Publications by authors named "Rudolf A de Boer"

380 Publications

Prediction of ventricular arrhythmia in phospholamban p.Arg14del mutation carriers-reaching the frontiers of individual risk prediction.

Eur Heart J 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Heart Center, Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Aims: This study aims to improve risk stratification for primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation by developing a new mutation-specific prediction model for malignant ventricular arrhythmia (VA) in phospholamban (PLN) p.Arg14del mutation carriers. The proposed model is compared to an existing PLN risk model.

Methods And Results: Data were collected from PLN p.Arg14del mutation carriers with no history of malignant VA at baseline, identified between 2009 and 2020. Malignant VA was defined as sustained VA, appropriate ICD intervention, or (aborted) sudden cardiac death. A prediction model was developed using Cox regression. The study cohort consisted of 679 PLN p.Arg14del mutation carriers, with a minority of index patients (17%) and male sex (43%), and a median age of 42 years [interquartile range (IQR) 27-55]. During a median follow-up of 4.3 years (IQR 1.7-7.4), 72 (10.6%) carriers experienced malignant VA. Significant predictors were left ventricular ejection fraction, premature ventricular contraction count/24 h, amount of negative T waves, and presence of low-voltage electrocardiogram. The multivariable model had an excellent discriminative ability {C-statistic 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78-0.88]}. Applying the existing PLN risk model to the complete cohort yielded a C-statistic of 0.68 (95% CI 0.61-0.75).

Conclusion: This new mutation-specific prediction model for individual VA risk in PLN p.Arg14del mutation carriers is superior to the existing PLN risk model, suggesting that risk prediction using mutation-specific phenotypic features can improve accuracy compared to a more generic approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab294DOI Listing
June 2021

Left atrial volume and left ventricular mass indices in heart failure with preserved and reduced ejection fraction.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), PO Box 30.001, Groningen, 9700 RB, The Netherlands.

Aims: Two key echocardiographic parameters that are currently used to diagnose heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are left atrial volume index (LAVi) and left ventricular mass index (LVMi). We investigated whether patients' characteristics, biomarkers, and co-morbidities are associated with these parameters and whether the relationships differ between patients with HFpEF or HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).

Methods: We consecutively enrolled 831 outpatients with typical signs and symptoms of HF and elevated N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels and categorized patients based upon left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF): LVEF < 40% (HFrEF), LVEF between 40% and 50% (HF with mid-range ejection fraction), and LVEF ≥ 50% (HFpEF). The study includes consecutively enrolled HF patients from an HF outpatient clinic at a tertiary medical centre in the Netherlands. All patients underwent baseline characterization, laboratory measurements, and echocardiography.

Results: Four hundred sixty-nine patients had HFrEF, 189 HF with mid-range ejection fraction, and 173 HFpEF. The patients with HFrEF were rather male [HFrEF: 323 (69%); HFpEF: 80 (46%); P < 0.001], and the age was comparable (HFrEF 67 ± 13; HFpEF 70 ± 14; P = 0.069). In HFpEF, more patients had hypertension [190 (40.5%); 114 (65.9%); P < 0.001], higher body mass indices (27 ± 8; 30 ± 7; P < 0.001), and atrial fibrillation [194 (41.4); 86 (49.7); P = 0.029]. The correlation analyses showed that in HFrEF patients, LAVi was significantly associated with age (β 0.293; P < 0.001), male gender (β 0.104; P = 0.042), body mass index (β -0160; P = 0.002), diastolic blood pressure (β -0.136; P < 0.001), New York Heart Association (β 0.174; P = 0.001), atrial fibrillation (β 0.381; P < 0.001), galectin 3 (β 0.230; P < 0.001), NT-proBNP (β 0.183; P < 0.001), estimated glomerular filtration rate (β -0.205; P < 0.001), LVEF (β -0.173; P = 0.001), and LVMi (β 0.337; P < 0.001). In HFpEF patients, only age (β 0.326; P < 0.001), atrial fibrillation (β 0.386; P < 0.001), NT-proBNP (β 0.176; P = 0.036), and LVMi (β 0.213; P = 0.013) were associated with LAVi.

Conclusions: Although LVMi and LAVi are hallmark parameters to diagnose HFpEF, they only correlate with a few characteristics of HF and mainly with atrial fibrillation. In contrast, in HFrEF patients, LAVi relates strongly to several other HF parameters. These findings underscore the complexity in visualizing the pathophysiology of HFpEF and question the relation between cardiac structural remodeling and the impact of co-morbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13366DOI Listing
June 2021

Dapagliflozin in heart failure with preserved and mildly reduced ejection fraction: rationale and design of the DELIVER trial.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Aims: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, originally developed as glucose-lowering agents, have been shown to reduce heart failure hospitalizations in patients with type 2 diabetes without established heart failure, and in patients with heart failure with and without diabetes. Their role in patients with heart failure with preserved and mildly reduced ejection fraction remains unknown.

Methods: Dapagliflozin Evaluation to Improve the LIVEs of Patients With PReserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure (DELIVER) is an international, multicentre, parallel group, event-driven, randomized, double-blind trial in patients with chronic heart failure and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) >40%, comparing the effect of dapagliflozin 10 mg once daily, vs. placebo, in addition to standard of care. Patients with or without diabetes, with signs and symptoms of heart failure, a LVEF >40%, elevation in natriuretic peptides and evidence of structural heart disease are eligible. The primary endpoint is time-to-first cardiovascular death or worsening heart failure event (heart failure hospitalization or urgent heart failure visit), and will be assessed in dual primary analyses - the full population and in those with LVEF <60%. The study is event-driven and will target 1117 primary events. A total of 6263 patients have been randomized.

Conclusions: DELIVER will determine the efficacy and safety of the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin, added to conventional therapy, in patients with heart failure and preserved and mildly reduced ejection fraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2249DOI Listing
May 2021

Preclinical Models of Cancer Therapy-Associated Cardiovascular Toxicity: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

Circ Res 2021 May 3:RES0000000000000473. Epub 2021 May 3.

Although cardiovascular toxicity from traditional chemotherapies has been well recognized for decades, the recent explosion of effective novel targeted cancer therapies with cardiovascular sequelae has driven the emergence of cardio-oncology as a new clinical and research field. Cardiovascular toxicity associated with cancer therapy can manifest as a broad range of potentially life-threatening complications, including heart failure, arrhythmia, myocarditis, and vascular events. Beyond toxicology, the intersection of cancer and heart disease has blossomed to include discovery of genetic and environmental risk factors that predispose to both. There is a pressing need to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms of cardiovascular toxicity to improve outcomes in patients with cancer. Preclinical cardiovascular models, ranging from cellular assays to large animals, serve as the foundation for mechanistic studies, with the ultimate goal of identifying biologically sound biomarkers and cardioprotective therapies that allow the optimal use of cancer treatments while minimizing toxicities. Given that novel cancer therapies target specific pathways integral to normal cardiovascular homeostasis, a better mechanistic understanding of toxicity may provide insights into fundamental pathways that lead to cardiovascular disease when dysregulated. The goal of this scientific statement is to summarize the strengths and weaknesses of preclinical models of cancer therapy-associated cardiovascular toxicity, to highlight overlapping mechanisms driving cancer and cardiovascular disease, and to discuss opportunities to leverage cardio-oncology models to address important mechanistic questions relevant to all patients with cardiovascular disease, including those with and without cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/RES.0000000000000473DOI Listing
May 2021

Diagnostic recommendations and phenotyping for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: knowing more and understanding less?

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2205DOI Listing
April 2021

ATPase Inhibitory Factor-1 Disrupts Mitochondrial Ca Handling and Promotes Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy through CaMKIIδ.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 23;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

ATPase inhibitory factor-1 (IF1) preserves cellular ATP under conditions of respiratory collapse, yet the function of IF1 under normal respiring conditions is unresolved. We tested the hypothesis that IF1 promotes mitochondrial dysfunction and pathological cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in the context of heart failure (HF). Methods and results: Cardiac expression of IF1 was increased in mice and in humans with HF, downstream of neurohumoral signaling pathways and in patterns that resembled the fetal-like gene program. Adenoviral expression of wild-type IF1 in primary cardiomyocytes resulted in pathological hypertrophy and metabolic remodeling as evidenced by enhanced mitochondrial oxidative stress, reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity, and the augmentation of extramitochondrial glycolysis. Similar perturbations were observed with an IF1 mutant incapable of binding to ATP synthase (E55A mutation), an indication that these effects occurred independent of binding to ATP synthase. Instead, IF1 promoted mitochondrial fragmentation and compromised mitochondrial Ca handling, which resulted in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca overloading. The effects of IF1 on Ca handling were associated with the cytosolic activation of calcium-calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) and inhibition of CaMKII or co-expression of catalytically dead CaMKIIδC was sufficient to prevent IF1 induced pathological hypertrophy. Conclusions: IF1 represents a novel member of the fetal-like gene program that contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction and pathological cardiac remodeling in HF. Furthermore, we present evidence for a novel, ATP-synthase-independent, role for IF1 in mitochondrial Ca handling and mitochondrial-to-nuclear crosstalk involving CaMKII.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8122940PMC
April 2021

The emerging plasma biomarker Dickkopf-3 (DKK3) and its association with renal and cardiovascular disease in the general population.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 21;11(1):8642. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen, 9713 GZ, The Netherlands.

Dickkopf-3 (DKK3) is an emerging biomarker for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Herein, baseline DKK3 plasma levels were measured in 8420 subjects from the Prevention of Renal and Vascular ENd-stage Disease (PREVEND) cohort, a large general population cohort, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Associations with clinical variables and outcomes were analysed. Median DKK3 level was 32.8 ng/ml (28.0-39.0). In multivariable linear regression analysis, the strongest correlates for plasma DKK3 were age, body mass index and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). At baseline, 564 (6.7%) subjects had CVD (defined as a myocardial infarction and/or cerebrovascular accident) and 1361 (16.2%) subjects had CKD (defined as eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m and/or urinary albumin excretion (UAE) > 30 mg/24 h). Of subjects with known CVD and CKD follow-up status (respectively 7828 and 5548), 669 (8.5%) developed CVD and 951 (17.1%) developed CKD (median follow-up respectively 12.5 and 10.2 years). Crude logistic regression analysis revealed that DKK3 levels were associated with prevalent CVD (Odds ratio: 2.14 [1.76-2.61] per DKK3 doubling, P < 0.001) and CKD (Odds ratio: 1.84 [1.59-2.13] per DKK3 doubling, P < 0.001). In crude Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, higher DKK3 levels were associated with higher risk for new-onset CVD (Hazard ratio: 1.47 [1.13-1.91] per DKK3 doubling, P = 0.004) and CKD (Hazard ratio: 1.45, [1.25-1.69] per DKK3 doubling, P < 0.001). However, these associations remained no longer significant after correction for common clinical variables and risk factors, though independently predicted for new-onset CKD in a subgroup of subjects with the lowest UAE values. Together, DKK3 plasma levels are associated with cardiovascular risk factors, but are generally not independently associated with prevalent and new-onset CVD and CKD and only predicted for new-onset CKD in those subjects with the lowest UAE values.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88107-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8060267PMC
April 2021

Impaired High-Density Lipoprotein Function in Patients With Heart Failure.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 May 17;10(9):e019123. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Pediatrics University of Groningen Groningen The Netherlands.

Background We recently showed that, in patients with heart failure, lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration was a strong predictor of death or hospitalization for heart failure. In a follow-up study, we suggested that this association could be partly explained by HDL proteome composition. However, whether the emerging concept of HDL function contributes to the prognosis of patients with heart failure has not been addressed. Methods and Results We measured 3 key protective HDL function metrics, namely, cholesterol efflux, antioxidative capacity, and anti-inflammatory capacity, at baseline and after 9 months in 446 randomly selected patients with heart failure from BIOSTAT-CHF (A Systems Biology Study to Tailored Treatment in Chronic Heart Failure). Additionally, the relationship between HDL functionality and HDL proteome composition was determined in 86 patients with heart failure. From baseline to 9 months, HDL cholesterol concentrations were unchanged, but HDL cholesterol efflux and anti-inflammatory capacity declined (both <0.001). In contrast, antioxidative capacity increased (<0.001). Higher HDL cholesterol efflux was associated with lower mortality after adjusting for BIOSTAT-CHF risk models and log HDL cholesterol (hazard ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.71-0.92; =0.001). Other functionality measures were not associated with outcome. Several HDL proteins correlated with HDL functionality, mainly with cholesterol efflux. Apolipoprotein A1 emerged as the main protein associated with all 3 HDL functionality measures. Conclusions Better HDL cholesterol efflux at baseline was associated with lower mortality during follow-up, independent of HDL cholesterol. HDL cholesterol efflux and anti-inflammatory capacity declined during follow-up in patients with heart failure. Measures of HDL function may provide clinical information in addition to HDL cholesterol concentration in patients with heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.019123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200730PMC
May 2021

Cardiovascular Risk Factors are Associated with Future Cancer.

JACC CardioOncol 2021 Mar 16;3(1):48-58. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: The extent to which co-occurrence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer is due to shared risk factors or other mechanisms is unknown.

Objectives: We investigated the association of standard CVD risk factors, CVD biomarkers, preexisting CVD, and ideal CV health metrics with the development of future cancer.

Methods: We prospectively followed Framingham Heart Study and PREVEND participants free of cancer at baseline, and ascertained histology-proven cancer. We studied the association of baseline CV risk factors, 10-year atherosclerotic CVD risk score, established CVD biomarkers, prevalent CVD, and AHA Life's Simple 7 CV health score with incident cancer using multivariable Cox models. Analyses of interim CVD events with incident cancer used time-dependent covariates.

Results: Among 20,305 participants (mean age 50 ± 14 years, 54% women), 2,548 incident cancer cases occurred over a median follow-up of 15.0 (13.3-15.0) surveillance years. Traditional CVD risk factors including age, sex, and smoking status were independently associated with cancer (P <0.001 for all). Estimated 10-year atherosclerotic CVD risk was also associated with future cancer (HR 1.16 per 5% increase in risk, 95% CI 1.14-1.17, P<0.001). We found that natriuretic peptides (NP) (tertile 3 vs 1: HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.03-1.91, p=0.035) was associated with incident cancer, but not high sensitivity troponin (hs-cTn) (p=0.47). Prevalent CVD and the development of interim CV events were not associated with higher risk of subsequent cancer. However, ideal CV health was associated with lower future cancer risk (HR 0.95 per 1-point increase in AHA health score, 95% CI 0.92-0.99, p=0.009).

Conclusions: CVD risk as captured by traditional CVD risk factors, 10-year atherosclerotic CVD risk score, and NP concentrations are associated with increased risk of future cancer. Conversely, a heart healthy lifestyle is associated with a reduced risk of future cancer. Our data suggest that the association between CVD and future cancer is attributable to shared risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaccao.2020.12.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8045786PMC
March 2021

The Time Has Come to Explore Plasma Biomarkers in Genetic Cardiomyopathies.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 14;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, AB43, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands.

For patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) or arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM), screening for pathogenic variants has become standard clinical practice. Genetic cascade screening also allows the identification of relatives that carry the same mutation as the proband, but disease onset and severity in mutation carriers often remains uncertain. Early detection of disease onset may allow timely treatment before irreversible changes are present. Although plasma biomarkers may aid in the prediction of disease onset, monitoring relies predominantly on identifying early clinical symptoms, on imaging techniques like echocardiography (Echo) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), and on (ambulatory) electrocardiography (electrocardiograms (ECGs)). In contrast to most other cardiac diseases, which are explained by a combination of risk factors and comorbidities, genetic cardiomyopathies have a clear primary genetically defined cardiac background. Cardiomyopathy cohorts could therefore have excellent value in biomarker studies and in distinguishing biomarkers related to the primary cardiac disease from those related to extracardiac, secondary organ dysfunction. Despite this advantage, biomarker investigations in cardiomyopathies are still limited, most likely due to the limited number of carriers in the past. Here, we discuss not only the potential use of established plasma biomarkers, including natriuretic peptides and troponins, but also the use of novel biomarkers, such as cardiac autoantibodies in genetic cardiomyopathy, and discuss how we can gauge biomarker studies in cardiomyopathy cohorts for heart failure at large.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22062955DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998409PMC
March 2021

Age dependent associations of risk factors with heart failure: pooled population based cohort study.

BMJ 2021 03 23;372:n461. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Cardiovascular Research Center, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA

Objective: To assess age differences in risk factors for incident heart failure in the general population.

Design: Pooled population based cohort study.

Setting: Framingham Heart Study, Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease Study, and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

Participants: 24 675 participants without a history of heart failure stratified by age into young (<55 years; n=11 599), middle aged (55-64 years; n=5587), old (65-74 years; n=5190), and elderly (≥75 years; n=2299) individuals.

Main Outcome Measure: Incident heart failure.

Results: Over a median follow-up of 12.7 years, 138/11 599 (1%), 293/5587 (5%), 538/5190 (10%), and 412/2299 (18%) of young, middle aged, old, and elderly participants, respectively, developed heart failure. In young participants, 32% (n=44) of heart failure cases were classified as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction compared with 43% (n=179) in elderly participants. Risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, current smoking history, and previous myocardial infarction conferred greater relative risk in younger compared with older participants (P for interaction <0.05 for all). For example, hypertension was associated with a threefold increase in risk of future heart failure in young participants (hazard ratio 3.02, 95% confidence interval 2.10 to 4.34; P<0.001) compared with a 1.4-fold risk in elderly participants (1.43, 1.13 to 1.81; P=0.003). The absolute risk for developing heart failure was lower in younger than in older participants with and without risk factors. Importantly, known risk factors explained a greater proportion of overall population attributable risk for heart failure in young participants (75% 53% in elderly participants), with better model performance (C index 0.79 0.64). Similarly, the population attributable risks of obesity (21% 13%), hypertension (35% 23%), diabetes (14% 7%), and current smoking (32% 1%) were higher in young compared with elderly participants.

Conclusions: Despite a lower incidence and absolute risk of heart failure among younger compared with older people, the stronger association and greater attributable risk of modifiable risk factors among young participants highlight the importance of preventive efforts across the adult life course.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7986583PMC
March 2021

Volume Load-Induced Right Ventricular Failure in Rats Is Not Associated With Myocardial Fibrosis.

Front Physiol 2021 26;12:557514. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Center for Congenital Heart Diseases, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Beatrix Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Background: Right ventricular (RV) function and failure are key determinants of morbidity and mortality in various cardiovascular diseases. Myocardial fibrosis is regarded as a contributing factor to heart failure, but its importance in RV failure has been challenged. This study aims to assess whether myocardial fibrosis drives the transition from compensated to decompensated volume load-induced RV dysfunction.

Methods: Wistar rats were subjected to aorto-caval shunt (ACS, = 23) or sham (control, = 15) surgery, and sacrificed after 1 month, 3 months, or 6 months. Echocardiography, RV pressure-volume analysis, assessment of gene expression and cardiac histology were performed.

Results: At 6 months, 6/8 ACS-rats (75%) showed clinical signs of RV failure (pleural effusion, ascites and/or liver edema), whereas at 1 month and 3 months, no signs of RV failure had developed yet. Cardiac output has increased two- to threefold and biventricular dilatation occurred, while LV ejection fraction gradually decreased. At 1 month and 3 months, RV end-systolic elastance (Ees) remained unaltered, but at 6 months, RV Ees had decreased substantially. In the RV, no oxidative stress, inflammation, pro-fibrotic signaling (TGFβ1 and pSMAD2/3), or fibrosis were present at any time point.

Conclusions: In the ACS rat model, long-term volume load was initially well tolerated at 1 month and 3 months, but induced overt clinical signs of end-stage RV failure at 6 months. However, no myocardial fibrosis or increased pro-fibrotic signaling had developed. These findings indicate that myocardial fibrosis is not involved in the transition from compensated to decompensated RV dysfunction in this model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.557514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7952521PMC
February 2021

Re-appraisal of the obesity paradox in heart failure: a meta-analysis of individual data.

Clin Res Cardiol 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Cardiology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 5800, 6202AZ, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background: Higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with better outcome compared with normal weight in patients with HF and other chronic diseases. It remains uncertain whether the apparent protective role of obesity relates to the absence of comorbidities. Therefore, we investigated the effect of BMI on outcome in younger patients without co-morbidities as compared to older patients with co-morbidities in a large heart failure (HF) population.

Methods: In an individual patient data analysis from pooled cohorts, 5,819 patients with chronic HF and data available on BMI, co-morbidities and outcome were analysed. Patients were divided into four groups based on BMI (i.e. ≤ 18.5 kg/m, 18.5-25.0 kg/m; 25.0-30.0 kg/m; 30.0 kg/m). Primary endpoints included all-cause mortality and HF hospitalization-free survival.

Results: Mean age was 65 ± 12 years, with a majority of males (78%), ischaemic HF and HF with reduced ejection fraction. Frequency of all-cause mortality or HF hospitalization was significantly worse in the lowest two BMI groups as compared to the other two groups; however, this effect was only seen in patients older than 75 years or having at least one relevant co-morbidity, and not in younger patients with HF only. After including medications and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin concentrations into the model, the prognostic impact of BMI was largely absent even in the elderly group with co-morbidity.

Conclusions: The present study suggests that obesity is a marker of less advanced disease, but does not have an independent protective effect in patients with chronic HF. Categories of BMI are only predictive of poor outcome in patients aged > 75 years or with at least one co-morbidity (bottom), but not in those aged < 75 years without co-morbidities (top). The prognostic effect largely disappears in multivariable analyses even for the former group. These findings question the protective effect of obesity in chronic heart failure (HF).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00392-021-01822-1DOI Listing
March 2021

Therapeutic Potential of Ketone Bodies for Patients With Cardiovascular Disease: JACC State-of-the-Art Review.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Apr 23;77(13):1660-1669. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Cardiology, Groningen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Metabolic perturbations underlie a variety of cardiovascular disease states; yet, metabolic interventions to prevent or treat these disorders are sparse. Ketones carry a negative clinical stigma as they are involved in diabetic ketoacidosis. However, evidence from both experimental and clinical research has uncovered a protective role for ketones in cardiovascular disease. Although ketones may provide supplemental fuel for the energy-starved heart, their cardiovascular effects appear to extend far beyond cardiac energetics. Indeed, ketone bodies have been shown to influence a variety of cellular processes including gene transcription, inflammation and oxidative stress, endothelial function, cardiac remodeling, and cardiovascular risk factors. This paper reviews the bioenergetic and pleiotropic effects of ketone bodies that could potentially contribute to its cardiovascular benefits based on evidence from animal and human studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.12.065DOI Listing
April 2021

Association of beta-hydroxybutyrate with development of heart failure: Sex differences in a Dutch population cohort.

Eur J Clin Invest 2021 May 18;51(5):e13468. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: In the failing heart, energy metabolism is shifted towards increased ketone body oxidation. Nevertheless, the association of beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) with development of heart failure (HF) remains unclear. We investigated the association between plasma β-OHB and the risk of HF in a prospective population-based cohort.

Design: Plasma β-OHB concentrations were measured in 6134 participants of the PREVEND study. Risk of incident HF with reduced (HFrEF) or preserved (HFpEF) ejection fraction was estimated using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models.

Results: During median follow-up for 8.2 years, 227 subjects were diagnosed with HF (137 with HFrEF; 90 with HFpEF). Cox regression analyses revealed a significant association of higher β-OHB concentrations with incident HF (HR per 1 standard deviation increase, 1.40 (95% CI: 1.21-1.63; P < .001), which was largely attributable to HFrEF. In women, the hazard ratio (HR) for HFrEF per 1 standard deviation increase in β-OHB was 1.73 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-2.56, P = .005) in age, BMI, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, myocardial infarction, smoking, alcohol consumption, total cholesterol, HDL-C, triglycerides, glucose, eGFR and UAE adjusted analysis. In men, in the same fully adjusted analysis, the HR was 1.14 (CI: 0.86-1.53, P = .36) (P < .01 for sex interaction). In N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)-stratified analysis, the age-adjusted association with HF was significant in women with higher NT-proBNP levels (P = .008).

Conclusions: This prospective study suggests that high plasma concentrations of β-OHB are associated with an increased risk of HFrEF, particularly in women. The mechanisms responsible for the sex differences of this association warrant further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eci.13468DOI Listing
May 2021

Risk stratification and management of women with cardiomyopathy/heart failure planning pregnancy or presenting during/after pregnancy: a position statement from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology Study Group on Peripartum Cardiomyopathy.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 Apr 17;23(4):527-540. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

This position paper focusses on the pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of women diagnosed with a cardiomyopathy, or at risk of heart failure (HF), who are planning to conceive or present with (de novo or previously unknown) HF during or after pregnancy. This includes the heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases such as hypertrophic, dilated, arrhythmogenic right ventricular and non-classified cardiomyopathies, left ventricular non-compaction, peripartum cardiomyopathy, Takotsubo syndrome, adult congenital heart disease with HF, and patients with right HF. Also, patients with a history of chemo-/radiotherapy for cancer or haematological malignancies need specific pre-, during and post-pregnancy assessment and counselling. We summarize the current knowledge about pathophysiological mechanisms, including gene mutations, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and medical and device management, as well as risk stratification. Women with a known diagnosis of a cardiomyopathy will often require continuation of drug therapy, which has the potential to exert negative effects on the foetus. This position paper assists in balancing benefits and detrimental effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2133DOI Listing
April 2021

Dapagliflozin in HFrEF Patients Treated With Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists: An Analysis of DAPA-HF.

JACC Heart Fail 2021 Apr 3;9(4):254-264. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

BHF Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin in patients taking or not taking an mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) at baseline in the DAPA-HF (Dapagliflozin And Prevention of Adverse outcomes in Heart Failure) trial.

Background: MRAs and sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors each have diuretic activity, lower blood pressure, and reduce glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Therefore, it is important to investigate the safety, as well as efficacy, of their combination.

Methods: A total of 4,744 patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) were randomized to placebo or dapagliflozin 10 mg daily. The efficacy of dapagliflozin on the primary composite outcome (cardiovascular death or episode of worsening heart failure) and its components was examined according to MRA use, as were predefined safety outcomes.

Results: A total of 3,370 patients (71%) were treated with an MRA and they were younger (65 vs. 69 years of age), less often from North America (9% vs. 26%), had worse New York Heart Association functional class (35% vs. 25% in class III/IV), lower left ventricular ejection fraction (30.7% vs. 31.9%) and systolic blood pressure (120.3 vs. 125.5 mm Hg), but higher estimated GFR (67.1 vs. 62.6 ml/min/1.73 m), than patients not taking an MRA. The benefit of dapagliflozin compared with placebo was similar in patients taking or not taking an MRA: hazard ratio: 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63 to 0.87) versus 0.74 (95% CI: 0.57 to 0.95), respectively, for the primary endpoint (p value for interaction = 0.97); similar findings were observed for secondary endpoints. In both MRA subgroups, safety outcomes were similar in patients randomized to dapagliflozin or placebo.

Conclusions: Dapagliflozin was similarly efficacious and safe in patients with HFrEF taking or not taking an MRA, supporting the use of both drugs together. (Study to Evaluate the Effect of Dapagliflozin on the Incidence of Worsening Heart Failure or Cardiovascular Death in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure [DAPA-HF]; NCT03036124).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2020.11.009DOI Listing
April 2021

What You Did Not Know About Cardiac Ca Handling: Lysosomes and Oxidized PKA.

Circulation 2021 Feb 1;143(5):466-469. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.052677DOI Listing
February 2021

Shared genetic pathways contribute to risk of hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies with opposite directions of effect.

Nat Genet 2021 02 25;53(2):128-134. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London, UK.

The heart muscle diseases hypertrophic (HCM) and dilated (DCM) cardiomyopathies are leading causes of sudden death and heart failure in young, otherwise healthy, individuals. We conducted genome-wide association studies and multi-trait analyses in HCM (1,733 cases), DCM (5,521 cases) and nine left ventricular (LV) traits (19,260 UK Biobank participants with structurally normal hearts). We identified 16 loci associated with HCM, 13 with DCM and 23 with LV traits. We show strong genetic correlations between LV traits and cardiomyopathies, with opposing effects in HCM and DCM. Two-sample Mendelian randomization supports a causal association linking increased LV contractility with HCM risk. A polygenic risk score explains a significant portion of phenotypic variability in carriers of HCM-causing rare variants. Our findings thus provide evidence that polygenic risk score may account for variability in Mendelian diseases. More broadly, we provide insights into how genetic pathways may lead to distinct disorders through opposing genetic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00762-2DOI Listing
February 2021

Relationship between body mass index, cardiovascular biomarkers and incident heart failure.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 Mar 8;23(3):396-402. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Aims: There are limited data examining whether body mass index (BMI) influences the association between cardiovascular biomarkers and incident heart failure (HF).

Methods And Results: Thirteen biomarkers representing key HF domains were measured: N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), mid-regional pro-A-type natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, galectin-3, C-terminal pro-endothelin-1 (CT-proET-1), mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, copeptin, renin, aldosterone, and cystatin-C. Associations of biomarkers with BMI were examined using linear regression models, and with incident HF using Cox regression models. We selected biomarkers significantly associated with incident HF, and evaluated whether BMI modified these associations. Among 8202 individuals, 41% were overweight (BMI 25-30 kg/m ), and 16% were obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m ). Mean age of the cohort was 49 years (range 28-75), and 50% were women. All biomarkers except renin were associated with BMI: inverse associations were observed with NT-proBNP, MR-proANP, CT-proET-1 and aldosterone whereas positive associations were observed with the remaining biomarkers (all P ≤ 0.001). During 11.3 ± 3.1 years of follow-up, 357 HF events were recorded. Only NT-proBNP, MR-proANP and cTnT remained associated with incident HF (P < 0.001), and a significant biomarker*BMI interaction was not observed (interaction P > 0.1). Combined NT-proBNP and cTnT measurements modestly improved performance metrics of the clinical HF model in overweight (ΔC-statistic = 0.024; likelihood ratio χ  = 38; P < 0.001) and obese (ΔC-statistic = 0.020; likelihood ratio χ  = 32; P < 0.001) individuals.

Conclusions: Plasma concentrations of several cardiovascular biomarkers are influenced by obesity. Only NT-proBNP, MR-proANP and cTnT were associated with incident HF, and BMI did not modify these associations. A combination of NT-proBNP and cTnT improves HF risk prediction in overweight and obese individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2102DOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of dapagliflozin in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an analysis of DAPA-HF.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 Apr 18;23(4):632-643. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

BHF Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Aims: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important comorbidity in heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), associated with worse outcomes and often suboptimal treatment because of under-prescription of beta-blockers. Consequently, additional effective therapies are especially relevant in patients with COPD. The aim of this study was to examine outcomes related to COPD in a post hoc analysis of the Dapagliflozin And Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure (DAPA-HF) trial.

Methods And Results: We examined whether the effects of dapagliflozin in DAPA-HF were modified by COPD status. The primary outcome was the composite of an episode of worsening HF or cardiovascular death. Overall, 585 (12.3%) of the 4744 patients randomized had a history of COPD. Patients with COPD were more likely to be older men with a history of smoking, worse renal function, and higher baseline N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, and less likely to be treated with a beta-blocker or mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. The incidence of the primary outcome was higher in patients with COPD than in those without [18.9 (95% confidence interval 16.0-22.2) vs. 13.0 (12.1-14.0) per 100 person-years; hazard ratio (HR) for COPD vs. no COPD 1.44 (1.21-1.72); P < 0.001]. The effect of dapagliflozin, compared with placebo, on the primary outcome, was consistent in patients with [HR 0.67 (95% confidence interval 0.48-0.93)] and without COPD [0.76 (0.65-0.87); interaction P-value 0.47].

Conclusions: In DAPA-HF, one in eight patients with HFrEF had concomitant COPD. Participants with COPD had a higher risk of the primary outcome. The benefit of dapagliflozin on all pre-specified outcomes was consistent in patients with and without COPD.

Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT03036124.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2083DOI Listing
April 2021

Ketone Ester Treatment Improves Cardiac Function and Reduces Pathologic Remodeling in Preclinical Models of Heart Failure.

Circ Heart Fail 2021 Jan 28;14(1):e007684. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, the Netherlands (S.R.Y., H.H.W.S., K.T.N., D.J.v.V., R.A.d.B., B.D.W.).

Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that the failing heart reprograms fuel metabolism toward increased utilization of ketone bodies and that increasing cardiac ketone delivery ameliorates cardiac dysfunction. As an initial step toward development of ketone therapies, we investigated the effect of chronic oral ketone ester (KE) supplementation as a prevention or treatment strategy in rodent heart failure models.

Methods: Two independent rodent heart failure models were used for the studies: transverse aortic constriction/myocardial infarction (MI) in mice and post-MI remodeling in rats. Seventy-five mice underwent a prevention treatment strategy with a KE comprised of hexanoyl-hexyl-3-hydroxybutyrate KE (KE-1) diet, and 77 rats were treated in either a prevention or treatment regimen using a commercially available β-hydroxybutyrate-(R)-1,3-butanediol monoester (DeltaG; KE-2) diet.

Results: The KE-1 diet in mice elevated β-hydroxybutyrate levels during nocturnal feeding, whereas the KE-2 diet in rats induced ketonemia throughout a 24-hour period. The KE-1 diet preventive strategy attenuated development of left ventricular dysfunction and remodeling post-transverse aortic constriction/MI (left ventricular ejection fraction±SD, 36±8 in vehicle versus 45±11 in KE-1; =0.016). The KE-2 diet therapeutic approach also attenuated left ventricular dysfunction and remodeling post-MI (left ventricular ejection fraction, 41±11 in MI-vehicle versus 61±7 in MI-KE-2; <0.001). In addition, ventricular weight, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area, and the expression of ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide) were significantly attenuated in the KE-2-treated MI group. However, treatment with KE-2 did not influence cardiac fibrosis post-MI. The myocardial expression of the ketone transporter and 2 ketolytic enzymes was significantly increased in rats fed KE-2 diet along with normalization of myocardial ATP levels to sham values.

Conclusions: Chronic oral supplementation with KE was effective in both prevention and treatment of heart failure in 2 preclinical animal models. In addition, our results indicate that treatment with KE reprogrammed the expression of genes involved in ketone body utilization and normalized myocardial ATP production following MI, consistent with provision of an auxiliary fuel. These findings provide rationale for the assessment of KEs as a treatment for patients with heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.120.007684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7819534PMC
January 2021

Dapagliflozin and the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Patients With Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: An Exploratory Analysis From DAPA-HF.

Diabetes Care 2021 Feb 18;44(2):586-594. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

BHF Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, U.K.

Objective: The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin reduced the risk of cardiovascular mortality and worsening heart failure in the Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Heart Failure (DAPA-HF) trial. This report explores the effect of dapagliflozin on incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the cohort without diabetes enrolled in the trial.

Research Design And Methods: The subgroup of 2,605 patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), no prior history of diabetes, and an HbA of <6.5% at baseline was randomized to dapagliflozin 10 mg daily or placebo. In this exploratory analysis, surveillance for new-onset diabetes was accomplished through periodic HbA testing as part of the study protocol and comparison between the treatment groups assessed through a Cox proportional hazards model.

Results: At baseline, the mean HbA was 5.8%. At 8 months, there were minimal changes, with a placebo-adjusted change in the dapagliflozin group of -0.04%. Over a median follow-up of 18 months, diabetes developed in 93 of 1,307 patients (7.1%) in the placebo group and 64 of 1,298 (4.9%) in the dapagliflozin group. Dapagliflozin led to a 32% reduction in diabetes incidence (hazard ratio 0.68, 95% CI 0.50-0.94; = 0.019). More than 95% of the participants who developed T2D had prediabetes at baseline (HbA 5.7-6.4%). Participants who developed diabetes in DAPA-HF had a higher subsequent mortality than those who did not.

Conclusions: In this exploratory analysis among patients with HFrEF, treatment with dapagliflozin reduced the incidence of new diabetes. This potential benefit needs confirmation in trials of longer duration and in people without heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-1675DOI Listing
February 2021

Plasma creatine and incident type 2 diabetes in a general population-based cohort: The PREVEND study.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2021 Apr 10;94(4):563-574. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Type 2 diabetes is associated with both impaired insulin action at target tissues and impaired insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction may play a role in both insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. Plasma creatine has been proposed as a potential marker for mitochondrial dysfunction. We aimed to investigate the association between plasma creatine and incident type 2 diabetes.

Methods: We measured fasting plasma creatine concentrations by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in participants of the general population-based PREVEND study. The study outcome was incident type 2 diabetes, defined as a fasting plasma glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dl); a random sample plasma glucose ≥11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dl); self-report of a physician diagnosis or the use of glucose-lowering medications based on a central pharmacy registration. Associations of plasma creatine with type 2 diabetes were quantified using Cox proportional hazards models and were adjusted for potential confounders.

Results: We included 4735 participants aged 52 ± 11 years, of whom 49% were male. Mean plasma creatine concentrations were 36.7 ± 17.6 µmol/L, with lower concentrations in males than in females (30.4 ± 15.1 µmol/L vs. 42.7 ± 17.7 µmol/L; p for difference <.001). During 7.3 [6.2-7.7] years of follow-up, 235 (5.4%) participants developed type 2 diabetes. Higher plasma creatine concentrations were associated with an increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes (HR per SD change: 1.27 [95% CI: 1.11-1.44]; p < .001), independent of potential confounders. This association was strongly modified by sex (p interaction <.001). Higher plasma creatine was associated with an increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes in males (HR: 1.40 [1.17-1.67]; p < .001), but not in females (HR: 1.10 [0.90-1.34]; p = .37).

Conclusion: Fasting plasma creatine concentrations are lower in males than in females. Higher plasma creatine is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in males.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cen.14396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8048485PMC
April 2021

Fighting HFpEF in women: taking aim at belly fat.

Eur Heart J 2021 04;42(16):1606-1608

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa952DOI Listing
April 2021

Being in Two Minds-The Challenge of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction Diagnosis with a Single Biomarker.

Clin Chem 2021 Jan;67(1):46-49

University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Cardiology, Groningen, the Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/clinchem/hvaa255DOI Listing
January 2021

Discovery of rare variants associated with blood pressure regulation through meta-analysis of 1.3 million individuals.

Nat Genet 2020 12 23;52(12):1314-1332. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.

Genetic studies of blood pressure (BP) to date have mainly analyzed common variants (minor allele frequency > 0.05). In a meta-analysis of up to ~1.3 million participants, we discovered 106 new BP-associated genomic regions and 87 rare (minor allele frequency ≤ 0.01) variant BP associations (P < 5 × 10), of which 32 were in new BP-associated loci and 55 were independent BP-associated single-nucleotide variants within known BP-associated regions. Average effects of rare variants (44% coding) were ~8 times larger than common variant effects and indicate potential candidate causal genes at new and known loci (for example, GATA5 and PLCB3). BP-associated variants (including rare and common) were enriched in regions of active chromatin in fetal tissues, potentially linking fetal development with BP regulation in later life. Multivariable Mendelian randomization suggested possible inverse effects of elevated systolic and diastolic BP on large artery stroke. Our study demonstrates the utility of rare-variant analyses for identifying candidate genes and the results highlight potential therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00713-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610439PMC
December 2020

Left ventricular dysfunction in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction-molecular mechanisms and impact on right ventricular function.

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2020 Oct;10(5):1541-1560

DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Berlin, Germany.

The current classification of heart failure (HF) based on left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) identifies a large group of patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) with significant morbidity and mortality but without prognostic benefit from current HF therapy. Co-morbidities and conditions such as arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, adiposity and aging shape the clinical phenotype and contribute to mortality. LV diastolic dysfunction and LV structural remodeling are hallmarks of HFpEF, and are linked to remodeling of the cardiomyocyte and extracellular matrix. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) are particularly common in HFpEF, and mortality is up to 10-fold higher in HFpEF patients with without RV dysfunction. Here, we review alterations in cardiomyocyte function (i.e., ion homeostasis, sarcomere function and cellular metabolism) associated with diastolic dysfunction and summarize the main underlying cellular pathways. The contribution and interaction of systemic and regional upstream signaling such as chronic inflammation, neurohumoral activation, and NO-cGMP-related pathways are outlined in detail, and their diagnostic and therapeutic potential is discussed in the context of preclinical and clinical studies. In addition, we summarize prevalence and pathomechanisms of RV dysfunction in the context of HFpEF and discuss mechanisms connecting LV and RV dysfunction in HFpEF. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms of LV and RV dysfunction in HFpEF may provide a basis for an improved classification of HFpEF and for therapeutic approaches tailored to the molecular phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/cdt-20-477DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7666919PMC
October 2020