Publications by authors named "Ru Zhang"

349 Publications

Reduced Neural Responsiveness to Looming Stimuli is Associated with Increased Aggression.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Translational Research Center, Boys Town, NE, USA.

Background: While neuro-cognitive work examining aggression has examined patients with conditions at increased risk for aggression or individuals self-reporting past aggression, little work has attempted to identify neuro-cognitive markers associated with observed/recorded aggression. The goal of the current study was to determine the extent to which aggression by youth in the first three months of residential care was associated with atypical responsiveness to threat stimuli.

Method: This functional MRI study involved 98 (68 male; mean age = 15.96 [sd = 1.52]) adolescents in residential care performing a looming threat task involving images of threatening and neutral human faces or animals that appeared to be either loom or recede.

Results: Level of aggression was negatively associated with responding to looming stimuli (irrespective of whether these were threatening or neutral) within regions including bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, right superior/middle temporal gyrus and a region of right uncus proximal to the amygdala.

Conclusions: These data indicate that aggression level is associated with a decrease in responsiveness to a basic threat cue-looming stimuli. Reduced threat responsiveness likely results in the individual being less able to represent the negative consequences that may result from engaging in aggression, thereby increasing the risk for aggressive episodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsab058DOI Listing
May 2021

The pathways linking objectively-measured greenspace exposure and mental health: A systematic review of observational studies.

Environ Res 2021 Apr 30;198:111233. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Behavioural Medicine Laboratory, School of Exercise Science, Physical and Health Education, University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada.

Background: With an increasing volume of research exploring the pathways linking greenspace exposure to mental health, there is a need to synthesise the strength of evidence on the mediation mechanisms. Synthesising the strength of evidence on the pathways can help us better understand how greenspace exposure affects mental health and guide future green space interventions to improve mental health.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to synthesise current evidence on the pathways linking objectively-measured greenspace exposure and mental health using a systematic review approach.

Methods: Literature searches were conducted in March 2020 from five common databases (i.e., MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science) using search terms of green spaces and mental health. English language and human population were imposed as search limits. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guideline was followed to synthesise and report results.

Results: The initial systematic searches yielded 16,415 records, of which 26 studies met the inclusion criteria. Mixed or non-significant evidence was revealed for the mediating effects of air quality, physical activity, perceived stress, perceived restorativeness, residential noise, social cohesion, and social support on the pathways from greenspace exposure to mental illness. The effect of greenspace exposure on mental well-being was mediated by air quality, perceived stress, and physical activity. In addition, mixed evidence was revealed for the mediating role of social cohesion on the path from greenspace exposure to mental well-being.

Conclusions: This systematic review highlighted the key pathways linking green spaces to mental well-being via harmful mitigation, psychological restoration, and encouragement of health-related behaviours. Evidence for the pathway between greenspace exposure and mental illness is equivocal at present. Future research is recommended to adopt well-designed longitudinal and experimental studies to establish causal inferences on mental health benefits of greenspace exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111233DOI Listing
April 2021

MiR-326 mediates malignant biological behaviors of lung adenocarcinoma by targeting ZEB1.

Sci Prog 2021 Apr-Jun;104(2):368504211009379

School of medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

MiR-326 functions as an antioncogene in the several types of cancer. However, the underling mechanisms through which miRNA-326 regulates the anti-carcinogenesis of lung adenocarcinoma have remained elusive. The aim of this study was to explore the role and regulatory mechanism of miR-326 in cell proliferation, invasion, migration and apoptosis in lung adenocarcinoma. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the expression pattern of miR-326 in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBES-2B), 4 kinds of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines (H23, H1975, H2228, H2085) and 20 lung adenocarcinoma tissues. Then, H23 cells were infected with miR-326 mimics, miR-326 inhibitors and si-ZEB1 to build up-regulated miR-326 cell lines, down-regulated ZEB1(zinc-finger-enhancer binding protein 1)cell lines, simultaneous down-regulated ZEB1 and miR-326 cell lines. Moreover, CCK-8 assay, transwell invasion assay, wound healing assay and flow cytometry assay were employed to examine the effects of miR-326 and ZEB1 on the proliferation, invasion, migration and apoptosis abilities of H23 cells. Western blot was performed to explore the effects of miR-326 and ZEB1 on the expression of invasion and migration related proteins N-cadherin, E-cadherin, MMP7, MMP13, SLUG and apoptotic proteins PARP, BAX. On the mechanism, a dual-luciferase reporter gene was used to measure the target relationship between miR-326 and ZEB1. MiR-326 expression was significantly downregulated in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and cells. Overexpression of miR-326 significantly inhibited the malignant behaviors of H23 cells. Mechanically, luciferase reporter assay showed that ZEB1 was a direct target of miR-326. MiR-326 mimic downregulated the expression of ZEB1. Furthermore, knocking down ZEB1 strongly inhibited the proliferation, invasion and migration of H23 cells but promoted apoptosis. MiR-326 could target ZEB1 to inhibit the proliferation, invasion and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells and promote apoptosis, which is a potential therapeutic target for lung adenocarcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00368504211009379DOI Listing
April 2021

Targeting long noncoding RNA PMIF facilitates osteoprogenitor cells migrating to bone formation surface to promote bone formation during aging.

Theranostics 2021 20;11(11):5585-5604. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Lab for Bone Metabolism, Xi'an Key Laboratory of Special Medicine and Health Engineering, Key Lab for Space Biosciences and Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, China.

The migration of mesenchymal osteoprogenitor cells (OPCs) to bone formation surface is the initial step of osteoblastogenesis before they undergo osteoblast differentiation and maturation for governing bone formation. However, whether the migration capacity of OPCs is compromised during aging and how it contributes to the aging-related bone formation reduction remain unexplored. In the present study, we identified a migration inhibitory factor (, long noncoding RNA PMIF) and examined whether targeting lnc-PMIF could facilitate osteoprogenitor cells migrating to bone formation surface to promote bone formation during aging. Primary OPCs from young (6-momth-old) and aged (18-momth-old) C57BL/6 mice and stable lnc-PMIF knockdown/overexpression cell lines were used for and cell migration assay (, wound healing assay, transwell assay and cell intratibial injection assay). RNA pulldown-MS/WB and RIP-qPCR were performed to identify the RNA binding proteins (RBPs) of lnc-PMIF. Truncations of lnc-PMIF and the identified RBP were engaged to determine the interaction motif between them by RNA pulldown-WB and EMSA. By cell-based therapy approach and by pharmacological approach, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated lnc-PMIF knockdown were used in aged mice. The cell migration ability was evaluated by transwell assay and cell intratibial injection assay. The bone formation was evaluated by microCT analysis and bone morphometry analysis. We reported that the decreased bone formation was accompanied by the reduced migration capacity of the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs, the unique source of OPCs in bone marrow) in aged mice. We further identified that the long non-coding RNA PMIF (postulated migration inhibitory factor) (, lnc-PMIF) was highly expressed in BMSCs from aged mice and responsible for the reduced migration capacity of aged OPCs to bone formation surface. Mechanistically, we found that lnc-PMIF could bind to human antigen R (HuR) for interrupting the HuR-β-actin mRNA interaction, therefore inhibit the expression of β-actin for suppressing the migration of aged OPCs. We also authenticated a functionally conserved human lncRNA ortholog of the murine lnc-PMIF. By cell-based therapy approach, we demonstrated that replenishing the aged BMSCs with small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated lnc-PMIF knockdown could promote bone formation in aged mice. By pharmacological approach, we showed that targeted delivery of lnc-PMIF siRNA approaching the OPCs around the bone formation surface could also promote bone formation in aged mice. Toward translational medicine, this study hints that targeting lnc-PMIF to facilitate aged OPCs migrating to bone formation surface could be a brand-new anabolic strategy for aging-related osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.54477DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8039942PMC
March 2021

The prognosis prediction significance of Hounsfield unit value for stroke patients treated by intravenous thrombolysis.

BMC Med Imaging 2021 Apr 7;21(1):62. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 6 Haierxiang North Road, Nantong, 226001, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) is a rapid and effective treatment in the early stage of ischemic stroke patients and the purpose of this work is to explore the significance of Hounsfield unit (HU) value in Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) for predicting the clinical prognosis of stroke patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) treated by IVT.

Methods: The 84 stroke patients with MCAO treated by IVT were divided into good prognosis group (48 cases) and poor prognosis group (36 cases). HU ratio and HU difference calculated from non-contrast computed tomography between groups were analyzed.

Results: The HU ratio of good prognosis group was higher than that in poor prognosis group and the HU difference of good prognosis group was lower than that in poor prognosis group (P < 0.05). The HU ratio and ASPECTS were negatively correlated with the infarct volume, and the HU difference was positively correlated with the infarct volume (P < 0.05). HU difference was an independent risk factor for prognosis of patients with MCAO treated by IVT. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of HU ratio and HU difference for prognosis was 0.743 and 0.833 respectively.

Conclusion: The HU value changes are related to the clinical prognosis of stroke patients with MCAO treated by IVT, HU value may be a prognostic indicator for stroke patients with MCAO treated by IVT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12880-021-00592-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8028233PMC
April 2021

Two Key Amino Acids Variant of α-l-arabinofuranosidase from Str. 168 with Altered Activity for Selective Conversion Ginsenoside Rc to Rd.

Molecules 2021 Mar 19;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Molecular Biology Research Center, School of Life Sciences, Central South University, Changsha 410078, China.

α-l-arabinofuranosidase is a subfamily of glycosidases involved in the hydrolysis of l-arabinofuranosidic bonds, especially in those of the terminal non-reducing arabinofuranosyl residues of glycosides, from which efficient glycoside hydrolases can be screened for the transformation of ginsenosides. In this study, the ginsenoside Rc-hydrolyzing α-l-arabinofuranosidase gene, was cloned from and its codons were optimized for efficient expression in BL21 (DE3). The recombinant protein BsAbfA fused with an N-terminal His-tag was overexpressed and purified, and then subjected to enzymatic characterization. Site-directed mutagenesis of BsAbfA was performed to verify the catalytic site, and the molecular mechanism of BsAbfA catalyzing ginsenoside Rc was analyzed by molecular docking, using the homology model of sequence alignment with other β-glycosidases. The results show that the purified BsAbfA had a specific activity of 32.6 U/mg. Under optimal conditions (pH 5, 40 °C), the kinetic parameters of BsAbfA for NP-α-Araf and ginsenoside Rc were 0.6 mM and 0.4 mM, while the were 181.5 s mM and 197.8 s mM, respectively. More than 90% of ginsenoside Rc could be transformed by 12 U/mL purified BsAbfA at 40 °C and pH 5 in 24 h. The results of molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis suggested that the E173 and E292 variants for BsAbfA are important in recognizing ginsenoside Rc effectively, and to make it enter the active pocket to hydrolyze the outer arabinofuranosyl moieties at C position. These remarkable properties and the catalytic mechanism of BsAbfA provide a good alternative for the effective biotransformation of the major ginsenoside Rc into Rd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8003784PMC
March 2021

Orai3 exacerbates apoptosis of lens epithelial cells by disrupting Ca homeostasis in diabetic cataract.

Clin Transl Med 2021 Mar;11(3):e327

Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medicine, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ctm2.327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7933019PMC
March 2021

Immune Profiling Reveals Molecular Classification and Characteristic in Urothelial Bladder Cancer.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 11;9:596484. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Biotherapy Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) is the most common malignant tumor of the urinary system. Most patients do not benefit from treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors, which are closely associated with immune profiling in the context of UBC. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the immune profile of UBC to identify different immune subtypes that may influence therapy choice. We identified four subtypes of UBC based on immune profiling including immune ignorant, cold tumor, immune inactive, and hot tumor. After excluding the cold tumor subtype because of its unique pathology distinct from the other types, a high correlation between patient survival and immune characteristics was observed. Most immune cell types had highly infiltrated the hot tumor subtype compared to other subtypes. Interestingly, although immune cells infiltrated the tumor microenvironment, they exhibited an exhaustion phenotype. CCL4 may be the key molecule functioning in immune cell infiltration in the hot tumor subtype. Moreover, neutrophils may function as an important suppressor in the tumor microenvironment of the immune ignorant and immune inactive subtypes. Furthermore, different tumor-intrinsic signaling pathways were involved in immune cell infiltration and exclusion in these four different subtypes. Immune profiling could serve as a prognostic biomarker for UBC, and has potential to guide treatment decisions in UBC. Targeting tumor-intrinsic signaling pathways may be a promising strategy to treat UBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.596484DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7990773PMC
March 2021

Individual associations of adolescent alcohol use disorder versus cannabis use disorder symptoms in neural prediction error signaling and the response to novelty.

Dev Cogn Neurosci 2021 Apr 15;48:100944. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Center for Neurobehavioral Research in Children, Boys Town National Research Hospital, Boys Town, NE, United States.

Two of the most commonly used illegal substances by adolescents are alcohol and cannabis. Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and cannabis use disorder (CUD) are associated with poorer decision-making in adolescents. In adolescents, level of AUD symptomatology has been negatively associated with striatal reward responsivity. However, little work has explored the relationship with striatal reward prediction error (RPE) representation and the extent to which any augmentation of RPE by novel stimuli is impacted. One-hundred fifty-one adolescents participated in the Novelty Task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In this task, participants learn to choose novel or non-novel stimuli to gain monetary reward. Level of AUD symptomatology was negatively associated with both optimal decision-making and BOLD response modulation by RPE within striatum and regions of prefrontal cortex. The neural alterations in RPE representation were particularly pronounced when participants were exploring novel stimuli. Level of CUD symptomatology moderated the relationship between novelty propensity and RPE representation within inferior parietal lobule and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. These data expand on an emerging literature investigating individual associations of AUD symptomatology levels versus CUD symptomatology levels and RPE representation during reinforcement processing and provide insight on the role of neuro-computational processes underlying reinforcement learning/decision-making in adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2021.100944DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024914PMC
April 2021

Reduced neural differentiation of rewards and punishment during passive avoidance learning in adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder.

Depress Anxiety 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Center for Neurobehavioral Research, Boys Town National Research Hospital, Boys Town, Nebraska, USA.

Background: It has been proposed that individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) show dysfunctional computations related to approach-avoidance decision-making. However, few studies have examined the neural basis of this impairment, particularly in adolescents with GAD. The goal of the current study was to address this gap in the literature.

Method: The study involved 51 adolescents with GAD and 51 typically developing (TD) comparison individuals matched on age (16.10 and 15.75 respective means), gender (30 F/21 M and 24 F/27 M), and IQ (103.20 and 103.18 respective means). Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a passive avoidance task.

Results: We found a significant Group-by-Reinforcement interaction within reward-related brain regions including the caudate, putamen, mid cingulate/paracentral lobule, and superior and middle frontal gyrus. TD adolescents showed a greater differential response to reward versus punishment feedback within these regions relative to adolescents with GAD. In particular, this reflected reduced responses to rewards in the adolescents with GAD. There were no group differences in neural responses when making approach/avoidance responses.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest reduced differential responsiveness to reinforcement as a component of the pathophysiology seen in adolescents with GAD. This dysfunction likely underpins decision-making impairments that may exacerbate the participants' worry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/da.23150DOI Listing
March 2021

Alcohol Use Disorder and Cannabis Use Disorder Symptomatology in Adolescents and Aggression: Associations With Recruitment of Neural Regions Implicated in Retaliation.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2021 May 19;6(5):536-544. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Center for Neurobehavioral Research, Boys Town National Research Hospital, Boys Town, Nebraska.

Background: Alcohol and cannabis are commonly used by adolescents in the United States. Both alcohol use disorder (AUD) and cannabis use disorder (CUD) have been associated with an increased risk of aggression. One form of aggression seen during retaliation is reactive aggression to social provocation. This study investigated the association between AUD and CUD symptom severity and recruitment of neural regions implicated in retaliation.

Methods: In this study, 102 youths aged 13-18 years (67 male; 84 in residential care) completed self-report measures of aggression-related constructs and participated in a retaliation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the association between relative severity of AUD/CUD and atypical recruitment of regions implicated in retaliation.

Results: AUD Identification Test scores were positively associated with irritability and reactive aggression scores. CUD Identification Test scores were positively associated with callous-unemotional traits and both proactive and reactive aggression scores. In functional magnetic resonance imaging analyses, only AUD Identification Test (not CUD Identification Test) scores were associated with an exaggerated recruitment of regions implicated in retaliation (dorsomedial frontal, anterior insula cortices, caudate, and, to a lesser extent, periaqueductal gray).

Conclusions: These data suggest that relative severity of AUD is associated with a disinhibited, exaggerated retaliation response that relates to an increased risk for reactive aggression. Similar findings were not related to severity of CUD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.11.016DOI Listing
May 2021

Circulating microRNA Expression in Cushing's Syndrome.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 22;12:620012. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Endocrinology, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany.

Context: Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare disease of endogenous hypercortisolism associated with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis and classification of CS is still challenging.

Objective: Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are minimally invasive diagnostic markers. Our aim was to characterize the circulating miRNA profiles of CS patients and to identify distinct profiles between the two major CS subtypes.

Methods: We included three groups of patients from the German Cushing's registry: ACTH-independent CS (Cortisol-Producing-Adenoma; CPA), ACTH-dependent pituitary CS (Cushing's Disease; CD), and patients in whom CS had been ruled out (controls). Profiling of miRNAs was performed by next-generation-sequencing (NGS) in serum samples of 15 CS patients (each before and after curative surgery) and 10 controls. Significant miRNAs were first validated by qPCR in the discovery cohort and then in an independent validation cohort of 20 CS patients and 11 controls.

Results: NGS identified 411 circulating miRNAs. Differential expression of 14 miRNAs were found in the pre- and postoperative groups. qPCR in the discovery cohort validated 5 of the significant miRNAs from the preoperative group analyses. Only, miR-182-5p was found to be significantly upregulated in the CD group of the validation cohort. Comparing all CS samples as a group with the controls did not reveal any significant differences in expression.

Outcome: In conclusion, our study identified miR-182-5p as a possible biomarker for CD, which has to be validated in a prospective cohort. Furthermore, our results suggest that presence or absence of ACTH might be at least as relevant for miRNA expression as hypercortisolism itself.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.620012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7937959PMC
February 2021

Comparison of the guidelines on good agricultural and collection practices in herbal medicine of the European Union, China, the WHO, and the United States of America.

Pharmacol Res 2021 May 4;167:105533. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Baotou Medical College, Baotou 014040, Inner Mongolia, PR China; Inner Mongolia Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hohhot 010020, Inner Mongolia, PR China; Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory of Characteristic Geoherbs Resources Protection and Utilization, Baotou 014040, Inner Mongolia, PR China; Key Laboratory of Resourceology of Chinese Medicinal Materials, Baotou 014040, Inner Mongolia, PR China; Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot 010110, Inner Mongolia, PR China. Electronic address:

Owing to modern developments in the traditional medicine industry, more people now acknowledge the efficacy of traditional medicine. As the demand for herbal medicines gradually increases, the focus of the industry will shift to how to increase production while maintaining the high quality of raw materials and final products to promote the international trade in herbal medicines. In the long history of herbal medicine, many countries and regions have formulated relevant standards to regulate the cultivation of local herbs to ensure the safety and reliability of the products. Due to cultural and historical differences, the policies for formulating herbal cultivation standards vary greatly between regions, which hinders the international trade of herbal medicines. This paper collates the guidelines of good agricultural and collection practices of the European Union, China, World Health Organization and the United States, and makes a comprehensive comparison of its contents such as production environments, production area suitability, air, soil, and water standard regulations, inter alia. This article aims to explore the differences in good agriculture and collection practice in herbal medicine in various regions and provides a reference for the development of international guidelines for herbal quality management, which will aid with the development of herbal medicine quality standardization globally and exchange services in the trade of herbal medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2021.105533DOI Listing
May 2021

[Research Progress of Adipokine and Kidney Disease].

Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2021 Feb;43(1):130-135

Department of Nephrology,Tianjin Children's Hospital,Tianjin Medical University,Tianjin 300000,China.

Adipokines,the bioactive polypeptides secreted by adipose tissue,are related to the occurrence and development of obesity,metabolic syndrome,renal insufficiency,cardiovascular disease,diabetes mellitus and other diseases.They may be the disease intervention targets and a breakthrough in the study of disease pathogenesis.In this paper,we summarize the latest research progress of the adipokines omentin,chemerin and nesfatin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3881/j.issn.1000-503X.11530DOI Listing
February 2021

Interleukin-18 promotes the antitumor ability of natural killer cells in colorectal cancer via the miR-574-3p/TGF-β1 axis.

Bioengineered 2021 Dec;12(1):763-778

Department of Gastroenterology, Shenzhen People's Hospital Longhua Branch (The Second Clinical Medical College, Jinan University; The First Affiliated Hospital, Southern University of Science and Technology), Shenzhen 518020, Guangdong, China.

Interleukin (IL)-18 has a clear antitumor effect; however, its mechanisms of action are not understood in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we investigated the potential mechanism of IL-18 in CRC. The results showed that IL-18 treatment alone had no effect on HCT116 cells apoptosis, whereas IL-18 in the presence of natural killer (NK) cells resulted in apoptosis and inhibition of cells proliferation in vitro. Profiling of miRNA expression following coculture with NK cells and treatment with IL-18 resulted in significant downregulation of miR-574-3p expression and upregulated expression of the target gene transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1). miR-574-3p binds to TGF-β1, and miR-574-3p overexpression increased the proliferation and decreased the apoptotic rate of HCT116 cells in NK cells coculture with IL-18 treatment; overexpression of TGF-β1 restored the effect of miR-574-3p overexpression. The miRNA profile of HCT116 undergoes significant alteration before and after coculturing with NK cells and treatment with IL-18. IL-18 alone did not affect HCT116 cells apoptosis but did promote the antitumor ability of NK cells in coculture with HCT116 cells via the miR-574-3p/TGF-β1 axis. Our study suggested that IL-18 can be a new potential target for cancer immunotherapy for CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2021.1880717DOI Listing
December 2021

The mitochondrial genome of one 'twisted-wing parasite' cf. (Insecta, Strepsiptera, Xenidae) from Gaoligong Mountains, Southwest of China.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Feb 11;6(2):512-514. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

The nearly complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of cf. , one twisted-wing parasite on wasp from Southwest of China, is described in this study. The total length of this mitogenome is 16,717 bp, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs) and an incomplete A + T-rich control region . All of the 13 PCGs are initiated with canonical ATN (N represents A, T, G, C) as start codons; 8 PCGs are terminated with a complete typical stop codon TAA, and the remaining five PCGs (, , , and ) have an incomplete stop codon with just a T. The phylogenetic analysis based on the nucleotide sequences of PCGs and rRNAs indicates that cf has a close relationship with , confirming its placement in the family Xenidae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1872443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7889101PMC
February 2021

[A multicenter study of the birth condition of preterm infants and the causes of preterm birth in Henan Province, China].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2021 Feb;23(2):121-126

Department of Neonatology, Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China.

Objective: To investigate the birth condition of preterm infants and the causes of preterm birth in Henan Province, China, and to provide a basis for the prevention and treatment of preterm birth.

Methods: An epidemiological investigation was conducted for live-birth preterm infants who were born in 53 hospitals in 17 cities of Henan Province from January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2019 to investigate the incidence rate of preterm birth, the distribution of gestational age and birth weight, the use of antenatal glucocorticoids, and the causes of preterm birth.

Results: The incidence rate of preterm birth was 5.84% (12 406/212 438) in the 53 hospitals. The proportions of preterm infants with gestational ages of < 28 weeks, 28 - < 32 weeks, 32 - < 34 weeks, and 34 - < 37 weeks were 1.58% (196/12 406), 11.46% (1 422/12 406), 15.18% (1 883/12 406), and 71.78% (8 905/12 406) respectively. The proportions of preterm infants with birth weights of < 1 000 g, 1 000- < 1 500 g, 1 500- < 2 500 g, 2 500- < 4 000 g, and ≥ 4 000 g were 1.95% (240/12 313), 8.54% (1 051/12 313), 49.53% (6 099/12 313), 39.59% (4 875/12 313), and 0.39% (48/12 313) respectively. The infants born by natural labor accounted for 28.76% (3 568/12 406), and those born by cesarean section accounted for 70.38% (8 731/12 406). The rate of use of antenatal glucocorticoids was 52.52% (6 293/11 983) for preterm infants and 68.69% (2 319/3 376) for the preterm infants with a gestational age of < 34 weeks. Iatrogenic preterm labor was the leading cause of preterm birth[40.06% (4 915/12 270)], followed by spontaneous preterm birth[30.16% (3 701/12 270)] and preterm birth due to premature rupture of membranes[29.78% (3 654/12 270)]. The top three causes of iatrogenic preterm birth were hypertensive disorders of pregnancy[47.12% (2 316/4 915)], fetal intrauterine distress[22.85% (1 123/4 915)], and placenta previa/placental abruption[18.07% (888/4 915)].

Conclusions: There is a relatively low incidence rate of preterm birth in Henan Province, and late preterm infants account for a relatively high proportion. Iatrogenic preterm birth is the main cause of preterm birth in Henan Province, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and fetal intrauterine distress are the main causes of iatrogenic preterm birth.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921542PMC
February 2021

Impact of Implementing CYP2C19 Genotype-Guided Antiplatelet Therapy on P2Y Inhibitor Selection and Clinical Outcomes in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Real-World Study in China.

Front Pharmacol 2020 20;11:582929. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Pharmacy, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

CYP2C19 loss-of-function (LOF) alleles reduce the effectiveness of clopidogrel in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndrome. However, the clinical impact of implementing CYP2C19 gene-guided pharmacotherapy is unclear, especially among the Chinese population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate P2Y12 receptor inhibitor selection and clinical outcomes upon implementation of CYP2C19 genotype-guided pharmacotherapy in current clinical practice. This was a single-center observational cohort study. Adult percutaneous coronary intervention patients who received CYP2C19 genetic testing (*2, *3, *17 alleles) were included. Ticagrelor was recommended for patients with a LOF allele. Factors related to P2Y12 inhibitor selection were determined by logistic regression. The primary endpoint was major cardiac or cerebrovascular adverse events (MACCE) within 12 months. MACCE and clinically significant bleeding events (BARC ≥2) in the LOF-clopidogrel group, non-LOF-clopidogrel group, and non-LOF-ticagrelor group were compared with those in the LOF-ticagrelor group. The inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was adjusted in a Cox regression analysis to eliminate confounding factors. Among 1,361 patients, 826 (60.7%) had a LOF allele. Patients with a LOF allele were more likely to be prescribed ticagrelor (multivariate-adjusted OR 1.349; 95% CI 1.040 to 1.751; = 0.024). The MACCE rate was higher in the LOF-clopidogrel group than in the LOF-ticagrelor group (7.8 vs. 4.0%; log-rank = 0.029; IPTW-adjusted HR 2.138; 95% CI 1.300-3.515). Compared with the LOF-ticagrelor group, the non-LOF-clopidogrel group showed no significant difference in MACCE rate (5.8 vs. 4.0%; log-rank = 0.272; IPTW-adjusted HR 1.531; 95% CI 0.864-2.714). Among the patients treated with ticagrelor, there was no significant difference in the MACCE rate between the LOF group and non-LOF group (4.3 vs. 4.0%; log-rank = 0.846; IPTW-adjusted HR 1.184; 95% CI 0.582-2.410). There was no significant difference in the incidence of clinically significant bleeding events among the four groups. This study confirms that efficiently returned CYP2C19 genotype results did partially guide cardiologists to prescribe ticagrelor for patients with a LOF allele, and that clopidogrel had a higher risk of MACCE than ticagrelor in these patients, which provides support for the implementation of CYP2C19 gene-guided antiplatelet therapy in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.582929DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7854467PMC
January 2021

Neonatal cortical astrocytes possess intrinsic potential in neuronal conversion in defined media.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 Feb 5. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Signaling and Disease Research, Laboratory of Receptor-based Bio-medicine, Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Astrocytes are multifunctional brain cells responsible for maintaining the health and function of the central nervous system. Accumulating evidence suggests that astrocytes might be complementary source across different brain regions to supply new neurons during adult neurogenesis. In this study, we found that neonatal mouse cortical astrocytes can be directly converted into neurons when exposed to neurogenic differentiation culture conditions, with insulin being the most critical component. Detailed comparison studies between mouse cortical astrocytes and neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) demonstrated the converted neuronal cells originate indeed from the astrocytes rather than NPCs. The neurons derived from mouse cortical astrocytes display typical neuronal morphologies, express neuronal markers and possess typical neuronal electrophysiological properties. More importantly, these neurons can survive and mature in the mouse brain in vivo. Finally, by comparing astrocytes from different brain regions, we found that only cortical astrocytes but not astrocytes from other brain regions such as hippocampus and cerebellum can be converted into neurons under the current condition. Altogether, our findings suggest that neonatal astrocytes from certain brain regions possess intrinsic potential to differentiate/transdifferentiate into neurons which may have clinical relevance in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-020-00586-0DOI Listing
February 2021

Preparation and properties of Pue-loaded HA-ADH-PS nanomicelles.

Des Monomers Polym 2021 Jan 17;24(1):1-12. Epub 2021 Jan 17.

Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao P.R. China.

Puerarin (Pue) is the most abundant isoflavonoid in kudzu root. It has been widely used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, poor-bioavailability of puerarin is the main obstacle to its widespread clinical applications. In this paper, HA-ADH-PS nanomicelles were prepared by chemical modification, noncovalent modification and etc, and characterized by means of FT-IR, ultraviolet (UV) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading of Pue-loaded HA-ADH-PS nanomicelles were 45.1% and 19.89% by UV, respectively. It could be observed from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images that HA-ADH-PS micelles appeared obvious spherical structure in the water. The particle size of HA-ADH-PS nanomicelles and Pue-loaded HA-ADH-PS nanomicelles were about 136.8 nm and 119.5 nm with a PDI of 0.237 and 0.272, respectively. The fluorescence probe method was used to characterize the critical micelle concentration, the critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of the nanomicells was 0.002 g/L and the results met the requirements and ensured the stability of micelles after dilution. DPPH assay suggested that Pue-loaded HA-ADH-PS nanomicelles had an obvious radical scavenging effect in vitro. MTT test showed that Pue-loaded HA-ADH-PS nanomicelles was non-toxic and had good biocompatibility. Thus, Pue-loaded HA-ADH-PS nanomicelles could be used as a potential drug carrier for puerarin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15685551.2020.1860481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7832032PMC
January 2021

Occupational stressors, mental health, and sleep difficulty among nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic: The mediating roles of cognitive fusion and cognitive reappraisal.

J Contextual Behav Sci 2021 Jan 17;19:64-71. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

The Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, Shandong, China.

This study aimed to examine the relationships between occupational stressors, mental health problems, and sleep difficulty, and the mediating roles of cognitive fusion and cognitive reappraisal on the relationships in Chinese nurses. A total of 323 nurses (mean age = 32.11 ± 6.75 years) from 25 hospitals in China participated a cross-sectional online survey. Participants were asked to refer to the period during the severest time of the COVID-19 pandemic in China (January to March 2020) when assessing the psychological variables. The direct links from occupational stressors to cognitive fusion, cognitive reappraisal, mental health and sleep difficulty were significant. Cognitive fusion and cognitive reappraisal mediated the links from occupational stressors to mental health problems, while cognitive fusion and mental health problems mediated the links from occupational stressors to sleep difficulty. The sequential mediation via cognitive fusion and mental health problems as well as via cognitive reappraisal and mental health problems on the links from occupational stressors to sleep difficulty were also significant. Findings from the current study indicate that intervention strategies focusing on the reduction of cognitive fusion and improvement of cognitive reappraisal could help better prepare nurses to alleviate mental health problems and sleep difficulties that are related to COVID-19 and potentially similar pandemics in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcbs.2020.12.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7834481PMC
January 2021

Dl-3-n-Butylphthalide Alleviates Hippocampal Neuron Damage in Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion Regulation of the CNTF/CNTFRα/JAK2/STAT3 Signaling Pathways.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 13;12:587403. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) contributes to cognitive impairments, and hippocampal neuronal death is one of the key factors involved in this process. Dl-3-n-butylphthalide (D3NB) is a synthetic compound originally isolated from the seeds of , which exhibits neuroprotective effects against some neurological diseases. However, the protective mechanisms of D3NB in a CCH model mimicking vascular cognitive impairment remains to be explored. We induced CCH in rats by a bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) operation. Animals were randomly divided into a sham-operated group, CCH 4-week group, CCH 8-week group, and the corresponding D3NB-treatment groups. Cultured primary hippocampal neurons were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) to mimic CCH . We aimed to explore the effects of D3NB treatment on hippocampal neuronal death after CCH as well as its underlying molecular mechanism. We observed memory impairment and increased hippocampal neuronal apoptosis in the CCH groups, combined with inhibition of CNTF/CNTFRα/JAK2/STAT3 signaling, as compared with that of sham control rats. D3NB significantly attenuated cognitive impairment in CCH rats and decreased hippocampal neuronal apoptosis after BCCAO or OGD/R . More importantly, D3NB reversed the inhibition of CNTF/CNTFRα expression and activated the JAK2/STAT3 pathway. Additionally, JAK2/STAT3 pathway inhibitor AG490 counteracted the protective effects of D3NB . Our results suggest that D3NB could improve cognitive function after CCH and that this neuroprotective effect may be associated with reduced hippocampal neuronal apoptosis modulation of CNTF/CNTFRα/JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathways. D3NB may be a promising therapeutic strategy for vascular cognitive impairment induced by CCH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.587403DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7838126PMC
January 2021

Serrated neoplasia in the colorectum: gut microbiota and molecular pathways.

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1-12

Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong SAR, China.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease with different gene expression patterns. There are two major colorectal carcinogenesis pathways: conventional adenoma-carcinoma pathway and alternative serrated neoplasia pathway. Apart from the conventional pathway that is typically initiated by characteristic mutation and chromosomal instability, the serrated neoplasia pathway is mainly characterized by mutations of or , microsatellite instability (MSI), and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). Despite the malignant potential of serrated lesions, they can be easily overlooked during endoscopy screening and even in pathological assessment due to its anatomical location, morphology, and histological features. It has been shown that environmental factors especially the gut microbial composition play a key role in CRC pathogenesis. Thus, the preferential localization of serrated lesions in specific intestine areas suggest that niche-specific microbiota composition might intertwined with host genetic perturbations during the development of serrated lesions. Although serrated lesions and conventional adenomas are biologically different, most studies have focused on conventional adenomas, while the pathophysiology and role of microorganisms in the development of serrated lesions remain elusive. In this review, we discuss on the role of gut microbiota in the serrated neoplasia pathway of colorectal carcinogenesis and its specific clinical and molecular features, and summarize the potential mechanisms involved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490976.2020.1863135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7781617PMC
December 2020

High-efficiency chirped grating couplers on lithium niobate on insulator.

Opt Lett 2020 Dec;45(24):6651-6654

High-efficiency chirped grating couplers (GCs) with coupling efficiencies (CE) approaching 90%/coupler were designed by using a particle swarm optimization algorithm. These GCs were fabricated on $z$-cut lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) with an Au layer on the lithium niobate substrate. The maximum CEs for transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarization input were measured up to ${\sim}{72.0}\%$/coupler and ${\sim}{61.6}\%$/coupler, respectively, which are the state-of-the-art values for LNOI GCs as far as we know. These GCs contribute to the realization of high-efficiency LNOI on-chip integrated optics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.412902DOI Listing
December 2020

How important is abiotic dissipation in natural attenuation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil?

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 25;758:143687. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and the Agri-environment in Northwest China, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, China.

Natural attenuation capacity, as one of the most important ecosystem functions in soil, plays a vital role in the detoxification of organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, despite the role of biodegradation is established, the contribution of abiotic dissipation to natural attenuation has long been overlooked. Herein, the abiotic dissipations of 16 types of PAHs in a past coking site and of anthracene (ANT) in various cultivated soils were studied. Results showed that the contributions of abiotic dissipation to the total attenuation were in a wide range from 11.8 to 99.7% depending on the types of PAHs. Specifically, abiotic dissipation is higher for heavy PAHs (68.3-99.7%) than for light PAHs (11.8-71.5%), with the exception of ANT (80.7%). Similarly, the contribution of abiotic dissipation to ANT attenuation ranged from 30.7 to 68.6% in eight soils. The abiotic dissipation rate of ANT followed the order of lateritic-red earth > gray-desery soil > coastal solonchaks > cumulated-irrigated soil > cinnamon soil > fluvo-aquic soil > purplish soil ~ yellow-brown earth, which was positively correlated with transition metal contents in soils. These findings demonstrated that the abiotic dissipation of PAHs is determined by both molecule properties and soil types. Overall, this work provided valuable insights into clarifying the roles of abiotic dissipation in PAH attenuation in soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143687DOI Listing
March 2021

The associations between meeting 24-hour movement guidelines and adiposity in Asian Adolescents: The Asia-Fit Study.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2021 Mar 12;31(3):763-771. Epub 2020 Dec 12.

Department of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Less is known about how compliance with 24-hour movement guidelines for physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and sleep affects adiposity in young people. The purposes of this study were to compare compliance with 24-hour movement guidelines in Asian adolescents and to examine the associations between compliance with 24-hour movement guidelines and body fat percentage. A sample of 12 590 adolescents aged 13.63 (± 1.01) years from eight Asian metropolitan cities including Bangkok (Thailand), Hong Kong SAR, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia), Seoul (South Korea), Shanghai (China), Singapore, Taipei (Taiwan), and Tokyo (Japan) completed interviewer-administered questionnaires to assess moderate-to-vigorous PA, recreational screen time, sleep duration, and covariates. Body fat percentage was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. We found that compliance with 24-hour movement guidelines differed in Asian adolescents across the eight cities. Adjusting for covariates, there was a negative association between number of the guidelines being met and body fat percentage in Asian adolescents. In addition, meeting only the sleep guideline and both the PA and sleep guidelines had negative associations with body fat percentage compared with no guidelines being met. Our findings improve the understanding about how compliance with 24-hour movement guidelines benefit a healthy body weight in adolescents, as well as contribute to development of evidence-based 24-hour movement guidelines for Asian young people. Future research is needed to gain better insights into the directionality of the associations between compliance with 24-hour movement guidelines and adiposity, as well as the mechanisms underlying the associations in Asian adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.13893DOI Listing
March 2021

Genetic variant of RXR involved in the vitamin D metabolic pathway was linked to HCV infection outcomes among a high-risk Chinese population.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Jan 24;87:104641. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Fundamental and Community Nursing, School of Nursing, Nanjing Medical University, No. 818 East Tianyuan Road, Nanjing 211166, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Genetic variation of related genes in Vitamin D (VD) metabolic pathway played an important role in antiviral immune response and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Retinoid X receptor (RXR) is one of the key genes in the metabolism pathway of VD. This study aims to investigate the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RXR on the outcomes of HCV infection. Three SNPs (RXRɑ-rs4842194, rs1045570 and RXRβ-rs2076310) were genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY platform in 515 spontaneous clearance subjects, 830 persistent infection subjects, and 1062 uninfected subjects. Multivariate stepwise regression analyss was used to identify the prediction factors for HCV infection outcomes. The USCS Brower and RNAfold web serves were performed to further explore the potential biological functions of positive SNPs. The results of logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age, gender and types of high-risk population showed that subjects with RXRβ rs2076310-T (recessive model: adjusted OR = 1.598, 95%CI = 1.126-2.267, P = 0.009; additive model: adjusted OR = 1.196, 95%CI = 1.011-1.416, P = 0.037) had a significantly increased possibility of HCV infection chronicity. Rs2076310, age, types of high-risk population and aspartate aminotransferase were independent predictors of chronic HCV infection (P < 0.05). And the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of combined effects of these factors was 0.679. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that rs2076310 could affect the gene expression level by affecting the transcriptional regulatory activity of the corresponding gene region. These findings indicated that genetic variation of RXRβ was associated with the risk of HCV infection chronicity among a high-risk Chinese population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104641DOI Listing
January 2021

An Update on Physical Activity Research among Children in Hong Kong: A Scoping Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 17;17(22). Epub 2020 Nov 17.

School of Exercise Science, Physical and Health Education, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2, Canada.

Similar to their Western counterparts, children in Hong Kong generally fail to reach the recommended levels of physical activity (PA). As an ultra-dense metropolis, Hong Kong is different from most Western cities. It is therefore important to update and appraise previous PA research in order to inform future PA promotion for Hong Kong children. Using a scoping review, the current study aimed to evaluate PA research among preschool and school-aged children in Hong Kong aged 3-12 years old who are at a critical development stage. Literature was searched from four English databases: Medline via EBSCOhost, SPORTDiscus, ERIC and PsycINFO via ProQuest; and three Chinese databases: CNKI, CQVIP and WAN-FANG. PA research among Hong Kong children published from 1 January 1997 to the searching date, 31 March 2020 was included. A total of 63 studies were identified, with the majority of studies focused on school-aged children as compared to preschoolers, adopted a cross-sectional design, using self-reported PA measures, and with small to medium sample sizes. We classified eligible studies into five main categories: (a) Health benefits of PA ( = 12). Consistent evidence on the health benefits of skeletal and cardiovascular capacity, quality of life, cognitive function, and sleep quality was revealed. However, inconsistent evidence was found on the benefits of weight-related indicators and academic performance. (b) Patterns of PA ( = 12). There is a general pattern of low levels of PA among Hong Kong children, in particular girls and children with special educational needs. (c) Measures of PA and related constructs ( = 11). The Chinese versions of self-reported measures of PA, PA-related social environment, and PA-related psychological constructs showed acceptable reliabilities and validities. (d) Correlates of PA ( = 18). The correlates of PA include physical environment, social environment, physical factors, psychological factors, and multiple correlates, which is in line with the social-ecological model. (e) Interventions for promoting PA ( = 10). PA interventions among Hong Kong children were conducted for healthy children, children with special educational needs, and children with cancer. Overall, there is a growing volume of PA research among children in Hong Kong in the recent decade. Yet, there is a lack of high-quality research for measuring, understanding, and promoting PA among Hong Kong children. It is highly recommended that future PA research among children should pay more attention on the preschoolers, adopting robust research design (e.g., randomized controlled trials), recruiting large and representative sample, and collecting device-assessed data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7698465PMC
November 2020

Baicalein inhibits SARS-CoV-2/VSV replication with interfering mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in a mPTP dependent manner.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2020 11 13;5(1):266. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Tongji University Cancer Center, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital of Tongji University, School of Medicine, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-00353-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7662024PMC
November 2020

Quantitative acetylome analysis reveals involvement of glucosyltransferase acetylation in Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.

Environ Microbiol Rep 2021 Apr 24;13(2):86-97. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) effectively utilizes dietary sucrose for the exopolysaccharide productions, which are mostly synthesized by the effects of glucosyltransferases (Gtfs). In the present study, the acetylome of S. mutans was identified and quantitative acetylome analysis of the bacterial biofilm growth (SMB) was compared with that of planktonic growth (SMP). The dynamic changes of protein acetylation were quantified using the integrated approach involving TMT labeling and Kac affinity enrichment followed by high-resolution mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics. In total, 973 acetylation sites in 445 proteins were identified, among which 617 acetylation sites in 302 proteins were quantitated. The overall analysis indicated that 22.7% of proteins were acetylated. Among the quantified proteins in SMB, the acetylation degree of lysine in 56 sites increased, while that of lysine decreased in 52 sites. In the acetylome of S. mutans, six significantly enriched motifs were identified and obtained including Kac****K, KacF, Kac****R, KacY, KacH, F*Kac. In addition, KEGG pathway-based enrichment analysis indicated significant enrichments in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, and RNA degradation. Particularly, most downregulated acetylated lysine proteins were glucosyltransferase-SI, glucosyltransferase-I, and glucosyltransferase-S in S. mutans biofilm, which probably reveals a switch-off mechanism for the regulation of glucosyltransferases function during the biofilm development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1758-2229.12907DOI Listing
April 2021