aged ≥50 years attending routine clinical care at an HIV Care and Treatment Centre during March-May 2016 and followed up March-May 2017.

Measurements: HAND by consensus panel Frascati criteria based on detailed locally normed low-literacy neuropsychological battery, structured neuropsychiatric clinical assessment, and collateral history. Demographic and etiological factors by self-report and clinical records.

Results: In this cohort (n = 253, 72.3% female, median age 57), HAND prevalence was 47.0% (95% CI 40.9-53.2, n = 119) despite well-managed HIV disease (Mn CD4 516 (98-1719), 95.5% on cART). Of these, 64 (25.3%) were asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, 46 (18.2%) mild neurocognitive disorder, and 9 (3.6%) HIV-associated dementia. One-year incidence was high (37.2%, 95% CI 25.9 to 51.8), but some reversibility (17.6%, 95% CI 10.0-28.6 n = 16) was observed.

Conclusions: HAND appear highly prevalent in older PLWH in this setting, where demographic profile differs markedly to high-income cohorts, and comorbidities are frequent. Incidence and reversibility also appear high. Future studies should focus on etiologies and potentially reversible factors in this setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610221000156DOI Listing
March 2021

Burden of adult neurological diseases in Odeda Area, Southwest Nigeria.

BMJ Neurol Open 2020 24;2(2):e000062. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Neurology, University College Hospital Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo, Nigeria.

Background: Few population-based studies have been conducted to determine the burden of neurological diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. A better understanding of the magnitude and impact of these disorders is pivotal to effective planning and provision of neurological services.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 2392 adults in Odeda Local Government Area, Ogun State, Southwest Nigeria was conducted between May and June 2015. Trained non-medical interviewers administered a screening instrument designed to measure the prevalence of neurological diseases and disability, while positive responders were subsequently examined by neurologists. Diagnoses were made clinically according to well-established criteria.

Results: The mean age of respondents was 37.2±16.1 years. A total of 842 cases of neurological diseases/disability were diagnosed in 815 individuals (26 individuals with more than one disorder). The all-cause neurological morbidity rate was 352 per 1000, while the crude prevalence rates of common neurological disorders were 304.3 per 1000 for primary headaches, 16.3 per 1000 for tropical ataxic neuropathy, 7.11 per 1000 for stroke, 5.85 per 1000 for essential tremor and 4.18 per 1000 for Parkinson's disease. Neurological years lost due to disability was 2806.18 per 100 000.

Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a high neurological disease burden within the communities surveyed, which may be representative of Southwest Nigeria. In comparison with findings from previous studies within the same region, this report suggests a persistence of toxiconutritional disorders and postinfectious neurological sequelae on one hand and increased prevalence of non-communicable neurological disorders such as stroke and Parkinson's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjno-2020-000062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7903184PMC
August 2020

Green leafy vegetable intakes are inversely related to the incidence of stroke.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2020 Oct 23. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Centre for Genomic and Precision Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan 200284 Ibadan, Nigeria.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurjpc/zwaa040DOI Listing
October 2020

Factors associated with hypertension among stroke-free indigenous Africans: Findings from the SIREN study.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2021 Apr 23;23(4):773-784. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Center for Genomic and Precision Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for stroke and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) globally. Understanding risk factors for hypertension among individuals with matching characteristics with stroke patients may inform primordial/primary prevention of hypertension and stroke among them. This study identified the risk factors for hypertension among community-dwelling stroke-free population in Ghana and Nigeria. Data for 4267 community-dwelling stroke-free controls subjects in the Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network (SIREN) study in Nigeria and Ghana were used. Participants were comprehensively assessed for sociodemographic, lifestyle and metabolic factors using standard methods. Hypertension was defined as a previous diagnosis by a health professional or use of an anti-hypertensive drug or mean systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of hypertension and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) at p < .05. Overall, 56.7% of the participants were hypertensive with a higher proportion among respondents aged ≥60 years (53.0%). Factors including physical inactivity (aOR: 9.09; 95% CI: 4.03 to 20.53, p < .0001), diabetes (aOR: 2.70; CI: 1.91 to 3.82, p < .0001), being ≥60 years (aOR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.78 to 2.77, p < .0001), and family history of CVD (aOR 2.02; CI: 1.59 to 2.56, p < .0001) were associated with increased aOR of hypertension. Lifestyle factors were associated with hypertension in the current population of community-dwelling stroke-free controls in west Africa. Community-oriented interventions to address sedentary lifestyles may benefit this population and reduce/prevent hypertension and stroke among them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.14183DOI Listing
April 2021

The African Stroke Organization - a new dawn for stroke in Africa.

Nat Rev Neurol 2021 Mar;17(3):127-128

Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Preventive Medicine, Danube University Krems, Krems, Austria.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41582-021-00456-1DOI Listing
March 2021

Gender and educational attainment influence willingness to donate organs among older Nigerians: a questionnaire survey.

Pan Afr Med J 2020 17;36:288. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Department of Health Promotion and Education, Faculty of Public Health, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Introduction: disparity between the demand for and the supply of organs for transplantation remains a major public health issue of global concern. This study evaluated the knowledge and determinants of willingness to donate organs among outpatient clinic attendees in a Nigerian teaching hospital.

Methods: a 43-item semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was designed to assess awareness and willingness of individuals attending Neurology, Psychiatry and Geriatrics Outpatient clinics to donate bodily organs for transplantation. Association between participants' characteristics and willingness towards organ donation was investigated using logistic regression models.

Results: a total of 412 participants were interviewed and mean age was 46.3 (16.1) years. There were 229 (55.6%) females and 92.5% had at least 6 years of formal education. Overall, 330 (80.1%) were aware of donation of at least one organ for transplantation purposes but only 139 (33.7%) were willing to donate organ. In analyses, adjusting for sex, marital status, family setting and educational status, male gender AOR [2.066(1.331-3.2016)] secondary education [AOR 5.57 (1.205-25.729) p= 0.028] and post-secondary education [AOR-6.98 (1.537-31.702) p= 0.012 were independently associated with willingness towards organ donation.

Conclusion: the survey revealed high level of awareness but poor willingness towards organ donation among older Nigerians attending outpatient clinics of a premier tertiary hospital. Male gender and educational attainment were significantly associated with willingness to donate. Educational programs that particularly target women and less educated older Nigerians are needed to promote organ donation in Nigeria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2020.36.288.21125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7572693PMC
January 2021

Pre-Stroke Depression in Ghana and Nigeria: Prevalence, Predictors and Association With Poststroke Depression.

J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 2020 Oct 19:891988720968274. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Objectives: Depression is a risk factor for stroke. There is a knowledge gap on the predictors of prestroke depression in stroke survivors living in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We estimated prevalence and predictors of prestroke depression, as well as its association with poststroke depression (PSD) in the largest study of stroke in Africa.

Methods: We evaluated information collected as part of the Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network (SIREN) study, a multicentre, case-control study conducted at 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Prestroke depression status was ascertained in stroke survivors using a validated self-report tool, while PSD was assessed using a stroke specific screening tool for depression ("HRQOLISP-E"). Independent associations were investigated using complementary log-log regression and binary logit models.

Results: Among 1,977 participants, prestroke depression was found in 141 (7.1%). In multivariate analyses, prestroke depression was significantly associated with tachycardia (OR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.37-3.56) and low consumption of green leafy vegetables (OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.12-3.24). Forty-one (29.1%) of the prestroke depression sub-sample developed PSD. However, prestroke depression was not significantly associated with PSD.

Conclusion: The findings should energize before-the-stroke identification and prioritization of limited treatment resources in LMICs to persons with depression who have multiple, additional, risks of stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0891988720968274DOI Listing
October 2020

Antecedent febrile illness and occurrence of stroke in West Africa: The SIREN study.

J Neurol Sci 2020 Nov 28;418:117158. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Acute infections have been posited as potential precipitants or triggers of the occurrence of stroke among adults with traditional vascular risk factors. We evaluated associations between stroke occurrence and reported febrile illness within 4 weeks (potential antecedent infections) among West Africans.

Methods: The Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN) is a multicenter, case-control study involving 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Cases include adults aged ≥18 years with radiologically confirmed strokes. Controls were stroke-free adults matched with cased by age, gender and ethnicity. Detailed evaluations for vascular, lifestyle and psychosocial factors were performed. Participants were asked for evidence of any febrile illness within the past 4 weeks. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% Confidence Interval.

Results: Among 3588 stroke cases recruited in Ghana and Nigeria between August 2014 and July 2018, 363 cases (10.1%) reported having a febrile illness within the 4 weeks prior to stroke occurrence. Having an antecedent infection was associated with stroke occurrence with an unadjusted OR of 1.19 (1.00-1.51) but aOR of 0.83 (0.59-1.17) upon adjusting for traditional vascular risk factors. Stress, aOR of 4.69 (2.59-8.50) and consumption of green vegetables 2.27 (1.35-2.85) were associated with antecedent febrile illness.

Conclusion: 1 in 10 stroke cases reported antecedent history of febrile illness prior to occurrence of stroke but no independent association was observed in this study. Infectious exposures may be important triggers of cardiovascular events requiring further exploratory studies to better understand the role of this emerging risk factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.117158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006213PMC
November 2020

Screening for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND) in Adults Aged 50 and Over Attending a Government HIV Clinic in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Comparison of the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) and IDEA Six Item Dementia Screen.

AIDS Behav 2021 Feb;25(2):542-553

Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Validated screening tools for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are lacking for the newly emergent ageing population of people living with HIV (PLWH) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We aimed to validate and compare diagnostic accuracy of two cognitive screening tools, the International HIV dementia scale (IHDS), and the Identification and Interventions for Dementia in Elderly Africans (IDEA) screen, for identification of HAND in older PLWH in Tanzania. A systematic sample of 253 PLWH aged ≥ 50 attending a Government clinic in Tanzania were screened with the IHDS and IDEA. HAND were diagnosed by consensus American Academy of Neurology (AAN) criteria based on detailed clinical neuropsychological assessment. Strict blinding was maintained between screening and clinical evaluation. Both tools had limited diagnostic accuracy for HAND (area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve 0.639-0.667 IHDS, 0.647-0.713 IDEA), which was highly-prevalent (47.0%). Accurate HAND screening tools for older PLWH in SSA are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-020-02998-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7846532PMC
February 2021

Predictors and prognoses of new onset post-stroke anxiety at one year in black Africans.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Sep 3;29(9):105082. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

University of California San Francisco, United States.

Background: There is relatively limited information on the risk factors and outcome of new onset Poststroke Anxiety (PSA) in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. We estimated incidence, cumulative incidence, risk factors and outcome of new onset anxiety in the first year of stroke among African stroke survivors.

Methods: We analyzed the dataset of a completed clinical trial comprising patients enrolled to test an intervention designed to improve one-year blood pressure control among recent (≤ one month) stroke survivors in Nigeria. Anxiety was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Outcomes were assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), Community screening instrument for dementia (CSID) and Health Related Quality of Life in Stroke Patients (HRQOLISP-26).

Results: Among 322 stroke survivors who were free of anxiety at baseline, we found a one-year cumulative incidence of 34% (95% CI = 28.6-39.3). Rates were 36.2% (95% CI =29.6-42.7) for men and 29.2% (95% CI =19.9-38.3) for women. In multivariate Cox regression analyses, haemorrhagic stroke type was associated with higher risk of new onset PSA (Hazard Ratio=1.52, 95% CI =1.01-2.29). New onset PSA was independently associated with cognitive [(mean difference (MD) in CSID scores=1.1, 95% C.I=0.2, 1.9)] and motor decline (MD in mRS scores= -0.2, 95% C.I= -0.4, -0.02), as well as poorer quality of life overtime (MD in total HRQOLISP-26 scores=3.6, 95% C.I=1.0, 6.2).

Conclusion: One in 3 stroke survivors in Nigeria had PSA at one year. Clinicians in SSA should pay special attention to survivors of haemorrhagic stroke as they are at higher risk of incident anxiety and therefore its consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.105082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7673258PMC
September 2020

Letter to the Editor.

J Neurol Sci 2020 11 10;418:117089. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

University of California, San Francisco, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.117089DOI Listing
November 2020

Loss of capillary pericytes and the blood-brain barrier in white matter in poststroke and vascular dementias and Alzheimer's disease.

Brain Pathol 2020 11 14;30(6):1087-1101. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Neurovascular Research Group, Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Newcastle University, Campus for Ageing & Vitality, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.

White matter (WM) disease is associated with disruption of the gliovascular unit, which involves breach of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We quantified pericytes as components of the gliovascular unit and assessed their status in vascular and other common dementias. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent methods were developed to assess the distribution and quantification of pericytes connected to the frontal lobe WM capillaries. Pericytes with a nucleus were identified by collagen 4 (COL4) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β) antibodies with further verification using PDGFR-β-specific ELISA. We evaluated a total of 124 post-mortem brains from subjects with post-stroke dementia (PSD), vascular dementia (VaD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), AD-VaD (Mixed) and post-stroke non-demented (PSND) stroke survivors as well as normal aging controls. COL4 and PDGFR-β reactive pericytes adopted the characteristic "crescent" or nodule-like shapes around capillary walls. We estimated densities of pericyte somata to be 225 ±38 and 200 ±13 (SEM) per COL4 mm area or 2.0 ± 0.1 and 1.7 ± 0.1 per mm capillary length in young and older aging controls. Remarkably, WM pericytes were reduced by ~35%-45% in the frontal lobe of PSD, VaD, Mixed and AD subjects compared to PSND and controls subjects (P < 0.001). We also found pericyte numbers were correlated with PDGFR-β reactivity in the WM. Our results first demonstrate a reliable method to quantify COL4-positive pericytes and then, indicate that deep WM pericytes are decreased across different dementias including PSD, VaD, Mixed and AD. Our findings suggest that downregulation of pericytes is associated with the disruption of the BBB in the deep WM in several aging-related dementias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12888DOI Listing
November 2020

The Nigeria Parkinson Disease Registry: Process, Profile, and Prospects of a Collaborative Project.

Mov Disord 2020 08 19;35(8):1315-1322. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Muritala Muhammed Specialist Hospital, Kano, Kano State, Nigeria.

Background: Clinical disease registries are useful for quality improvement in care, benchmarking standards, and facilitating research. Collaborative networks established thence can enhance national and international studies by generating more robust samples and credible data and promote knowledge sharing and capacity building. This report describes the methodology, baseline data, and prospects of the Nigeria Parkinson Disease Registry.

Methods: This national registry was established in November 2016. Ethics approval was obtained for all sites. Basic anonymized data for consecutive cases fulfilling the United Kingdom Parkinson's Disease Brain Bank criteria (except the exclusion criterion of affected family members) are registered by participating neurologists via a secure registry website (www.parkinsonnigeria.com) using a minimal common data capture format.

Results: The registry had captured 578 participants from 5 of 6 geopolitical zones in Nigeria by July 2019 (72.5% men). Mean age at onset was 60.3 ± 10.7 years; median disease duration (interquartile range) was 36 months (18-60.5 months). Young-onset disease (<50 years) represented 15.2%. A family history was documented in 4.5% and 7.8% with age at onset <50 and ≥ 50, respectively. The most frequent initial symptom was tremor (45.3%). At inclusion, 93.4% were on treatment (54.5% on levodopa monotherapy). Per-capita direct cost for the registry was $3.37.

Conclusions: This is the first published national Parkinson's disease registry in sub-Saharan Africa. The registry will serve as a platform for development of multipronged evidence-based policies and initiatives to improve quality of care of Parkinson's disease and research engagement in Nigeria. © 2020 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.28123DOI Listing
August 2020

Risk factors for symptomatic HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in adults aged 50 and over attending a HIV clinic in Tanzania.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2020 10 20;35(10):1198-1208. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Old Age Psychiatry, Northumberland Tyne and Wear NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Objectives: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), although prevalent, remains a poorly researched cause of morbidity particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We aimed to explore the risk factors for HAND in people aged 50 and over under regular follow-up at a government HIV clinic in Tanzania.

Methods: HIV-positive adults aged 50 years and over were approached for recruitment at a routine HIV clinic appointment over a 4-month period. A diagnostic assessment for HAND was implemented, including a full medical/neurological assessment and a collateral history from a relative. We investigated potential risk factors using a structured questionnaire and by examination of clinic records.

Results: Of the cohort (n = 253), 183 (72.3%) were female and the median age was 57 years. Fifty-five individuals (21.7%) met the criteria for symptomatic HAND. Participants were at a greater risk of having symptomatic HAND if they lived alone [odds ratio (OR) = 2.566, P = .015], were illiterate (OR 3.171, P = .003) or older at the time of HIV diagnosis (OR = 1.057, P = .015). Age was correlated with symptomatic HAND in univariate, but not multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: In this setting, HIV-specific factors, such as nadir CD4 count, were not related to symptomatic HAND. The "legacy theory" of early central nervous system damage prior to initiation of anti-retroviral therapy initiation may contribute, only in part, to a multifactorial aetiology of HAND in older people. Social isolation and illiteracy were associated with symptomatic HAND, suggesting greater cognitive reserve might be protective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.5357DOI Listing
October 2020

Association between white matter hyperintensities and stroke in a West African patient population: Evidence from the Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network study.

Neuroimage 2020 07 7;215:116789. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Background: This study is part of the Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN), the largest study of stroke patients in Africa to date, with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data for each patient to confirm stroke. Prior imaging studies performed using high-field MR (≥1.5T) have shown that white matter hyperintensities (WMH), signs of microangiopathy in the subcortical brain, are correlated with many stroke risk factors as well as poor stroke outcomes. The aim of this study was the evaluation of MR images (0.3T-1.5T) from the SIREN study to determine associations between WMH volumes in West African patients and both stroke outcomes and stroke risk factors identified in the SIREN study.

Materials And Methods: Brain MR images of 130 Western African stroke patients (age ​= ​57.87 ​± ​14.22) were processed through Lesion Segmentation Toolbox of the Statistical Parametric Mapping software to extract all areas of hyperintensity in the brain. WMH was separated from stroke lesion hyperintensity and WMH volume was computed and summed. A stepwise linear regression and multivariate analysis was performed between patients' WMH volume and sociodemographic and clinical indices.

Results: Multivariate analysis showed that high WMH volume was statistically significantly positively correlated with age (β ​= ​0.44, p ​= ​0.001), waist/hip ratio (β ​= ​0.22, p ​= ​0.03), and platelet count (β ​= ​0.19, p ​= ​0.04) after controlling for head size in a Western African stroke population.

Conclusion: Associations between WMH and age and waist/hip ratio previously identified in Western countries were demonstrated for the first time in a resource-limited, homogeneous black African community using low-field MR scanners.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.116789DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7304372PMC
July 2020

Regional Patterns and Association Between Obesity and Hypertension in Africa: Evidence From the H3Africa CHAIR Study.

Hypertension 2020 05 16;75(5):1167-1178. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Departments of Pediatrics, Medicine and Epidemiology, Hospital for Sick Children, University Health Network and University of Toronto, Canada (R.S.P.).

Hypertension and obesity are the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, but their association is not well characterized in Africa. We investigated regional patterns and association of obesity with hypertension among 30 044 continental Africans. We harmonized data on hypertension (defined as previous diagnosis/use of antihypertensive drugs or blood pressure [BP]≥140/90 mmHg/BP≥130/80 mmHg) and obesity from 30 044 individuals in the Cardiovascular H3Africa Innovation Resource across 13 African countries. We analyzed data from population-based controls and the Entire Harmonized Dataset. Age-adjusted and crude proportions of hypertension were compared regionally, across sex, and between hypertension definitions. Logit generalized estimating equation was used to determine the independent association of obesity with hypertension ( value <5%). Participants were 56% women; with mean age 48.5±12.0 years. Crude proportions of hypertension (at BP≥140/90 mmHg) were 47.9% (95% CI, 47.4-48.5) for Entire Harmonized Dataset and 42.0% (41.1-42.7) for population-based controls and were significantly higher for the 130/80 mm Hg threshold at 59.3% (58.7-59.9) in population-based controls. The age-adjusted proportion of hypertension at BP≥140/90 mmHg was the highest among men (33.8% [32.1-35.6]), in western Africa (34.7% [33.3-36.2]), and in obese individuals (43.6%; 40.3-47.2). Obesity was independently associated with hypertension in population-based controls (adjusted odds ratio, 2.5 [2.3-2.7]) and odds of hypertension in obesity increased with increasing age from 2.0 (1.7-2.3) in younger age to 8.8 (7.4-10.3) in older age. Hypertension is common across multiple countries in Africa with 11.9% to 51.7% having BP≥140/90 mmHg and 39.5% to 69.4% with BP≥130/80 mmHg. Obese Africans were more than twice as likely to be hypertensive and the odds increased with increasing age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.119.14147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176339PMC
May 2020

Vascular-brain Injury Progression after Stroke (VIPS) study: concept for understanding racial and geographic determinants of cognitive decline after stroke.

J Neurol Sci 2020 05 19;412:116754. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, USA.

Cognitive impairment and dementia (CID) are major public health problems with substantial personal, social, and financial burdens. African Americans are at a heightened risk for Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI) compared to European Americans. Recent lines of evidence also suggest a high burden of Post-stroke VCI among indigenous Africans. A better understanding of the cause(s) of the racial disparity in CID, specifically VCI, is needed in order to develop strategies to reduce it. We propose and discuss the conceptual framework for a unique tri-population, trans-continental study titled The Vascular brain Injury Progression after Stroke (VIPS) study. The overarching objective of the VIPS Study will be to explore the interplay of multiple factors (racial, geographical, vascular, lifestyle, nutritional, psychosocial and inflammatory) influencing the level and trajectory of post-stroke cognitive outcomes and examine whether differences between indigenous Africans, African Americans and European Americans exist. We hypothesize that differences which might be due to racial factors will be observed in African Americans versus European Americans as well as Indigenous Africans versus European Americans but not in African Americans versus Indigenous Americans; differences due to geographical factors will be observed in Indigenous Americans versus African Americans and Indigenous Africans versus European Americans but not in African Americans versus European Americans. This overarching objective could be accomplished by building upon existing National Institutes of Health investments in the REasons for Geographical And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study (based in the United States of America) and the Stroke Investigative Research and educational Network (SIREN) study (based in Sub-Saharan Africa).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.116754DOI Listing
May 2020

Unraveling the risk factors for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage among West Africans.

Neurology 2020 03 19;94(10):e998-e1012. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

From Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (F.S.S., L.A., A. Singh, D.O.), Kumasi, Ghana; University of California (B.O.), San Francisco; Medical University of South Carolina (M.G., D.L., C.J., F.M.), Charleston; College of Medicine (O. Akpa, G. Ogbole, M.O., J.A., A.O., A. Adeoye, L. Ogunjimi, O. Arulogun, F.A., O. Ogah, A. Makanjuola, O. Adebayo, A. Agunloye, S.L., S.D., M.F., C.E.), University of Ibadan, Nigeria; University of Ghana Medical School (A. Akpalu, R.L., B.C.-T.), Accra; University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (K.W., L. Oyinloye, P.K., E.S.); Federal Medical Centre (R.A., O. Adeleye), Abeokuta; Ahmadu Bello University (R.O., O.B., V.S., H.I.), Zaria; Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital (M.K., B.F., O. Ajose, S.O.), Ile-Ife; Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (L. Owolabi, A. Mande), Kano, Nigeria; University of Kentucky (D.A.), Lexington; University of Alabama at Birmingham (H.T.); University of Cambridge (H.S.M.), UK; Delta State University Teaching Hospital (O. Olugbo); Jos Teaching Hospital (G. Osaigbovo, A. Salaam, G.A., C.I.), Plateau State; Federal Medical Centre (I.C.), Umuahia, Abia State; Federal Medical Centre (T.S.), Owo, Ondo State; and Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital (A. Akintunde), Ogbomosho, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Objective: To characterize risk factors for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) occurrence and severity among West Africans.

Methods: The Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN) study is a multicenter case-control study involving 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Patients were adults ≥18 years old with CT-confirmed sICH with age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched stroke-free community controls. Standard instruments were used to assess vascular, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors. Factors associated with sICH and its severity were assessed using conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and population-attributable risks (PARs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for factors.

Results: Of 2,944 adjudicated stroke cases, 854 were intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Mean age of patients with ICH was 54.7 ± 13.9 years, with a male preponderance (63.1%), and 77.3% were nonlobar. Etiologic subtypes of sICH included hypertension (80.9%), structural vascular anomalies (4.0%), cerebral amyloid angiopathy (0.7%), systemic illnesses (0.5%), medication-related (0.4%), and undetermined (13.7%). Eight factors independently associated with sICH occurrence by decreasing order of PAR with their adjusted OR (95% CI) were hypertension, 66.63 (20.78-213.72); dyslipidemia, 2.95 (1.84-4.74); meat consumption, 1.55 (1.01-2.38); family history of CVD, 2.22 (1.41-3.50); nonconsumption of green vegetables, 3.61 (2.07-6.31); diabetes mellitus, 2.11 (1.29-3.46); stress, 1.68 (1.03-2.77); and current tobacco use, 14.27 (2.09-97.47). Factors associated with severe sICH using an NIH Stroke Scale score >15 with adjusted OR (95% CI) were nonconsumption of leafy green vegetables, 2.03 (1.43-2.88); systolic blood pressure for each mm Hg rise, 1.01 (1.00-1.01); presence of midline shift, 1.54 (1.11-2.13); lobar ICH, 1.72 (1.16-2.55); and supratentorial bleeds, 2.17 (1.06-4.46).

Conclusions: Population-level control of the dominant factors will substantially mitigate the burden of sICH in West Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000009056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238923PMC
March 2020

Conceptual framework for establishing the African Stroke Organization.

Int J Stroke 2021 Jan 6;16(1):93-99. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique.

Africa is the world's most genetically diverse, second largest, and second most populous continent, with over one billion people distributed across 54 countries. With a 23% lifetime risk of stroke, Africa has some of the highest rates of stroke worldwide and many occur in the prime of life with huge economic losses and grave implications for the individual, family, and the society in terms of mental capital, productivity, and socioeconomic progress. Tackling the escalating burden of stroke in Africa requires prioritized, multipronged, and inter-sectoral strategies tailored to the unique African epidemiological, cultural, socioeconomic, and lifestyle landscape. The African Stroke Organization (ASO) is a new pan-African coalition that brings together stroke researchers, clinicians, and other health-care professionals with participation of national and regional stroke societies and stroke support organizations. With a vision to reduce the rapidly increasing burden of stroke in Africa, the ASO has a four-pronged focus on (1) research, (2) capacity building, (3) development of stroke services, and (4) collaboration with all stakeholders. This will be delivered through advocacy, awareness, and empowerment initiatives to bring about people-focused changes in policy, clinical practice, and public education. In the spirit of the " the ASO will harness the power of diversity, inclusiveness, togetherness, and team work to build a strong, enduring, and impactful platform for tackling stroke in Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493019897871DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006214PMC
January 2021

Menstrual-Related Headaches Among a Cohort of African Adolescent Girls.

J Pain Res 2020 16;13:143-150. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.

Introduction: Migraine attacks associated with menstruation are generally perceived as more severe than attacks outside this period.

Aim And Objective: The study aimed at determining the frequency of menstrual-related headaches among a cohort of senior secondary school girls in Abeokuta, Nigeria. We also determined its burden among these school girls.

Methodology: This study was cross-sectional using a validated adolescent headache survey questionnaire. A self-administration of the instrument was done during a school visit. A headache was classified using the ICHD-II criteria.

Results: Of the 183 students interviewed, 123(67.2%) had recurrent headaches. Mean age ±SD, 16.18±1.55 (range 12-19). The prevalence of definite migraine was 17.5% while the prevalence of probable migraine was 6.0%. The prevalence of tension-type headache was 41.0%. Migraine was significantly menstrual-related (p=0.001, 95% CI=1.06-6.63). Median pain severity score was higher among MRH group (p=0.043). The median number of days of reduced productivity and missed social activities was significantly higher in the MRH group; p= 0.001 and p=0.03, respectively. Subjects with MRH were more incapacitated by their headaches (p= 0.003).

Conclusion: Menstrually related headache is prevalent even among the adolescent and it has adversely affected their productivity and social life. Care of adolescent with headaches should be intensified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S207620DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6970628PMC
January 2020

Randomized Trial of an Intervention to Improve Blood Pressure Control in Stroke Survivors.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2019 12 6;12(12):e005904. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco (B.O.).

Background: We conducted the first-of-its kind randomized stroke trial in Africa to test whether a THRIVES (Tailored Hospital-based Risk reduction to Impede Vascular Events after Stroke) intervention improved blood pressure (BP) control among patients with stroke.

Methods And Results: Intervention comprised a patient global risk factor control report card, personalized phone text-messaging, and educational video. Four hundred patients recruited from 4 distinct medical facilities in Nigeria, aged ≥18 years with stroke-onset within one-year, were randomized to THRIVES intervention and control group. The control group also received text messages, and both groups received modest financial incentives. The primary outcome was mean change in systolic BP (SBP) at 12 months. There were 36.5% females, 72.3% with ischemic stroke; mean age was 57.2±11.7 years; 93.5% had hypertension and mean SBP was 138.33 (23.64) mm Hg. At 12 months, there was no significant difference in SBP reduction from baseline in the THRIVES versus control group (2.32 versus 2.01 mm Hg, =0.82). In an exploratory analysis of subjects with baseline BP >140/90 mm Hg (n=168), THRIVES showed a significant mean SBP (diastolic BP) decrease of 11.7 (7.0) mm Hg while control group showed a significant mean SBP (diastolic BP) decrease of 11.2 (7.9) mm Hg at 12 months.

Conclusions: THRIVES intervention did not significantly reduce SBP compared with controls. However, there was similar significant decrease in mean BP in both treatment arms in the subgroup with baseline hypertension. As text-messaging and a modest financial incentive were the common elements between both treatment arms, further research is required to establish whether these measures alone can improve BP control among stroke survivors.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01900756.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.119.005904DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7139215PMC
December 2019

Profile of and risk factors for poststroke cognitive impairment in diverse ethnoregional groups.

Neurology 2019 12 11;93(24):e2257-e2271. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

From the Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing (J.W.L., J.D.C., R.J.C., H.B., D.M.L., N.A.K., P.S.S.), University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; Department of Neurology and Laboratory of Functional Neurosciences (O.G., M.B., M.R.), University Hospital of Amiens, France; Clinical Neurosciences (H.J., S.M., T.E.), Neurology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Finland; Department of Internal Medicine (S.M.), Gerontology and Geriatrics Section, and Department of Cardiology (J.W.J.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands; Department of Neurology (S.M., B.S.), Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL; Department of Neurology (H.-J.B.), Seoul National University School of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam; Department of Neurology (J.-S.L., B.-C.L.), Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang, Republic of Korea; Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology (S.K., E.D.), School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Alzheimer Center Limburg, Maastricht University; Department of Neurology (J.S.), Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University Medical Center, the Netherlands; Memory Aging and Cognition Centre (C.C., X.X., E.J.C.), Department of Pharmacology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore; Centre for Population Health Sciences (X.X.), Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; Neuroscience and Ageing Research Unit (R.O.A., A.O.), Institute for Advanced Medical Research and Training, and Department of Medicine (R.O.A.), College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria; Institute of Neuroscience (R.N.K.), Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK; Peninsula Clinical School (V.K.S., C.M.), Central Clinical School, Monash University; Department of Aged Care (C.M.), Alfred Health, Melbourne, Australia; National Neuroscience Institute (N.K., R.J.C.); Duke-NUS Medical School (N.K.), Singapore; Dementia Collaborative Research Centre (H.B., P.S.S.), University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; and University of Lille (R.B., S.B., H.H.), Inserm, CHU Lille, U1171-Degenerative & Vascular Cognitive Disorders, France.

Objective: To address the variability in prevalence estimates and inconsistencies in potential risk factors for poststroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) using a standardized approach and individual participant data (IPD) from international cohorts in the Stroke and Cognition Consortium (STROKOG) consortium.

Methods: We harmonized data from 13 studies based in 8 countries. Neuropsychological test scores 2 to 6 months after stroke or TIA and appropriate normative data were used to calculate standardized cognitive domain scores. Domain-specific impairment was based on percentile cutoffs from normative groups, and associations between domain scores and risk factors were examined with 1-stage IPD meta-analysis.

Results: In a combined sample of 3,146 participants admitted to hospital for stroke (97%) or TIA (3%), 44% were impaired in global cognition and 30% to 35% were impaired in individual domains 2 to 6 months after the index event. Diabetes mellitus and a history of stroke were strongly associated with poorer cognitive function after covariate adjustments; hypertension, smoking, and atrial fibrillation had weaker domain-specific associations. While there were no significant differences in domain impairment among ethnoracial groups, some interethnic differences were found in the effects of risk factors on cognition.

Conclusions: This study confirms the high prevalence of PSCI in diverse populations, highlights common risk factors, in particular diabetes mellitus, and points to ethnoracial differences that warrant attention in the development of prevention strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000008612DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6937495PMC
December 2019

Genetic risk of Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: Systematic review and future directions.

J Neurol Sci 2019 Dec 13;407:116526. Epub 2019 Oct 13.

Center for Genomic and Precision Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Department of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Electronic address:

Background: Although highly heritable, few genes have been linked to spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH), which does not currently have any evidence-based disease-modifying therapy. Individuals of African ancestry are especially susceptible to SICH, even more so for indigenous Africans. We systematically reviewed the genetic variants associated with SICH and examined opportunities for rapidly advancing SICH genomic research for precision medicine.

Method: We searched the National Human Genome Research Institute-European Bioinformatics Institute (NHGRI-EBI) Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) catalog and PubMed for original research articles on genetic variants associated with SICH as of 15 June 2019 using the PRISMA guideline.

Results: Eight hundred and sixty-four articles were identified using pre-specified search criteria, of which 64 met the study inclusion criteria. Among eligible articles, only 9 utilized GWAS approach while the rest were candidate gene studies. Thirty-eight genetic loci were found to be variously associated with the risk of SICH, hematoma volume, functional outcome and mortality, out of which 8 were from GWAS including APOE, CR1, KCNK17, 1q22, CETP, STYK1, COL4A2 and 17p12. None of the studies included indigenous Africans.

Conclusion: Given this limited information on the genetic contributors to SICH, more genomic studies are needed to provide additional insights into the pathophysiology of SICH, and develop targeted preventive and therapeutic strategies. This call for additional investigation of the pathogenesis of SICH is likely to yield more discoveries in the unexplored indigenous African populations which also have a greater predilection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2019.116526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7413646PMC
December 2019

Echocardiographic Abnormalities and Determinants of 1-Month Outcome of Stroke Among West Africans in the SIREN Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2019 06 30;8(11):e010814. Epub 2019 May 30.

1 Center for Genomic and Precision Medicine University of Ibadan Ibadan Nigeria.

Background Little is known about the relationship between echocardiographic abnormalities and outcome among patients with acute stroke. We investigated the pattern and association of baseline echocardiographic variables with 1-month disability and mortality among patients with stroke in the SIREN (Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network) study. Methods and Results We enrolled and followed up consecutive 1020 adult patients with acute stroke with baseline transthoracic echocardiography from west Africa. To explore the relationship between echocardiographic variables and 1-month disability (using modified Rankin scale >3) and fatality, regression models were fitted. Relative risks were computed with 95% CIs. The participants comprised 60% men with a mean age of 59.2±14.6 years. Ischemic stroke was associated with smaller aortic root diameter (30.2 versus 32.5, P=0.018) and septal (16.8 versus 19.1, P<0.001) and posterior wall thickness at systole (18.9 versus 21.5, P=0.004). Over 90% of patients with stroke had abnormal left ventricular (LV) geometry with eccentric hypertrophy predominating (56.1%). Of 13 candidate variables investigated, only baseline abnormal LV geometry (concentric hypertrophy) was weakly associated with 1-month disability (unadjusted relative risk, 1.80; 95% CI , 0.97-5.73). Severe LV systolic dysfunction was significantly associated with increased 1-month mortality (unadjusted relative risk, 3.05; 95% CI , 1.36-6.83). Conclusions Nine of 10 patients with acute stroke had abnormal LV geometry and a third had systolic dysfunction. Severe LV systolic dysfunction was significantly associated with 1 month mortality. Larger studies are required to establish the independent effect and unravel predictive accuracy of this association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.118.010814DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6585359PMC
June 2019

Gender differential in inclination to donate brain for research among Nigerians: the IBADAN Brain Bank Project.

Cell Tissue Bank 2019 Jun 26;20(2):297-306. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Department of Health Promotion and Education, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Laboratory-based studies of neurological disease patterns and mechanisms are sparse in sub-Saharan Africa. However, availability of human brain tissue resource depends on willingness towards brain donation. This study evaluated the level of willingness among outpatient clinic attendees in a Nigerian teaching hospital.

Methods: Under the auspices of the IBADAN Brain Bank Project, a 43-item semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was designed to evaluate knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of individuals attending Neurology, Psychiatry and Geriatrics Outpatient clinics regarding willingness to donate brain for research. Association between participants characteristics and willingness towards brain donation was investigated using logistic regression models. Analysis was conducted using Stata SE version 12.0.

Results: A total of 412 participants were interviewed. Their mean age was 46.3 (16.1) years. 229 (55.6%) were females and 92.5% had at least 6 years of formal education. Overall, 109 (26.7%) were willing to donate brains for research. In analyses adjusting for educational status, religion, ethnicity, marital status and family setting, male sex showed independent association with willingness towards brain donation OR (95% CI) 1.7 (1.08-2.69), p = 0.023. Participants suggested public engagement and education through mass media (including social media) and involvement of religious and community leaders as important interventions to improve awareness and willingness towards brain donation.

Conclusion: The survey revealed low willingness among outpatient clinic attendees to donate brain for research, although men were more inclined to donate. It is imperative to institute public engagement and educational interventions in order to improve consent for brain donation for research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10561-019-09769-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6556418PMC
June 2019

The Sub-Saharan Africa Conference on Stroke (SSACS): An idea whose time has come.

J Neurol Sci 2019 May 29;400:194-198. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, USA.

Stroke is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where an unprecedented rise in stroke burden is currently raging, has the highest age-standardized stroke incidence, stroke prevalence, and stroke mortality rates. This is in sharp contrast to the relative decline in stroke incidence in high-income countries over the past four decades through better awareness and control of vascular risk factors. Compared to other groups, Africans tend to have a higher risk of stroke, higher percentage of the hemorrhagic type and much poorer outcomes. Indeed, stroke levies a heavy toll on the developing SSA economy by affecting a relatively younger age group. In this commentary, we examine the disproportionately high burden of stroke in the setting of grossly inadequate resources and evidence-based interventions. We propose an annual pan-regional stroke conference (starting in 2020) to harness global resources and local talent with the goal of galvanizing action to tackle this escalating burden. We anticipate that a successful conference series could become a rallying point for the eventual establishment of an African Stroke Organization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2019.03.026DOI Listing
May 2019

Differential Impact of Risk Factors on Stroke Occurrence Among Men Versus Women in West Africa.

Stroke 2019 04;50(4):820-827

Centre for Genomic and Precision Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria (R.A., A.A., M.O.).

Background and Purpose- The interplay between sex and the dominant risk factors for stroke occurrence in sub-Saharan Africa has not been clearly delineated. We compared the effect sizes of risk factors of stroke by sex among West Africans. Methods- SIREN study (Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Networks) is a case-control study conducted at 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Cases were adults aged >18 years with computerized tomography/magnetic resonance imaging confirmed stroke, and controls were age- and sex-matched stroke-free adults. Comprehensive evaluation for vascular, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors was performed using validated tools. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and reported risk factor specific and composite population attributable risks with 95% CIs. Results- Of the 2118 stroke cases, 1193 (56.3%) were males. The mean±SD age of males was 58.1±13.2 versus 60.15±14.53 years among females. Shared modifiable risk factors for stroke with adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) among females versus males, respectively, were hypertension [29.95 (12.49-71.77) versus 16.1 0(9.19-28.19)], dyslipidemia [2.08 (1.42-3.06) versus 1.83 (1.29-2.59)], diabetes mellitus [3.18 (2.11-4.78) versus 2.19 (1.53-3.15)], stress [2.34 (1.48-3.67) versus 1.61 (1.07-2.43)], and low consumption of green leafy vegetables [2.92 (1.89-4.50) versus 2.00 (1.33-3.00)]. However, salt intake and income were significantly different between males and females. Six modifiable factors had a combined population attributable risk of 99.1% (98.3%-99.6%) among females with 9 factors accounting for 97.2% (94.9%-98.7%) among males. Hemorrhagic stroke was more common among males (36.0%) than among females (27.6%), but stroke was less severe among males than females. Conclusions- Overall, risk factors for stroke occurrence are commonly shared by both sexes in West Africa favoring concerted interventions for stroke prevention in the region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.022786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433514PMC
April 2019

Global, Regional, and Country-Specific Lifetime Risks of Stroke, 1990 and 2016.

N Engl J Med 2018 12;379(25):2429-2437

Background: The lifetime risk of stroke has been calculated in a limited number of selected populations. We sought to estimate the lifetime risk of stroke at the regional, country, and global level using data from a comprehensive study of the prevalence of major diseases.

Methods: We used the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2016 estimates of stroke incidence and the competing risks of death from any cause other than stroke to calculate the cumulative lifetime risks of first stroke, ischemic stroke, or hemorrhagic stroke among adults 25 years of age or older. Estimates of the lifetime risks in the years 1990 and 2016 were compared. Countries were categorized into quintiles of the sociodemographic index (SDI) used in the GBD Study, and the risks were compared across quintiles. Comparisons were made with the use of point estimates and uncertainty intervals representing the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles around the estimate.

Results: The estimated global lifetime risk of stroke from the age of 25 years onward was 24.9% (95% uncertainty interval, 23.5 to 26.2); the risk among men was 24.7% (95% uncertainty interval, 23.3 to 26.0), and the risk among women was 25.1% (95% uncertainty interval, 23.7 to 26.5). The risk of ischemic stroke was 18.3%, and the risk of hemorrhagic stroke was 8.2%. In high-SDI, high-middle-SDI, and low-SDI countries, the estimated lifetime risk of stroke was 23.5%, 31.1% (highest risk), and 13.2% (lowest risk), respectively; the 95% uncertainty intervals did not overlap between these categories. The highest estimated lifetime risks of stroke according to GBD region were in East Asia (38.8%), Central Europe (31.7%), and Eastern Europe (31.6%), and the lowest risk was in eastern sub-Saharan Africa (11.8%). The mean global lifetime risk of stroke increased from 22.8% in 1990 to 24.9% in 2016, a relative increase of 8.9% (95% uncertainty interval, 6.2 to 11.5); the competing risk of death from any cause other than stroke was considered in this calculation.

Conclusions: In 2016, the global lifetime risk of stroke from the age of 25 years onward was approximately 25% among both men and women. There was geographic variation in the lifetime risk of stroke, with the highest risks in East Asia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1804492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6247346PMC
December 2018