Publications by authors named "Ruchilak Rattarom"

4 Publications

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The anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of Benjakul extract (a Thai traditional medicine), its constituent plants and its some pure constituents using in vitro experiments.

Biomed Pharmacother 2017 May 10;89:1018-1026. Epub 2017 Mar 10.

Department of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Klongluang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand; Center of Excellence in Applied Thai Traditional Medicine Research (CEATMR), Thammasat University, Klongluang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand. Electronic address:

Benjakul (BJK), a Thai traditional medicine preparation, has long been used for balanced health, controlled abnormal of element in the body, carminative, and relief of flatulence. It is composed of five plants: Piper interruptum Opiz., Piper longum L., Piper sarmentosum Roxb., Plumbago indica L., and Zingiber officinale Roscoe. The ethanolic extracts of BJK, its five individual plants, and pure constituents of BJK were investigated for their anti-allergic activity using immunoglobulin E (IgE)-sensitized β-hexosaminidase in the rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 (RBL-2H3) cells and anti-inflammatory activity using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) cells. The ethanolic extracts of BJK showed anti-allergic activity (IC=12.69μg/ml) and exhibited potent NO inhibitory effect (IC=16.60μg/ml), but inactive on TNF-α release. Moreover, 6-shogaol and plumbagin, two pure compounds from BJK, showed higher anti-allergic activity than the ethanolic BJK extract with IC values of 0.28 and 4.03μg/ml, respectively. These compounds were significantly higher than chlorpheniramine (CPM), standard drug, with IC value of 17.98μg/ml. Determination of the anti-inflammatory activity by measuring the inhibition of NO production presented that plumbagin and 6-shogaol exhibited higher than crude BJK extract with IC values of 0.002 and 0.92μg/ml, respectively. In particular, plumbagin also showed higher anti-inflammatory than prednisolone, positive control, with IC value of 0.59μg/ml. 6-Shogaol also showed inhibitory effect on TNF-α release (IC=9.16μg/ml). These preliminary results may provide some scientific support for the use of BJK for the anti-allergic treatment and inflammatory disorders through the inhibition of NO production.
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May 2017

Cytotoxic activity against small cell lung cancer cell line and chromatographic fingerprinting of six isolated compounds from the ethanolic extract of Benjakul.

J Med Assoc Thai 2014 Aug;97 Suppl 8:S70-5

Background: Benjakul, a Thai traditional herbal preparation, comnprises five plants: Piper chaba, Piper sarmentosum, Piper interruptum, Plumbago indica, and Zingiber officinale. It has widely been used to treat cancer patients in folk medicine in Thailand. Benjakul extract, and its isolated compounds should be investigated for cytotoxic activity and analysis isolated compounds from chemical fingerprinting.

Objective: To study cytotoxicity ofBenjakul extract and its isolatedpure compounds against human small cell lung cancer cell line (NCI-HI 688) and in normal human lungfibroblast cell line (MRC-5) and analysis the content ofisolated compounds for quality control of Benjakul extract.

Material And Method: Bioassay-guided fractionation was used for isolated active compounds from ethanolic extract of Benjakul. Cytotoxic activity was carried using the SRB assay. HPLC method was applied to analyze six isolated compound contentfrom Benjakul extract.

Results: The ethanolic extract ofBenjakul showed cytotoxicity against NCI-H1688 with IC50 value = 36.15±4.35 μg/ml. Hexane fraction as semi-separation by VLC showed the best cytotoxic activity (21.1 7±7.42 μg/ml). Six isolated compounds were identified as myristicin, plumbagin, methyl piperate, 6-shogaol, 6-gingerol and piperine. Plumbagin exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity and 6-shogaol was the second most effective cytotoxic constituent (IC50 values = 1.41±0.01 and 6.45±0.19 μg/ml, respectively). Piperine showed the highest content in both ofHPLC analysis and column chromatography separation.

Conclusion: Benjakul extract exhibited cytotoxicity against NCI-HI 688. Plumbagin and 6-shogaol are bioactive markers for cytotoxicity against this small cell lung cancer cell line. Chromatographic fingerprinting can be used to analyze six cytotoxic compounds isolatedfrom the ethanolic extract ofBenjakul.
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August 2014

In vitro cytotoxic activity of Benjakul herbal preparation and its active compounds against human lung, cervical and liver cancer cells.

J Med Assoc Thai 2012 Jan;95 Suppl 1:S127-34

Department of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, Thailand.

Background: Benjakul [BEN], a Thai Traditional medicine preparation, is composed of five plants: Piper chaba fruit [PC], Piper sarmentosum root [PS], Piper interruptum stem [PI], Plumbago indica root [PL] and Zingiber officinale rhizome [ZO]. From selective interviews of folk doctors in Southern Thailand, it was found that Benjakul has been used for cancer patients.

Objective: To investigate cytotoxicity activity of Benjakul preparation [BEN] and its ingredients against three human cancer cell lines, large lung carcinoma cell line (COR-L23), cervical cancer cell line (Hela) liver cancer cell line (HepG2) as compared with normal lungfibroblast cell (MRC-5) by using SRB assay.

Material And Method: The extraction as imitated the method used by folk doctors was done by maceration in ethanol and boiling in water Bioassay guided isolation was used isolated cytotoxic compound.

Results: The ethanolic extracts of PL, ZO, PC, PS, BEN and PS showed specific activity against lung cancer cell (IC50 = 3.4, 7.9, 15.8, 18.4, 19.8 and 32.91 microg/ml) but all the water extracts had no cytotoxic activity. Three active ingredients [6-gingerol, plumbagin and piperine as 0.54, 4.18 and 7.48% w/w yield of crude extract respectively] were isolated from the ethanolic extract of BEN and they also showed cytotoxic activity with plumbagin showing the highest cytotoxic activity against COR-L23, HepG2, Hela and MRC-5 (IC50 = 2.55, 2.61, 4.16 and 11.54 microM respectively).

Conclusion: These data results may support the Thai traditional doctors who are using Benjakul to treat cancer patients and three of its constituents (6-gingerol, plumbagin and piperine) are suggested to be used as biomarkers for standardization of this preparation.
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January 2012

Economic analysis of the diabetes and hypertension screening collaboration between community pharmacies and a Thai government primary care unit.

Prim Care Diabetes 2010 Oct 16;4(3):155-64. Epub 2010 Jun 16.

Primary Care Practice Research Unit, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahasarakham University, Maha Sarakham Province 44150, Thailand.

Aims: To evaluate models for collaboration between community pharmacies and a government primary care unit (PCU) in carrying out a screening program for diabetes and hypertension.

Methods: An action research was undertaken and a screening and referring protocol developed. Study sites were two community pharmacies (Model 1) and footpaths/streets and seven communities (Model 2) under supervision of PCU in the city of Maha Sarakham Province, Thailand. The Combined Model consisted of Models 1 and 2. Those eligible were aged 40 years and over, not known to have diabetes or hypertension. Activity based costing of three models was analyzed from the provider perspective.

Results: The study involved 456 people during July-September 2007; 11 out of 51 attending pharmacies (21.6%) and 27 out of 405 attending the communities (6.6%) met criteria for referral to PCU for confirmatory diagnosis. Only six attended the PCU. Two of 456 (0.4%) were confirmed the diagnosis having hypertension, one was referred from a pharmacy (2%, 1/51) the other from a community (0.2%, 1/405). Model unit costs were US$ 11.2, 4.3 and 5.1 per screened person, respectively.

Conclusions: The results indicate a working model can identify people in the community requiring treatment of hypertension or diabetes. Pharmacy-based screening was more costly, but the success rate for referral was higher compared with a community-based service. More effort is needed to ensure referred patients attend the PCU.
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October 2010