Publications by authors named "Ru Tian"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Automated Classification and Segmentation in Colorectal Images Based on Self-Paced Transfer Network.

Biomed Res Int 2021 20;2021:6683931. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shanxi 710071, China.

Colorectal imaging improves on diagnosis of colorectal diseases by providing colorectal images. Manual diagnosis of colorectal disease is labor-intensive and time-consuming. In this paper, we present a method for automatic colorectal disease classification and segmentation. Because of label unbalanced and difficult colorectal data, the classification based on self-paced transfer VGG network (STVGG) is proposed. ImageNet pretraining network parameters are transferred to VGG network with training colorectal data to acquire good initial network performance. And self-paced learning is used to optimize the network so that the classification performance of label unbalanced and difficult samples is improved. In order to assist the colonoscopist to accurately determine whether the polyp needs surgical resection, feature of trained STVGG model is shared to Unet segmentation network as the encoder part and to avoid repeat learning of polyp segmentation model. The experimental results on 3061 colorectal images illustrated that the proposed method obtained higher classification accuracy (96%) and segmentation performance compared with a few other methods. The polyp can be segmented accurately from around tissues by the proposed method. The segmentation results underpin the potential of deep learning methods for assisting colonoscopist in identifying polyps and enabling timely resection of these polyps at an early stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6683931DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7843175PMC
June 2021

Cognitive impairment and associated risk factors in older adult hemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional survey.

Sci Rep 2020 07 27;10(1):12542. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Nephrology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Kidney Disease, Beijing, 100853, China.

The clinical epidemiological features of cognitive impairment in Chinese older adult patients undergoing hemodialysis are not clear, we aimed to identify the extent and patterns of cognitive impairment among those patients. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 613 hemodialysis patients aged 50 to 80 from 11 centers in Beijing. A neuropsychological battery of 11 tests covering domains of attention/processing speed, executive function, memory, language, and visuospatial function was applied, patients were classified as none, mild, or major cognitive impairment according to the fifth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for cognitive impairment. Compared with Chinese population norms, 37.2% of the participants had mild cognitive impairment, 43.7% had major cognitive impairment. Memory and language were the most severe impaired domains in the mild cognitive impairment group, attention and visuospatial function domains were the most serious impaired domains in the major cognitive impairment group. Concomitant impairment across multiple cognitive domains was common. Factors associated with major cognitive impairment included age, education level, history of stroke and hypertension, dialysis vintage, and single-pool Kt/V. There is a high frequency of cognitive impairment in Chinese older adult hemodialysis patients, with varying severity and concomitant impairment across multiple domains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69482-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7385128PMC
July 2020

The validation of the Beijing version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in Chinese patients undergoing hemodialysis.

PLoS One 2020 9;15(1):e0227073. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Division of Nephrology, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Bejing, China.

Objective: Cognitive impairment is common among hemodialysis patient, but still lack adequate screening in clinical settings. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is reportedly to be a sensitive screening tool for cognitive impairment, but its clinical value in patients undergoing hemodialysis is not well established. We aimed to validate the utility of the Beijing version of the MoCA (MoCA-BJ) for detecting cognitive impairment in comparison to a detailed neuropsychological battery as the gold standard.

Methods: We assessed 613 patients undergoing hemodialysis using the MoCA-BJ, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Cognitive dysfunction was defined by the fifth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). Spearman's correlation and linear regression were used to estimate the performance of the MoCA-BJ and MMSE in predicting cognitive impairment. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the utility of various cutoffs of the MoCA-BJ and MMSE for predicting cognitive impairment.

Results: Cognitive impairment was diagnosed in 80.91% (496/613), 75.69% (464/613), and 61.34% (376 /613) of the patients using the DSM-V, MoCA-BJ, and MMSE, respectively. Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicated that the MoCA-BJ was significantly correlated with the neuropsychological battery (rs = 0.639, p<0.001), whereas the MMSE had a weaker correlation with the battery. The area under the ROC curve for cognitive impairment diagnosis using the MoCA-BJ was 0.891 (95% confidence interval: 0.859-0.924) while using the MMSE was 0.823 (95% confidence interval: 0.786-0.860). The optimal MoCA-BJ cutoff score in discriminating patients with and without cognitive impairment was 24 points with a sensitivity of 0.877 and specificity of 0.752.

Conclusion: The MoCA-BJ offers good sensitivity and specificity levels in detecting cognitive impairment in hemodialysis patients. These findings support the utility of the MoCA-BJ as a screening tool for cognitive impairment in Chinese patients undergoing hemodialysis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0227073PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6952078PMC
April 2020

CD4(+)CD25(+) T Cells in primary malignant hypertension related kidney injury.

Sci Rep 2016 06 9;6:27659. Epub 2016 Jun 9.

Department of Interventional Therapy, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, The 9th Affiliated Hospital of Peking University, Beijing, P.R. China.

CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells are critical for maintenance of immunologic self-tolerance. We measured the number of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the patients with primary malignant hypertension related kidney injury, to explore the molecular pathogenesis of this disease. We selected 30 patients with primary malignant hypertension related kidney injury and 30 healthy volunteers. Information on clinical characteristics and laboratory tests was obtained from each subject. The number of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells and glomerular injury were assessed by flow cytometry and histopathology, respectively. Both serum IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6 and endothelial cell markers were analyzed by ELISA. ADAMTS13 antibody was detected by Western blotting. CD4(+)CD25(+) cells were significantly reduced in patients with primary malignant hypertension related kidney injury compared to controls (P < 0.05). The number of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells was negatively related to blood urea nitrogen, serum uric acid, proteinuria, and supernatant IL-4; whereas positively associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients. Gradually decreasing CD4(+)CD25(+) cells were also found as increasing renal injury. Additionally, patients exhibited increasing supernatant IL-4, serum IL-2 and IL-6, endothelial cell markers, and anti-ADAMTS13 antibody compared with controls (all P < 0.05). CD4(+)CD25(+) cells may play a key role in the pathogenesis of primary malignant hypertension related kidney injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep27659DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4899787PMC
June 2016

CD4+CD25+ cells in multiple myeloma related renal impairment.

Sci Rep 2015 Nov 13;5:16565. Epub 2015 Nov 13.

Section of Hematology/Oncology, Section of Gastroenterology, Stephenson Cancer Center, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, USA.

CD4(+)CD25(+) cells are critical regulators in almost all of the animal models of human organ-specific autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection and allergic diseases. We aimed to explore the role of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM) related renal impairment (RI). Thirty patients with MM related RI and 30 healthy volunteers were studied. The number of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells was examined by flow cytometry. Clinical and laboratory data were collected from each subject. Glomerular injury was assessed by histopathology. Serum IL-2, IL-4 and IL-6 were analyzed by ELISA. CD4(+)CD25(+) cells significantly decreased in MM related RI patients compared to the controls (P<0.05). CD4(+)CD25(+) cell number was negatively associated with blood urea nitrogen (BUN), supernatant IL-4, serum IL-6, monoclonal immunoglobulin and β2-microglobulin, as well as bone marrow plasma cell percentage and proteinuria; whereas positively associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (all P < 0.05). CD4(+)CD25(+) cells gradually decreased as the Clinic Stage increased. The number of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells reduced in MM related RI patients, and was correlated with disease severity. CD4(+)CD25(+) cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis of MM related RI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep16565DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4643310PMC
November 2015

CD4 (+)CD 25 (+)Treg cells and IgA nephropathy patients with tonsillectomy: a clinical and pathological study.

Int Urol Nephrol 2014 Dec 4;46(12):2361-9. Epub 2014 Oct 4.

Division of Nephrology, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 10 Yangfangdian Tieyi Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100038, People's Republic of China,

Background: The relationship between tonsillar autoimmune response and the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) has been previously demonstrated. However, the role of CD4 (+)CD25 (+)Treg cells, which play critical roles in maintaining peripheral tolerance and preventing autoimmunity, has not yet been defined in IgAN.

Methods: Thirty-five patients with IgAN and 35 patients without renal disease were studied. The CD4 (+)CD25 (+)Treg cells were examined by flow cytometry. Clinical and laboratory data, such as serum creatinine and urinary samples, were obtained from each patient. Glomerular injury was assessed by histopathology. Serum IgA, C3, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-6 were analyzed by ELISA.

Results: CD4 (+)CD25 (+)Treg cells significantly decreased in IgAN patients compared with the controls before tonsillectomy (p < 0.05). CD4 (+)CD25 (+)Treg cells were negatively correlated with blood urea nitrogen, supernatant IL-4 and proteinuria in IgAN patients, and positively with estimated glomerular filtration rate. CD4 (+)CD25 (+)Treg cells gradually decreased as the severity of renal histology increased. In addition, serum IgA, IL-2, IL-6 and supernatant IL-4 elevated while CD4 (+)CD25 (+)Treg cells decreased in IgAN patients. CD4 (+)CD25 (+)Treg cells were significantly increased when serum IgA, IL-2, IL-6 and supernatant IL-4, urine protein and urine erythrocytes were decreased after tonsillectomy in patients with IgAN, but were still lower than those of the controls (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: CD4 (+)CD25 (+)Treg cells were associated with IgAN, and tonsillectomy may increase CD4 (+)CD25 (+)Treg cells in IgAN patients, leading to clinical improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-014-0851-6DOI Listing
December 2014

Immune and anti-oxidant functions of ethanol extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi in mice bearing U14 cervical cancers.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2014 ;15(10):4129-33

Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, China E-mail :

Background: The objective was to study the effect of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi ethanol extracts (SBGE) on immune and anti-oxidant function in U14 tumor-bearing mice.

Materials And Methods: U14 tumor-bearing mice were randomly divided into eight groups: a control group, a cyclophosphamide (CTX) group, three dose groups of SBGEI (high, medium, low), and three dose groups of SBGEII (high, medium, low). After two weeks, the thymus and spleen weight indices of mice bearing U14 cervical cancer were calculated. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) was used to determine the levels of serum IL-2, TNF-α, IL-8, and PCNA. MDA activity and SOD activity in plasma were measured with detection kits.

Results: In the SBGE groups, thymus weight and spleen weight indices of U14 tumor-bearing mice were significantly higher than in the control group or CTX group (p<0.05). Compared to control group, the levels of serum IL-2 and TNF-α in U14 tumor-bearing mice increased significantly, whereas the contents of serum IL-8 and PCNA decreased (p<0.05). The activity of SOD increased with the growing dose of SBGE, while the activity of MDA decreased significantly in the higher- dose groups of SBGE.

Conclusions: These findings suggested that SBGE, especially at high dose, 1000 mg/kg, showed significant immune and anti-oxidant effects in U14 tumor-bearing mice, which might be the mechanisms of SBGE inhibition of tumor growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2014.15.10.4129DOI Listing
May 2015

Comparative study of bacterial strains and antibiotic susceptibility tests between chronic tonsillitis patients with IgA nephropathy and without nephritis.

Ren Fail 2013 5;35(10):1334-7. Epub 2013 Sep 5.

Division of Nephrology, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University , Beijing , PR China .

Aim: The purpose of the present study was to detect bacterial strains and antibiotic susceptibility in chronic tonsillitis patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and without nephritis, in order to provide evidence for clinical therapy and pathogenesis of IgAN.

Methods: A total of 53 patients with IgAN (group A) and 53 chronic tonsillitis patients without nephritis (group B) underwent tonsillectomy. The tonsil tissues of patients were collected under sterile condition. The bacteria in the tonsil crypt of patients in both groups were isolated and identified for antibiotic susceptibility test by the manual routine of the laboratory and also with the autoScan/Microscan system.

Results: There were bacteria in each specimen in both groups. The bacteria detection rate was 100%, but there was no significant difference between two groups (p > 0.05). The 522 strains of bacteria in group A and 494 strains of bacteria in group B were isolated. Streptococcus. Neisseria, Hemophilus parainfluenzae. Staphylococcus. Bacillus proteus and Streptococcus pneumoniae were detected in both groups, but there was no significant difference in the types of bacteria between the two groups (all p > 0.05). Alpha streptococcus was the most common in both groups. The antibiotic susceptibility test showed that there was no significant difference in the susceptibility to penicillin, chloramphenicol, macrolides, cephalosporin, gentamicin, amikacin sulphate, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin and vancomycin between two groups (all p > 0.05).

Conclusions: Alpha streptococcus in both two groups can be detected and is the most common. There was no significant difference in bacterial strains and antibiotic susceptibility between two groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/0886022X.2013.829403DOI Listing
June 2014

[Expression of androgen receptor in breast carcinoma and its relationship with estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2 status].

Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi 2010 Nov;39(11):743-6

Department of Pathology, 252 Hospital of People's Liberatiion Army, Baoding 071000, Hebei Province, China.

Objective: to investigate the expression of androgen receptor (AR) in breast carcinoma and its relationship with estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 status, and to discuss its potential as treatment target.

Methods: immunohistochemical method was used to detect AR, ER, PR and HER2 expression in 175 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma of breast, which were divided into four groups: luminal A, luminal B, HER2(-) overexpression and triple negative group.

Results: eighty-eight cases (50.3%) were AR positive in 175 cases, the expression of AR was positively correlated with ER, PR and HER2 status. All the cases were grouped as follows: 53 cases (30.3%) were luminal A, 33 cases (18.9%) were luminal B, 23 cases (13.1%) were HER2(-) overexpression and 66 cases (37.7%) were triple negative, the AR expression rate was 56.6% (30/53), 75.8% (25/33), 47.8% (11/23), 33.3% (22/66), respectively. There was significant difference among the four groups' AR expression rates. With respect to the clinico-pathological features, AR positive cases were younger in luminal A and had lower mitosis rate in triple negative subgroups than the negative cases (χ(2) = 4.567, P = 0.033; χ(2) = 5.140, P = 0.023, respectively).

Conclusion: AR has a high positive rate in breast carcinoma, and may be an ideal therapeutic target for breast carcinoma, especially for the triple negative subtype.
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November 2010

Amperometric biosensor based on tyrosinase immobilized on a boron-doped diamond electrode.

Biosens Bioelectron 2007 Jan 18;22(6):822-8. Epub 2006 Apr 18.

Laboratory of Photoelectro Chemistry, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhong Guan Cun, Haidian District, Beijing 100080, People's Republic of China.

A novel method has been developed to immobilize tyrosinase onto the surface of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode. The hydrogen-terminated BDD (HBDD) surface was first functionalized by photochemically linking vinyl groups of allylamine, producing covalently linked amine-terminated active BDD (ABDD) surface. Then the tyrosinase was immobilized onto the ABDD surface by carbodiimide coupling reaction. The amperometric response was measured as a function of concentration of phenolic compounds in 0.1M phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.5). The tyrosinase-modified ABDD electrode gave a linear response range of 1-175, 1-200 and 1-200 microM and sensitivity of 80.0, 181.4 and 110.0 mA M(-1)cm(-2) for phenol, p-cresol, 4-chlorophenol, respectively. Moreover, selective detection of dopamine (DA) in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) has been demonstrated with the tyrosinase-modified ABDD electrode. Linearity was observed within the range of 5-120 microM. The above enzyme electrode could maintain 90% of its original activity after intermittent use for 1 month when storing in a dry state at 4 degrees C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2006.03.001DOI Listing
January 2007

Standardizing global gene expression analysis between laboratories and across platforms.

Nat Methods 2005 May 21;2(5):351-6. Epub 2005 Apr 21.

To facilitate collaborative research efforts between multi-investigator teams using DNA microarrays, we identified sources of error and data variability between laboratories and across microarray platforms, and methods to accommodate this variability. RNA expression data were generated in seven laboratories, which compared two standard RNA samples using 12 microarray platforms. At least two standard microarray types (one spotted, one commercial) were used by all laboratories. Reproducibility for most platforms within any laboratory was typically good, but reproducibility between platforms and across laboratories was generally poor. Reproducibility between laboratories increased markedly when standardized protocols were implemented for RNA labeling, hybridization, microarray processing, data acquisition and data normalization. Reproducibility was highest when analysis was based on biological themes defined by enriched Gene Ontology (GO) categories. These findings indicate that microarray results can be comparable across multiple laboratories, especially when a common platform and set of procedures are used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmeth754DOI Listing
May 2005

Base pairing among three cis-acting sequences contributes to template switching during hepadnavirus reverse transcription.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003 Feb 10;100(4):1984-9. Epub 2003 Feb 10.

McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin Medical School, 1400 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

Synthesis of the relaxed-circular (RC) DNA genome of hepadnaviruses requires two template switches during plus-strand DNA synthesis: primer translocation and circularization. Although primer translocation and circularization use different donor and acceptor sequences, and are distinct temporally, they share the common theme of switching from one end of the minus-strand template to the other end. Studies of duck hepatitis B virus have indicated that, in addition to the donor and acceptor sequences, three other cis-acting sequences, named 3E, M, and 5E, are required for the synthesis of RC DNA by contributing to primer translocation and circularization. The mechanism by which 3E, M, and 5E act was not known. We present evidence that these sequences function by base pairing with each other within the minus-strand template. 3E base-pairs with one portion of M (M3) and 5E base-pairs with an adjacent portion of M (M5). We found that disrupting base pairing between 3E and M3 and between 5E and M5 inhibited primer translocation and circularization. More importantly, restoring base pairing with mutant sequences restored the production of RC DNA. These results are consistent with the model that, within duck hepatitis B virus capsids, the ends of the minus-strand template are juxtaposed via base pairing to facilitate the two template switches during plus-strand DNA synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0436218100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC149945PMC
February 2003

A secondary structure that contains the 5' and 3' splice sites suppresses splicing of duck hepatitis B virus pregenomic RNA.

J Virol 2002 Oct;76(20):10195-202

McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin Medical School, 1400 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

Pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) plays two major roles in the hepadnavirus life cycle. It is the mRNA for two proteins required for DNA replication, C and P, and it is the template for reverse transcription. pgRNA is a terminally redundant transcript whose synthesis does not involve RNA splicing. For duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), a spliced RNA is derived from pgRNA by removal of a single intron. The mechanism for the simultaneous cytoplasmic accumulation of unspliced (pgRNA) and spliced RNA was not known. We found that mutations within two regions of the DHBV genome reduced the level of pgRNA while increasing the level of spliced RNA. One region is near the 5' end of pgRNA (region A), while the second is near the middle of pgRNA (region B). Inspection of the DHBV nucleotide sequence indicated that region A could base pair with region B. The 5' and 3' splice sites of the intron of the spliced RNA are within regions A and B, respectively. Substitutions that disrupted the predicted base pairing reduced the accumulation of pgRNA and increased the accumulation of spliced RNA. Restoration of base pairing, albeit mutant in sequence, resulted in restoration of pgRNA accumulation with a decrease in the level of spliced RNA. Our data are consistent with a model in which splicing of the pgRNA is suppressed by a secondary structure between regions A and B that occludes the splicing machinery from modifying pgRNA.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC136586PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/jvi.76.20.10195-10202.2002DOI Listing
October 2002
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