Publications by authors named "Rubina Mushtaq"

4 Publications

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First Record of Chaetomium globosum Causing Leaf Spot of Pomegranate in Pakistan.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Lahore, Pakistan;

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a non-climacteric and a favorite fruit of tropical, sub-tropical and arid regions of the world. During a survey in autumn 2019, leaf lesions were observed on plants (cv. Kandhari) in different orchards of Muzaffargarh (30°4'27.7572″ N, 71°11'4.7544″ E), a major pomegranate-producing region in Punjab Province. Disease incidence ranged from 17 to 20%. Leaf lesions were initially small (1 to 3 mm in diameter), round, purple or reddish-brown, scattered spots. At later stages, spots increased in size and the centers of mature lesions became dark red or black with fungal sporulation. To isolate the pathogen, samples of leaf (5 × 5 mm) were cut from the junction of diseased and healthy tissue, surface disinfected in 75% alcohol for 30 s, sterilized with 6% sodium hypochlorite for 3 min, washed with sterile distilled water three times, air dried in laminar flow hood, and cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA). After one week of incubation at 25 ± 2°C with a 12-h photoperiod, fungal colonies developed, which were initially white and became pale yellow with olivaceous green mycelium after 20 days. On PDA, ascomata were olivaceous green, with a papillate ostiole, globose or ovoidal to obovoidal (155 to 220 × 120 to 240 µm, n=50). Terminal and lateral setae were abundant, brown, and tapering toward the tips (4 to 6 µm, n=50). Asci were greenish and lemon-shaped (6 to 8 × 9 to 13.5 µm, n=50). Ascospores were limoniform and olivaceous gray-brown (10 to 11.5 × 7 to 9 µm, n=50). These morphological characteristics were consistent with the morphology of Chaetomium globosum (Lan et al. 2011; Wang et al. 2016). Genomic DNA was extracted from two isolates and identification of the pathogen was confirmed by amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and the partial translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1) gene using ITS1/ITS4 (White et al. 1999) and EF1-983F/EF1-2218R primers (Wang et al. 2016), respectively. The sequences of the PCR products were deposited in GenBank with accession numbers MW522514, MW522352 (ITS), and MW530423, MW530424 (TEF1). BLAST results of the obtained sequences of the ITS and TEF1 genes revealed 100% (513/513 bp) and 99.78% (927/929 bp) similarity with those of C. globosum in GenBank (ITS: KX834823 and KT898637, and TEF1: MG812564 and KC485028). To confirm pathogenicity, inoculum was prepared by harvesting conidia from 10-day-old culture grown in PDA. The surface-disinfected (70% ethyl alcohol, 30 s) leaves of ten 1-year-old seedlings (cv. Kandhari) were sprayed with a spore suspension (1×106 conidia/ml). Leaves of ten seedlings sprayed with sterile distilled water served as controls. All seedlings were covered with plastic bags and placed in a greenhouse at 26°C with 12 h photoperiod. After eight days, symptoms on inoculated leaves were similar to those observed in the orchards; no symptoms were observed on controls. The fungus was reisolated from all symptomatic tissues. C. globosum has been reported on Punica granatum (Guo et al. 2015), Cannabis sativa (Chaffin et al. 2020) and Brassica oleracea (Zhu et al. 2020). This is the first report of C. globosum causing leaf spot on pomegranate in Pakistan. This finding suggests a potential threat to pomegranate production in Pakistan and further studies should focus on effective prevention and control practices of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-01-21-0200-PDNDOI Listing
March 2021

The role of inflammatory markers following Ramadan Fasting.

Pak J Med Sci 2019 Jan-Feb;35(1):77-81

Shabbir Ahmed PhD. Research Scholars, Department of Zoology, Federal Urdu University of Arts Science and Technology, Gulshan e Iqbal Campus, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objectives: The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of fasting during Ramadan on plasma adiponectin and TNF-α levels.

Methods: This is a cross sectional study, conducted at Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science & Technology (FUUAST), Karachi, comprising a total of 55 (50%) females and 55 (50%) males whose ages ranged between 20 and 40 years, and fasted during Ramadan (June-July 2014) were enrolled in the study. Subjects were separated into normal weight, overweight and obese males and females. Anthropometric measurements and Fasting venous blood samples were taken at first and last (29) day of Ramadan. Plasma adiponectin and TNF-alpha levels were assayed with ELISA kits. All values were calculated and presented as mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM) and by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures. P values < 0.05 were accepted as significant.

Results: Body mass index (BMI) (Kg/m2) in over-weight and obese male subjects exhibited considerable reduction (P<0.05; P<0.05), post Ramadan when compared to their respective pre Ramadan fasting weights. Noticeable and significant reduction was also observed in BMI of obese females (P<0.05). Post Ramadan Overweight Males (P<0.05) and Post Ramadan Obese Males (P<0.001) exhibited significantly elevated plasma adiponectin (μg/mL) values. While plasma adiponectin mean concentration of only obese females were significantly improved at last week of Ramadan (P<0.01). Fasting in Ramadan significantly decreased TNF-α (pg/mL) levels of post obese males and females than Pre-Ramadan-groups (P<0.05; P<0.01) respectively.

Conclusion: The study reports of noticeable changes with Ramadan fasting resulting increase of plasma adiponectin and decrease of TNF-α levels as well as body weight. The study strongly suggests further investigations on larger sample sizes with possible association of dietary restrictions and weight loss on mechanism of enhanced adiponectin and reduced TNF-α in obese and overweight persons who fast on Ramadan pattern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12669/pjms.35.1.95DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6408667PMC
March 2019

Domain III of Cry1Ac Is Critical to Binding and Toxicity against Soybean Looper (Chrysodeixis includens) but Not to Velvetbean Caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis).

Toxins (Basel) 2018 02 27;10(3). Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.

Insecticidal proteins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ac7 from the bacterium (Bt) belong to the three-domain family of Bt toxins. Commercial transgenic soybean hybrids produce Cry1Ac to control the larvae of the soybean looper () and the velvet bean caterpillar (). The specificity of Cry1Ac is determined by loops extending from domain II and regions of domain III in the three-dimensional structure of the toxin. In this study, we constructed a hybrid toxin (H1.2Ac) containing domains I and II of Cry1Ac and domain III of Cry2Ac7, in an attempt to obtain a protein with enhanced toxicity compared to parental toxins. Bioassays with H1.2Ac revealed toxicity against the larvae of but not against . Saturation binding assays with radiolabeled toxins and midgut brush border membrane vesicles demonstrated no specific H1.2Ac binding to , while binding in was specific and saturable. Results from competition binding assays supported the finding that Cry1Ac specificity against is mainly dictated by domain II. Taken together, these distinct interactions with binding sites may help explain the differential susceptibility to Cry1Ac in and , and guide the design of improved toxins against soybean pests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins10030095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5869383PMC
February 2018

Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ie2, Cry2Ac7, Vip3Aa11 and Cry7Ab3 proteins against Anticarsia gemmatalis, Chrysodeixis includens and Ceratoma trifurcata.

J Invertebr Pathol 2017 11 14;150:70-72. Epub 2017 Sep 14.

Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA. Electronic address:

Transgenic soybean producing the Cry1Ac insecticidal protein from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis is used to control larvae of the velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner) and the soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker)]. The main threat to the sustainability of this technology is the development of resistance, which could be delayed by using pyramiding of diverse Bt insecticidal genes. We report high activity of Cry2Ac7 and Vip3Aa11 but not Cry1Ie2 against larvae of A. gemmatalis and C. includens. In addition, we also report anti-feeding activity of Cry1Ie2 and Cry7Ab3 in adults of the bean leaf beetle [Ceratoma trifurcata (Foster)], an alternative pest of soybean.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jip.2017.09.009DOI Listing
November 2017