Publications by authors named "Ru Zhang"

449 Publications

Prediction of the Active Components and Mechanism of Leaf against Respiratory Syncytial Virus Based on Network Pharmacology.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 20;2022:5643345. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Shandong Academy of Chinese Medicine, Jinan, Shandong, China.

Objective: leaf (FSL) has been used as a health tea in China for centuries. Previous experiments have proved that FSL extract has a good effect on the antirespiratory syncytial virus (RSV) , but its exact mechanism is not clear. Therefore, this study aims to determine the active components and targets of FSL and further explore its anti-RSV mechanism.

Methods: UPLC-Q-Exactive-MS was used to analyze the main chemical components of FSL. The compound disease target network, PPI, GO, and KEGG were used to obtain key targets and potential ways. Then, the molecular docking was verified by Schrödinger Maestro software. Next, the cell model of RSV infection was established, and the inhibitory effect of each drug on RSV was detected. Finally, western blotting was used to detect the effect of the active components of FSL on the expression of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway-related protein.

Results: UPLC-Q-Exactive-MS analysis showed that there were 67 main chemical constituents in FSL, while network pharmacological analysis showed that there were 169 anti-RSV targets of the active components in FSL, involving 177 signal pathways, among which PI3K/AKT signal pathway played an important role in the anti-RSV process of FSL. The results of molecular docking showed that cryptochlorogenic acid, phillyrin, phillygenin, rutin, and rosmarinic acid had higher binding activities to TP53, STAT3, MAPK1, AKT1, and MAPK3, respectively. experiments showed that phillyrin and rosmarinic acid could effectively improve the survival rate of RSV-infected cells, increase the expression level of PI3K, and decrease the expression level of AKT.

Conclusion: The active ingredients of FSL, phillyrin, and rosmarinic acid can play an anti-RSV role by inhibiting PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. This study provides reliable theoretical and experimental support for the anti-RSV treatment of FSL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/5643345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9328944PMC
July 2022

is Required for Ecdysteroid Induction of Neuropeptide Genes During Insect Eclosion.

Front Genet 2022 11;13:942884. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States.

In insects, the shedding of the old exoskeleton is accomplished through ecdysis which is typically followed by the expansion and tanning of the new cuticle. Four neuropeptides, eclosion hormone (EH), ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH), crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) and bursicon (Bur) are known to control ecdysis. However, the regulation of these neuropeptide genes is still poorly understood. Here, we report that in the red flour beetle (RFB) and the fall armyworm (FAW) , knockdown or knockout of the gene caused eclosion defects. The expansion and tanning of wings were not complete. In both RFB and FAW, the knockdown or knockout of resulted in a decrease in the expression of gene. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that the SfSoxC protein directly binds to a motif present in the promoter of . The luciferase reporter assays in Sf9 cells confirmed these results. These data suggest that transcription factor plays a key role in ecdysteroid induction of genes coding for neuropeptides such as EH involved in the regulation of insect eclosion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2022.942884DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9309532PMC
July 2022

Characterization of Adrenal miRNA-Based Dysregulations in Cushing's Syndrome.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jul 12;23(14). Epub 2022 Jul 12.

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, LMU Klinikum, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, 80336 Munich, Germany.

MiRNAs are important epigenetic players with tissue- and disease-specific effects. In this study, our aim was to investigate the putative differential expression of miRNAs in adrenal tissues from different forms of Cushing's syndrome (CS). For this, miRNA-based next-generation sequencing was performed in adrenal tissues taken from patients with ACTH-independent cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas (CPA), from patients with ACTH-dependent pituitary Cushing's disease (CD) after bilateral adrenalectomy, and from control subjects. A confirmatory QPCR was also performed in adrenals from patients with other CS subtypes, such as primary bilateral macronodular hyperplasia and ectopic CS. Sequencing revealed significant differences in the miRNA profiles of CD and CPA. QPCR revealed the upregulated expression of miR-1247-5p in CPA and PBMAH (log2 fold change > 2.5, < 0.05). MiR-379-5p was found to be upregulated in PBMAH and CD (log2 fold change > 1.8, < 0.05). Analyses of miR-1247-5p and miR-379-5p expression in the adrenals of mice which had been exposed to short-term ACTH stimulation showed no influence on the adrenal miRNA expression profiles. For miRNA-specific target prediction, RNA-seq data from the adrenals of CPA, PBMAH, and control samples were analyzed with different bioinformatic platforms. The analyses revealed that both miR-1247-5p and miR-379-5p target specific genes in the WNT signaling pathway. In conclusion, this study identified distinct adrenal miRNAs as being associated with CS subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23147676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9320303PMC
July 2022

The histidine phosphotransfer AHP4 plays a negative role in Arabidopsis plant response to drought.

Plant J 2022 Jul 26. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Stress Adaptation Research Unit, RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, Yokohama, 230-0045, Japan.

Cytokinin plays an important role in plant stress responses via a multistep signaling pathway, involving the histidine phosphotransfer proteins (HPs). In Arabidopsis thaliana, the AHP2, AHP3 and AHP5 proteins are known to impact drought responses; however, the role of AHP4 in drought adaptation remains undetermined. In the present study, using a loss-of-function approach we showed that AHP4 possesses an important role in Arabidopsis's response to drought. This is evidenced by the higher survival rates of ahp4 than wild-type (WT) plants under drought conditions which is accompanied by the down-regulated AHP4 expression in WT during periods of dehydration. Comparative transcriptome analysis of ahp4 and WT plants revealed AHP4-mediated expression of several dehydration- and/or abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive genes involved in regulation of various physiological and biochemical processes important for plant drought acclimation. In comparison with WT, ahp4 plants showed increased wax crystal accumulation in stems, thicker cuticles in leaves, greater sensitivity to exogenous ABA at germination, narrow stomatal apertures, heightened leaf temperatures during dehydration, and longer root length under osmotic stress. Additionally, ahp4 plants showed greater photosynthetic efficiency, lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation, and increased anthocyanin contents under drought, when compared with WT. These differences displayed in ahp4 plants are likely due to up-regulation of genes that encode enzymes involved in ROS-scavenging and non-enzymatic antioxidant metabolism. Overall, our findings suggest that AHP4 plays a crucial role in plant drought adaptation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15920DOI Listing
July 2022

Promoting the Development of Bunge Industry in Guyang County (China) Based on MaxEnt and Remote Sensing.

Front Plant Sci 2022 7;13:908114. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

Baotou Medical College, Baotou, China.

To provide high-quality Bunge to domestic and foreign markets and maintain sustainable development of the industry, Firstly, we evaluated the impact of environmental factors and planting areas on the industry. The maximum entropy method (MaxEnt) was utilized to simulate the suitability distribution of and establish the relationship between the active component contents of and ecological factors through linear regression analysis. The random forest algorithm was subsequently used to perform feature selection and classification extraction on Sentinel-2 imagery covering the study area. Furthermore, the planting, processing, and sales of in Guyang County were investigated, and the roles of stakeholders in the value chains were analyzed. The results demonstrated that precipitation of the warmest quarter, minimum temperature of the coldest month, standard deviation of seasonal temperature changes, range of mean annual temperature, and mean diurnal range [mean of monthly (max temp - min temp)] were the five environmental variables that contributed the most to the growth of . The most influential factor on the distribution of high-quality was the mean temperature of the coldest quarter. The classification results of image features showed that the planting areas of was consistent with the suitable planting areas predicted by MaxEnt, which can provide data support to the relevant departments for the macro development of the industry. In the production of , 10 value chains were constructed, and the study demonstrated that the behavior of stakeholders, target markets, and the selected planting area had a significant impact on the quality of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.908114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9301113PMC
July 2022

[Mechanism of Bupleurum scorzonerifolium and Paeonia lactiflora herbal pair against liver cancer: an exploration based on UPLC-Q-TOF-MS combined with network pharmacology].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2022 Jul;47(13):3597-3608

Pharmaceutical Engineering Technology Research Center, College of Pharmacy, Harbin University of Commerce Harbin 150076, China.

This study aimed to decipher the pharmacodynamic material basis and mechanism of herbal pair Bupleurum scorzonerifolium-Paeonia lactiflora(BS-PL) against liver cancer based on UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and network pharmacology. MTT assay and human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells were used to screen the effective part of BS-PL, the active components of which were further analyzed and identified by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Next, we applied Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP) to screen the active ingredients with OB≥30%. Then TCMSP and SwissTargetPrediction were used to collect and predict component targets, followed by the search of liver cancer-related targets with GeneCards and DisGeNET. The intersection targets were obtained using Venny 2.1.0. Protein-protein interaction(PPI) network was constructed using STRING to uncover the core targets, which were subjected to Gene Ontology(GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) enrichment analysis based on DAVID. Finally, the effects of active ingredients on the expression of main proteins enriched in the key pathways of HepG2 cells were verified by Western blot. The results indicated that compared with 30%, 50%, and 70% ethanol extracts of BS-PL, the n-butanol extraction part(CSYZ) from 95% ethanol extract of BS-PL exhibited the best anti-tumor effect. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS revealed 31 ingredients, 14 of which showed OB≥30%. A total of 220 intersection targets were obtained, from which 35 were selected as the key targets under the condition of two times the median of degree. Among the 215 items with P<0.05 obtained through GO enrichment analysis, 154 were classified into biological processes, 22 into cell components and 39 into molecular functions. KEGG enrichment analysis revealed 95 significantly affected signaling pathways, and the ones(sorted in a descending order by P value) closely related to the anti-liver cancer effect of herbal pair were PI3 K-AKT signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, HIF-1 signaling pathway, and ErbB signaling pathway. Finally, the PI3 K/AKT signaling pathway involving the largest number of targets was extrapolated, and it was found that this pathway contained 15 core targets and 8 active components. Experimental verification showed that the effective components of BS-PL significantly inhibited the expression of p-PI3 K and p-AKT, consistent with the prediction results of network pharmacology. In conclusion, the main pharmacodynamic substances of BS-PL against liver cancer are 14 components like saikosaponin a, saikosaponin d, and paeoniflorin, which exert the anti-liver cancer effect by regulating PI3 K/AKT pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20220110.402DOI Listing
July 2022

External validation and comparison of simple tools to screen for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese community population.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022 Aug 29;34(8):865-872. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Fundamental and Community Nursing, School of Nursing, Nanjing Medical University.

Background: Various noninvasive tools based on anthropometric indicators, blood lipids, and liver enzymes, etc. have been developed to screen for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), with different diagnostic performance and cutoff values among studies. We aimed to validate and compare eight NAFLD-related models developed by simple indicators and to define their cutoff values in Chinese community population.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a health examination cohort of 3259 people. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography. General, anthropometric and biochemical data were collected. Fatty liver index (FLI), fatty liver disease index (FLD), Zhejiang University index (ZJU), lipid accumulation product (LAP), regression formula of controlled attenuation parameter (CAP), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), triglyceride and glucose index (TyG), and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were calculated. The accuracy and cutoff points to detect NAFLD were evaluated by area under the receiver operator characteristic curve and the maximum Youden index analysis, respectively. A head-to-head comparison between these models and Decision Curve Analysis (DCA) was conducted.

Results: In eight noninvasive diagnostic models of NAFLD, AUCs of FLI and FLD for NAFLD were higher than those of other models in the whole (0.852 and 0.852), male (0.826 and 0.824), and female (0.897 and 0.888) population, respectively. DCA showed that FLI, FLD, and ZJU have higher net benefit to screen for NAFLD compared to other models.

Conclusions: FLI and FLD could be the most accurate and applicable of eight models for the noninvasive diagnosis of NAFLD in both male and female groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000002399DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9273302PMC
August 2022

TGFβR-1/ALK5 inhibitor RepSox induces enteric glia-to-neuron transition and influences gastrointestinal mobility in adult mice.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2022 Jul 6. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Signaling and Disease Research, Laboratory of Receptor-based Bio-medicine, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Promoting adult neurogenesis in the enteric nervous system (ENS) may be a potential therapeutic approach to cure enteric neuropathies. Enteric glial cells (EGCs) are the most abundant glial cells in the ENS. Accumulating evidence suggests that EGCs can be a complementary source to supply new neurons during adult neurogenesis in the ENS. In the brain, astrocytes have been intensively studied for their neuronal conversion properties, and small molecules have been successfully used to induce the astrocyte-to-neuron transition. However, research on glia-to-neuron conversion in the ENS is still lacking. In this study, we used GFAP-Cre:Rosa-tdTomato mice to trace glia-to-neuron transdifferentiation in the ENS in vivo and in vitro. We showed that GFAP promoter-driven tdTomato exclusively labelled EGCs and was a suitable marker to trace EGCs and their progeny cells in the ENS of adult mice. Interestingly, we discovered that RepSox or other ALK5 inhibitors alone induced efficient transdifferentiation of EGCs into neurons in vitro. Knockdown of ALK5 further confirmed that the TGFβR-1/ALK5 signalling pathway played an essential role in the transition of EGCs to neurons. RepSox-induced neurons were Calbindin- and nNOS-positive and displayed typical neuronal electrophysiological properties. Finally, we showed that administration of RepSox (3, 10 mg· kg ·d, i.g.) for 2 weeks significantly promoted the conversion of EGCs to neurons in the ENS and influenced gastrointestinal motility in adult mice. This study provides a method for efficiently converting adult mouse EGCs into neurons by small-molecule compounds, which might be a promising therapeutic strategy for gastrointestinal neuropathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-022-00932-4DOI Listing
July 2022

A novel binding-induced DNAzyme motor triggered by survivin mRNA.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2022 Aug 29;414(20):6167-6175. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan, 411104, Hunan, China.

The accurate and sensitive detection of survivin mRNA is of great significance for cancer diagnosis and treatment. However, limited by the low-abundance mRNA in live cells, most strategies of survivin mRNA detection that were one-to-one signal-triggered model (one target triggered one signal) were inapplicable in practice. Here, we reported a binding-induced DNAzyme motor triggered by the survivin mRNA, which was a one-to-more signal-triggered model (one target triggered more signals), amplifying the detection signal and enhancing the sensitivity. The nanomotor is constructed by assembling several DNAzyme motor strands silenced by the blocker strands, and dozens of FAM-labeled substrate strands on a single gold nanoparticle (AuNP), forming three-dimensional DNA tracks. Through building the survivin mRNA bridge between the blocker and the DNAzyme motor strand, the binding-induced DNA nanomotor could be triggered by survivin mRNA. The operation of the DNAzyme motor was self-powered. And each walking step of the DNAzyme motor was fueled by DNAzyme-catalyzed substrate cleavage, along with the cleavage of the fluorescent molecule, resulting in autonomous and progressive walking along the AuNP-based tracks, and the fluorescence increase. The DNAzyme motor exhibited excellent sensitivity and remarkable specificity for survivin mRNA, providing the potential for cell image.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-022-04183-4DOI Listing
August 2022

Revealing Genetic Differences in Fiber Elongation between the Offspring of Sea Island Cotton and Upland Cotton Backcross Populations Based on Transcriptome and Weighted Gene Coexpression Networks.

Genes (Basel) 2022 May 26;13(6). Epub 2022 May 26.

College of Agriculture, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830052, China.

Fiber length is an important indicator of cotton fiber quality, and the time and rate of cotton fiber cell elongation are key factors in determining the fiber length of mature cotton. To gain insight into the differences in fiber elongation mechanisms in the offspring of backcross populations of Sea Island cotton Xinhai 16 and land cotton Line 9, we selected two groups with significant differences in fiber length (long-fiber group L and short-fiber group S) at different fiber development stages 0, 5, 10 and 15 days post-anthesis (DPA) for transcriptome comparison. A total of 171.74 Gb of clean data was obtained by RNA-seq, and eight genes were randomly selected for qPCR validation. Data analysis identified 6055 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between two groups of fibers, L and S, in four developmental periods, and gene ontology (GO) term analysis revealed that these DEGs were associated mainly with microtubule driving, reactive oxygen species, plant cell wall biosynthesis, and glycosyl compound hydrolase activity. Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis indicated that plant hormone signaling, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, and starch and sucrose metabolism pathways were associated with fiber elongation. Subsequently, a sustained upregulation expression pattern, profile 19, was identified and analyzed using short time-series expression miner (STEM). An analysis of the weighted gene coexpression network module uncovered 21 genes closely related to fiber development, mainly involved in functions such as cell wall relaxation, microtubule formation, and cytoskeletal structure of the cell wall. This study helps to enhance the understanding of the Sea Island-Upland backcross population and identifies key genes for cotton fiber development, and these findings will provide a basis for future research on the molecular mechanisms of fiber length formation in cotton populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes13060954DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9222338PMC
May 2022

Engineering of triterpene metabolism and overexpression of the lignin biosynthesis gene PAL promotes ginsenoside Rg accumulation in ginseng plant chassis.

J Integr Plant Biol 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China.

The ginsenoside Rg found in Panax species has extensive pharmacological properties, in particular anti-cancer effects. However, its natural yield in Panax plants is limited. Here, we report a multi-modular strategy to improve yields of Rg in a Panax ginseng chassis, combining engineering of triterpene metabolism and overexpression of a lignin biosynthesis gene, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). We first performed semi-rational design and site mutagenesis to improve the enzymatic efficiency of Pq3-O-UGT2, a glycosyltransferase that directly catalyzes the biosynthesis of Rg from Rh . Next, we used clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) gene editing to knock down the branch pathway of protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside biosynthesis to enhance the metabolic flux of the protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside Rg . Overexpression of PAL accelerated the formation of the xylem structure, significantly improving ginsenoside Rg accumulation (to 6.19-fold higher than in the control). We combined overexpression of the ginsenoside aglycon synthetic genes squalene epoxidase, Pq3-O-UGT2, and PAL with CRISPR/Cas9-based knockdown of CYP716A53v2 to improve ginsenoside Rg accumulation. Finally, we produced ginsenoside Rg at a yield of 83.6 mg/L in a shake flask (7.0 mg/g dry weight, 21.12-fold higher than with wild-type cultures). The high-production system established in this study could be a potential platform to produce the ginsenoside Rg commercially for pharmaceutical use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jipb.13315DOI Listing
June 2022

Oxygen Limitation Accelerates Regeneration of Active Sites on a MnO Surface: Promoting Transformation of Organic Matter and Carbon Preservation.

Environ Sci Technol 2022 07 20;56(13):9806-9815. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and the Agri-Environment in Northwest China, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, 3# Taicheng Road, Yangling 712100, P. R. China.

Birnessite (δ-MnO) is a layered manganese oxide widely present in the environment and actively participates in the transformation of natural organic matter (NOM) in biogeochemical processes. However, the effect of oxygen on the dynamic interface processes of NOM and δ-MnO remains unclear. This study systematically investigated the interactions between δ-MnO and fulvic acid (FA) under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. FA was transformed by δ-MnO via direct electron transfer and the generated reactive oxygen species (ROS). During the 32-day reaction, 79.8% of total organic carbon (TOC) in solution was removed under anaerobic conditions, unexpectedly higher than that under aerobic conditions (69.8%), suggesting that oxygen limitation was more conducive to the oxidative transformation of FA by δ-MnO. The oxygen vacancies (O) on the surface of δ-MnO were more exposed under anaerobic conditions, thus promoting the adsorption and transformation of FA as well as regeneration of the active sites. Additionally, the reaction of FA with δ-MnO weakened the strongly bonded lattice oxygen (O), and the released O was an important source of ROS. Interestingly, a part of organic carbon (OC) was preserved by forming MnCO, which might be a novel mechanism for carbon preservation. These findings contribute to an improved understanding of the dynamic interface processes between MnO and NOM and provide new insights into the effects of oxygen limitation on the cycling and preservation of OC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.2c01868DOI Listing
July 2022

Spatial-Temporal Variation and Health Risk Assessment of Fluoride in Surface Water in the Tibetan Plateau.

Expo Health 2022 Jun 7:1-17. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101 China.

The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is known as the "Asian Water Tower" and provides vital drinking water for residents of China and Southeast Asian countries. However, large-scale regional research on water quality in this climate-sensitive and ecologically-fragile area is still lacking. Considering that drinking from fluoride-contaminated water poses serious health concerns worldwide, especially in Asian counties, it is urgent to clarify the spatial-temporal distribution characteristics, influencing factors, and health risk of fluoride in surface water in the TP. In this study, a total of 2697 surface water samples from major rivers and typical lakes in the TP were systematically analysed. Overall, fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.003 to 6.240 mg L and varied among water periods, water basins and even water types. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that the distribution of fluoride concentration was closely related to the regional climate and positively correlated with anthropogenic activities. Probabilistic health risk assessment revealed that potential hazards in the Inner Basin were the highest for all age groups (HR > 1), especially for infants and adults (HR > 3), while the risks in most other water basins were acceptable (HR < 1). Our findings can provide scientific support for fluorosis prevention, and guide water resource utilization in the TP and adjacent regions.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12403-022-00490-4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12403-022-00490-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9170561PMC
June 2022

Long-term rumen microorganism fermentation of corn stover in vitro for volatile fatty acid production.

Bioresour Technol 2022 Aug 9;358:127447. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Beijing Key Lab for Source Control Technology of Water Pollution, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China; Engineering Research Center for Water Pollution Source Control & Eco-remediation, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China; School of Energy & Environmental Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130, China. Electronic address:

Rumen microorganisms have the ability to efficiently hydrolyze and acidify lignocellulosic biomass. The effectiveness of long-term rumen microorganism fermentation of lignocellulose in vitro for producing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) is unclear. The feasibility of long-term rumen microorganism fermentation of lignocelluose was evaluated in this study, and a stable VFA production was successfully realized for 120 d. Results showed that VFA concentration reached to 5.32-8.48 g/L during long-term fermentation. Hydrolysis efficiency of hemicellulose and cellulose reached 36.5%-52.2% and 29.4%-38.4%, respectively. A stable bacterial community was mainly composed of Prevotella, Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group, Ruminococcus, and Succiniclasticum. VFA accumulation led to a pH decrease, which caused the change of bacterial community structure. Functional prediction showed that the functional genes related to hydrolysis and acidogenesis of corn stover were highly expressed during long-term fermentation. The successful long-term rumen fermentation to produce VFAs is of great significance for the practical application of rumen microorganisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2022.127447DOI Listing
August 2022

Effectiveness of Home-Based Exercise for Nonspecific Shoulder Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2022 Jun 2. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

School of Physical Education and Sports Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China.

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of home-based exercise to treat nonspecific shoulder pain (NSSP).

Data Sources: MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database were searched from inception to January 2022.

Study Selection: Independent reviewers selected randomized controlled trials that compared the effects of home-based exercise alone with no treatment or other conservative treatments in individuals with nonsurgical painful shoulder disorders. The primary outcomes were shoulder pain intensity and function, and the secondary outcome was shoulder range of motion (ROM).

Data Extraction: Two reviewers independently conducted data extraction. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias 2.0 tool, and the overall quality of the evidence was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach.

Data Synthesis: Twelve studies were included in the review, and 10 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Low to moderate quality of evidence indicated that home-based exercise alone and other conservative treatments showed equal improvements in pain intensity reduction (mean difference [MD], 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.12 to 0.65; I=30%), function (standardized mean difference [SMD], 0.12; 95% CI, -0.14 to 0.38; I=16%), flexion ROM (MD, 4.61; 95% CI, -1.16 to 10.38; I=54%), and abduction ROM (MD, 3.74; 95% CI, -12.44 to 19.93; I=82%). Very low quality of evidence indicated that home-based exercise alone was more effective than no treatment for pain intensity reduction (MD, -1.47; 95% CI, -2.33 to -0.61) and function improvement (SMD, -0.81; 95% CI, -1.31 to -0.31; large effect).

Conclusions: Home-based exercise alone may be equally effective as other conservative treatments and superior to no treatment for the treatment of NSSP. To draw firmer conclusions, further research is required to validate these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2022.05.007DOI Listing
June 2022

A novel interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 from blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) is involved in inflammatory response via MyD88-mediated NF-κB signal pathway.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2022 Jun 1;127:23-34. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Cell Biology, School of Life Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, 410017, China. Electronic address:

Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) plays a crucial role in the Toll-like receptor/IL-1R signal pathway, which mediates the downstream signal transduction involved in innate and adaptive immunity. In the present study, an IRAK4 homologue (named as MaIRAK4) from blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) was cloned and characterized. The open reading frame (ORF) of MaIRAK4 contains 1422 nucleotides, encoding a putative protein of 473 amino acids. Protein structural analysis revealed that MaIRAK4 has an N-terminal death domain (DD) and a central kinase domain (S_TKc), similar to those of mammals and other fishes. Multiple sequence alignment demonstrated that MaIRAK4 is highly homologous with that of grass carp (97.67%). The qRT-PCR analysis showed that MaIRAK4 expressed widely in all examined tissues, including heart, liver, spleen, kidney, head-kidney, gill, intestine and muscle, with the highest expression in the liver and spleen. After stimulation with LPS, MaIRAK4 expression upregulated significantly and reached a peak at 6 h and 12 h post LPS stimulation in the spleen and head-kidney, respectively. After challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila, MaIRAK4 expression peaked at 48 h and 72 h in spleen/head-kidney and liver, respectively. These results implied that MaIRAK4 is involved in the host defense against bacterial infection. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that MaIRAK4 distributed in the cytoplasm. Co-immunoprecipitation and subcellular co-localization assay revealed that MaIRAK4 can combine with MaMyD88 through DD domain. MaIRAK4 overexpression can induce slightly the NF-κB promoter activity in HEK 293 cells. However, the activity of NF-κB promoter was dramatically enhanced after co-transfection with MaIRAK4 and MaMyD88 plasmids. The results showed that MaIRAK4 was involved in NF-κB signal pathway mediated by maMyD88. The expression level of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α) decreased significantly after the siRNA-mediated knockdown of MaIRAK4. Together, these results suggest that MaIRAK4 plays an important function in the innate immunity of M. amblycephala by inducing cytokines expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2022.05.056DOI Listing
June 2022

Conductive Hydrogels with Ultrastretchability and Adhesiveness for Flame- and Cold-Tolerant Strain Sensors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Jun 24;14(22):26088-26098. Epub 2022 May 24.

School of Biotechnology and Health Sciences, Wuyi University, Jiangmen 529020, China.

Hydrogel strain sensors with extreme temperature tolerance have recently gained great attention. However, the sensing ability of these hydrogel strain sensors changes with temperature, resulting in the variety of output signals that causes signal distortion. In this study, double-network hydrogels comprising SiO nanoparticles composed of polyacrylamide and phytic acid-doped polypyrrole were prepared and applied on strain sensors with a wide sensing range, high adhesiveness, and invariable strain sensitivity under flame and cold environments. The hydrogels had stable conductivity, excellent adhesive strength of up to 79.7 kPa on various substrates, and high elongation of up to 1896% at subzero temperature and after heating. They also exhibited effective flame retardancy with low surface temperature (71.2 °C) after 1200 s of heating (200 °C) and antifreezing properties at a low temperature of -20 °C. Remarkably, even under cold temperature and heat treatment, the hydrogel-based strain sensor displayed consistent sensing behaviors in detecting human motions with a broad strain range (up to 500%) and steady gauge factor (GF, ∼2.90). Therefore, this work paves the way for the applications of hydrogel sensors in robotic skin, human-mechanical interfaces, and health monitoring devices under harsh operating environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c07501DOI Listing
June 2022

Effect of the structure of ginsenosides on the fate of their liposomes.

Asian J Pharm Sci 2022 Mar 16;17(2):219-229. Epub 2022 Jan 16.

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University & Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 201203, China.

To utilize the multiple functions and give full play of ginsenosides, a variety of ginsenosides with different structures were prepared into liposomes and evaluated for their effect on the stability, pharmacokinetics and tumor targeting capability of liposomes. The results showed that the position and number of glycosyl groups of ginsenosides have significant effect on the and properties of their liposomes. The pharmacokinetics of ginsenosides liposomes indicated that the C-3 sugar group of ginsenosides is beneficial to their liposomes for longer circulation . The C-3 and C-6 glycosyls can enhance the uptake of their liposomes by 4T1 cells, and the glycosyls at C-3 position can enhance the tumor active targeting ability significantly, based on the specific binding capacity to Glut 1 expressed on the surface of 4T1 cells. According to the results in the study, ginsenoside Rg3 and ginsenoside Rh2 are potential for exploiting novel liposomes because of their cholesterol substitution, long blood circulation and tumor targeting capabilities. The results provide a theoretical basis for further development of ginsenoside based liposome delivery systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajps.2021.12.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9091781PMC
March 2022

Isocaloric-restricted Mediterranean Diet and Chinese Diets High or Low in Plants in Adults With Prediabetes.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2022 07;107(8):2216-2227

Shanghai Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200031, China.

Context: Calorie restriction plus dietary advice is suggested as a preventive strategy for individuals with obesity and prediabetes; however, optimal diet is still debatable. We aimed to compare the effects of Mediterranean diet (MD) and Chinese diets high or low in plants on body weight and glucose homeostasis among high-risk Chinese.

Subjects And Methods: In this parallel-arm randomized controlled trial, 253 Chinese adults aged 25 to 60 years with a body mass index ≥ 24.0 kg/m2 and fasting blood glucose ≥ 5.6 mmol/L were randomly assigned to 3 isocaloric-restricted diets: MD (n = 84), a traditional Jiangnan diet high in plants (TJD, n = 85), or a control diet low in plants (CD, n = 84). During the 6-month trial, a 5-weekday full-feeding regimen was followed, along with mobile app-based monitoring. Abdominal fat measurement (magnetic resonance imaging), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) were conducted at baseline and 3 and 6 months.

Results: With a 25% calorie restriction for 6 months, weight deduction was 5.72 kg (95% confidence interval, 5.03-6.40) for MD, 5.05 kg (4.38-5.73) for TJD, and 5.38 kg (4.70-6.06) for CD (Ptime < 0.0001). No between-group differences were found for fasting glucose, insulin, and the Matsuda index from OGTT. Notably, CD had significantly longer time below range (glucose < 3.9 mmol/L) than MD (0.81% [0.21-1.40], P = 0.024) and marginally longer time than TJD (0.56% [-0.03 to 1.15], P = 0.065), as measured by CGM.

Conclusions: With the 6-month isocaloric-restricted feeding, TJD and MD achieved comparable weight deduction and improved glucose homeostasis, whereas CD showed a higher risk for hypoglycemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgac303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9282247PMC
July 2022

The Diverse Analysis Identifies Mutated Associated With Radioresistance in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

World J Oncol 2022 Apr 28;13(2):84-95. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515, China.

Background: To analyze the relationship between V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog () status and radioresistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we identified potential genotypic differences and pathways involved.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed epidermal growth factor receptor () and status in patients undergoing definitive radiotherapy for NSCLC between 2004 and 2018. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate local progression-free survival (LPFS). Using clonogenic survival and measurement of γH2AX foci, we analyzed the difference in radiosensitivity between NSCLC cell lines with different status. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) analysis was used to explore the potential pathways involved.

Results: The results showed that of the 286 patients identified, 68 (24%) had local tumor progression (mean ± standard deviation (SD), 27 ± 17.4 months); of these patients, mutations were found in 14 (23%), and status was associated with LPFS. After adjusting for concurrent chemotherapy, gross tumor volume, and mutation status in multivariate analysis, mutation was associated with shorter LPFS (hazard ratio: 1.961; 95% confidence interval: 1.03 - 2.17; P = 0.032). mutation showed higher radioresistance . TCGA data showed that the ERK1/2 pathway, phosphatidylinositol I3 kinase (PI3K)/mTOR, p38 MAPK pathway, cell cycle checkpoint signaling, DNA damage, repair pathways, and EGFR/PKC/AKT pathway were differentially expressed in patients with mutations or cell lines compared with their expression in the wild-type group.

Conclusions: Diverse analyses identified that mutation was associated with radioresistance in NSCLC. mutation status may be helpful as a biomarker of radioresistance and a potential target to increase radiosensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14740/wjon1465DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9076151PMC
April 2022

Systems-wide analysis revealed shared and unique responses to moderate and acute high temperatures in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

Commun Biol 2022 05 13;5(1):460. Epub 2022 May 13.

Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, Missouri, 63132, USA.

Different intensities of high temperatures affect the growth of photosynthetic cells in nature. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we cultivated the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under highly controlled photobioreactor conditions and revealed systems-wide shared and unique responses to 24-hour moderate (35°C) and acute (40°C) high temperatures and subsequent recovery at 25°C. We identified previously overlooked unique elements in response to moderate high temperature. Heat at 35°C transiently arrested the cell cycle followed by partial synchronization, up-regulated transcripts/proteins involved in gluconeogenesis/glyoxylate-cycle for carbon uptake and promoted growth. But 40°C disrupted cell division and growth. Both high temperatures induced photoprotection, while 40°C distorted thylakoid/pyrenoid ultrastructure, affected the carbon concentrating mechanism, and decreased photosynthetic efficiency. We demonstrated increased transcript/protein correlation during both heat treatments and hypothesize reduced post-transcriptional regulation during heat may help efficiently coordinate thermotolerance mechanisms. During recovery after both heat treatments, especially 40°C, transcripts/proteins related to DNA synthesis increased while those involved in photosynthetic light reactions decreased. We propose down-regulating photosynthetic light reactions during DNA replication benefits cell cycle resumption by reducing ROS production. Our results provide potential targets to increase thermotolerance in algae and crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-022-03359-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9106746PMC
May 2022

First report of Meloidogyne hapla infecting Salvia miltiorrhiza in Shaanxi, China.

Plant Dis 2022 Apr 22. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Bio-Agriculture Institute of Shaanxi, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Plant Nematology, No 125, Xianning road, xian, Shaanxi, China, 710043;

Salvia miltiorrhiza is a perennial herbaceous plant for traditional Chinese medicine. It has been extensively applied for many hundred years to treat various diseases (Su et al. 2015). It is also a kind of important cash crop that is widely cultivated in southern Shaanxi province. In June of 2021, in a field in Luonan County, Shaanxi Province, some S. miltiorrhiza plants with stunting and leaf wilting symptoms were observed. The diseased plants exhibited a large number of globular galling on the secondary and tertiary roots. The symptoms were typical of infection by root-knot nematodes. Population densities of second-stage juveniles (J2s) ranged from 330 to 650 per 100 cm3. To identify the species of the root-knot nematodes, J2s and males were collected from the soil in the root zone, and females were isolated from diseased roots. The perineal patterns of females (n = 12) were round-shaped, with low dorsal arches, obvious lateral lines, and characteristic small punctations near anus. Morphological measurements of females (n = 20) included body length (L) = 565.25 ± 33.9 (503.35 - 632.47) μm, body width (BW) = 420.00 ± 21.28 (378.27 - 452.51) μm, stylet = 11.11 ± 0.73 (10.05-12.29) μm, dorsal pharyngeal gland orifice to stylet base (DGO) = 4.69 ± 0.45 (3.82-5.32) μm, vulval slit length = 21.1 ± 1.33 (18.38-22.96) μm, and vulval slit to anus distance = 15.76 ± 1.24 (13.38-17.45) μm. The morphological characters of males (n = 7): L = 1098.14 ± 82.99 (962.83-1193.87) μm, BW = 28.44 ± 1.18 (26.59-29.83) μm, stylet = 18.27 ± 0.97 (16.57-19.28) μm, DGO = 4.89 ± 0.62 (3.82-5.68) μm, and spicule length = 24.04 ± 1.80 (21.30-26.71) μm. The key morphometrics of J2s: L = 380.24 ± 18.24 (354.43-423.13) μm, BW = 13.94 ± 0.70 (12.88-15.34) μm, stylet = 11.82 ± 0.49 (10.96-12.61) μm, DGO = 3.68 ± 0.42 (3.09-4.56) μm, tail length = 55.42 ± 5.81 (46.97-67.03) μm, and hyaline tail terminus = 13.79 ± 1.24 (12.0-16.51) μm. These morphological characteristics are consistent with Meloidogyne hapla as described by Whitehead (1968). Ten individual females were transferred to ten different tubes for DNA extraction. The DNA extraction followed the method described by Htay et al. (2016). The species-specific primers JMV1 (5'-GGATGGCGTGCTTTCAAC-3') and JMV (5'-AAAAATCCCCTCGAAAAATCCACC-3') were used for the identification of M. hapla (Adam et al. 2007). A single 440 bp fragment was amplified by this pair of primers, confirming their identities as M. hapla. To confirm species identification, the ITS region was amplified using the primers 18S/26S (5'-TTGATTACGTCCCTGCCCTTT-3'/5'-TTTCACTCGCCGTTACTAAGG-3') (Vrain et al. 1992). The sequence from the ITS region was 768 bp (GenBank Accession No. OM049198) and was 100% identical to the sequences of M. hapla (GenBank Accession Nos. MT249016 and KJ572385). The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) region between COII and the lRNA gene was amplified using primers C2F3 (5'-GGTCAATGTTCAGAAATTTGTGG-3') and 1108 (5'-TACCTTTGACCAATCACGCT-3') (Powers and Harris, 1993). A fragment of 529 bp was obtained and the sequence (GenBank Accession No. OM055828) was 100% identical to the known sequence of M. hapla from Taiwan (GenBank Accession No. KJ598134). An infection test was conducted in greenhouse conditions. Six 2-month-old S. miltiorrhiza plants were individually maintained in 12-cm diameter, 10-cm deep plastic pots containing sterilized soil and each plant was inoculated with 3000 J2s hatched from egg masses of collected M. hapla samples. Two non-inoculated S. miltiorrhiza plants served as negative controls. After 60 days, inoculated plants exhibited galled roots similar to those observed in the field. Many galls (61.33 ± 8.52) and egg masses (26.17 ± 4.79) were found on each root system. The nematode reproduction factor (RF = final population/initial population) was 4.5. No symptoms were observed in control plants. The nematode was reisolated from root tissue and identified to be M. hapla with its sequence-specific primers JMV1/JMV. These results confirmed that the nematode population could infect S. miltiorrhiza. To our knowledge, this is the first time of natural infection of S. miltiorrhiza with M. hapla in China. Including S. miltiorrhiza, the medicinal ingredients of many traditional Chinese herbal medicines were extracted from the roots of the plants. The infection of root-knot nematode will cause a serious decline in the quality of Chinese medicinal materials. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the species of root-knot nematode in different Chinese herbal medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-01-22-0088-PDNDOI Listing
April 2022

Defective Fe Metal-Organic Frameworks Enhance Metabolic Profiling for High-Accuracy Diagnosis of Human Cancers.

Adv Mater 2022 Jul 23;34(26):e2201422. Epub 2022 May 23.

School of Environment and Science, Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan Campus, Brisbane, Queensland, 4111, Australia.

Cancers heavily threaten human life; therefore, a high-accuracy diagnosis is vital to protect human beings from the suffering of cancers. While biopsies and imaging methods are widely used as current technologies for cancer diagnosis, a new detection platform by metabolic analysis is expected due to the significant advantages of fast, simple, and cost-effectiveness with high body tolerance. However, the signal of molecule biomarkers is too weak to acquire high-accuracy diagnosis. Herein, precisely engineered metal-organic frameworks for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, allowing favorable charge transfer within the molecule-substrate interface and mitigated thermal dissipation by adjusting the phonon scattering with metal nodes, are developed. Consequently, a surprising signal enhancement of ≈10 000-fold is achieved, resulting in diagnosis of three major cancers (liver/lung/kidney cancer) with area-under-the-curve of 0.908-0.964 and accuracy of 83.2%-90.6%, which promises a universal detection tool for large-scale clinical diagnosis of human cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202201422DOI Listing
July 2022

Inflammasomes: potential therapeutic targets in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2022 Apr 7. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

Department of Geriatrics, The General Hospital of Western Theater Command, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610083; P.R. China.

Recent studies have shown that interleukin 1β monoclonal antibody improves the prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease independently of lipid levels, providing the first evidence of the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory treatment for atherosclerotic disease. However, there is still a significant risk of residual inflammation with interleukin 1β monoclonal antibody therapy alone. Activation of the inflammasome, an intracellular protein complex composed of pattern recognition receptors and other inflammatory molecules, is a critical step in the development of the inflammatory response, and targeting the inflammasome to reduce residual inflammation has emerged as a new idea in the anti-inflammatory treatment of atherosclerotic disease. This review discusses the role and mechanisms of inflammasomes in atherosclerotic disease and lists drugs that are currently thought to potentially treat atherosclerosis through anti-inflammasomes, hoping to provide insight into the development of new anti-inflammatory therapies for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871530322666220407090916DOI Listing
April 2022

Prognostic Observational Analysis of BMI, Leptin, and Adiponectin in Children With Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Undergoing Remission-Induction Chemotherapy.

Front Pediatr 2022 21;10:797836. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: The survival rate of children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has progressively improved. However, ALL survivors often have adverse effects after treatment, such as an increased risk of obesity. Obesity has been associated with reduced survival.

Objective: We investigated the relationship between obesity, adipocytokine levels, and ALL short-term outcomes.

Methods: Weight and height were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated at patient diagnosis and discharge. Leptin and Adiponectin levels and Minimal Residual Disease (MRD) were measured before therapy, at days 19 of remission-induction therapy, and at the end of remission-induction therapy (days 46). The relationship between BMI, adipocytokine levels, and MRD was then determined.

Results: Compared to the normal BMI group, children with an abnormal increase in BMI had an increase in MRD at day 19 and 46 ( = 0.04 and = 0.008), and showed a positive correlation ( = 0.014). In addition, we found a positive correlation between weight, hip circumference at diagnosis and at day 19, and MRD at day 46. Both BMI and fat concentric distribution affected the outcome of ALL children. A higher BMI was also associated with a significant increase in Leptin levels at diagnosis. Leptin resistance should be considered in ALL children with high BMI.

Conclusion: BMI affects the outcome of ALL patients. Early interventions such as regular weight, height monitoring, and dietary assessments should be preferably initiated during remission-induction chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2022.797836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8978674PMC
March 2022

Broadband second-harmonic generation in step-chirped periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides.

Opt Lett 2022 Apr;47(7):1574-1577

Periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) structures on a chip enable efficient second-order nonlinear optical effects, benefiting from the tight light confinement and the utilization of d. Here, we report a broadband second-harmonic (SH) generation in a step-chirped PPLN waveguide on X-cut lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI). The high fidelity of the poling period is demonstrated over the whole length of 7 mm using a non-destructive technique of piezoresponse force microscopy. The SH signal was continuously observed in the step-chirped PPLN waveguides while scanning the wavelength of the pump laser from 1550 nm to 1660 nm. The SH conversion efficiency was measured to be 9.6 % W cm at 1642 nm. This work will benefit wavelength conversions of light sources with wideband spectra.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.450547DOI Listing
April 2022

Nonlinear statistical damage constitutive model of granite based on the energy dissipation ratio.

Sci Rep 2022 Mar 31;12(1):5460. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, College of Water Resources and Hydropower, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, China.

The stress-strain curves and mechanical properties of Shuangjiangkou granite were obtained using five groups of conventional triaxial tests under various confining pressures using MTS815 rock test equipment. From the microscale, mesoscale, and macroscale perspectives, four types of mechanisms that contribute to energy dissipation during granite deformation were investigated. Based on the energy dissipation ratio, a new approach for estimating crack closure stress and damage stress is proposed. The energy dissipation ratio was substituted into the Weibull distribution function, and then a new nonlinear statistical damage constitutive model of granite based on the energy dissipation ratio was constructed after Biot's theory was modified per the Lemaitre strain equivalence principle. By comparing experimental data with theoretical values estimated by the model, the model's rationality and correctness were confirmed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-09503-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8971414PMC
March 2022

CD44/Folate Dual Targeting Receptor Reductive Response PLGA-Based Micelles for Cancer Therapy.

Front Pharmacol 2022 10;13:829590. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Pharmaceutical Engineering Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, China.

In this study, a novel poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based micelle was synthesized, which could improve the therapeutic effect of the antitumor drug doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) and reduce its toxic and side effects. The efficient delivery of DOX was achieved by active targeting mediated by double receptors and stimulating the reduction potential in tumor cells. FA-HA-SS-PLGA polymer was synthesized by amidation reaction, and then DOX-loaded micelles were prepared by dialysis method. The corresponding surface method was used to optimize the experimental design. DOX/FA-HA-SS-PLGA micelles with high drug loading rate and encapsulation efficiency were prepared. The results of hydrophilic experiment, critical micelle concentration determination, and hemolysis test all showed that DOX/FA-HA-SS-PLGA micelles had good physicochemical properties and biocompatibility. In addition, both reduction stimulus response experiment and release experiment showed that DOX/FA-HA-SS-PLGA micelles had reduction sensitivity. Molecular docking experiments showed that it can bind to the target protein. More importantly, cytology studies, human breast cancer cells (MCF-7), human non-small cell lung cancer cells (A549), and mouse colon cancer cells (CT26) were used to demonstrate that the dual receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway resulted in stronger cytotoxicity to tumor cells and more significant apoptosis. In and antitumor experiment, tumor-bearing nude mice were used to further confirm that the micelles with double targeting ligands had better antitumor effect and lower toxicity. These experimental results showed that DOX/FA-HA-SS-PLGA micelles have the potential to be used as chemotherapeutic drugs for precise tumor treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.829590DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8960309PMC
March 2022

High-quality reference genomes of swallowtail butterflies provide insights into their coloration evolution.

Zool Res 2022 May;43(3):367-379

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223, China.

Swallowtail butterflies (Papilionidae) are a historically significant butterfly group due to their colorful wing patterns, extensive morphological diversity, and phylogenetically important position as a sister group to all other butterflies and have been widely studied regarding ecological adaption, phylogeny, genetics, and evolution. Notably, they contain a unique class of pigments, i.e., papiliochromes, which contribute to their color diversity and various biological functions such as predator avoidance and mate preference. To date, however, the genomic and genetic basis of their color diversity and papiliochrome origin in a phylogenetic and evolutionary context remain largely unknown. Here, we obtained high-quality reference genomes of 11 swallowtail butterfly species covering all tribes of Papilioninae and Parnassiinae using long-read sequencing technology. Combined with previously published butterfly genomes, we obtained robust phylogenetic relationships among tribes, overcoming the challenges of incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) and gene flow. Comprehensive genomic analyses indicated that the evolution of Papilionidae-specific conserved non-exonic elements (PSCNEs) and transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) of patterning and transporter/cofactor genes, together with the rapid evolution of transporters/cofactors, likely promoted the origin and evolution of papiliochromes. These findings not only provide novel insights into the genomic basis of color diversity, especially papiliochrome origin in swallowtail butterflies, but also provide important data resources for exploring the evolution, ecology, and conservation of butterflies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2021.303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9113978PMC
May 2022
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