Publications by authors named "Roxana-Delia Trimbitas"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A review of the infection-associated cancers in North African countries.

Infect Agent Cancer 2016 10;11:35. Epub 2016 Aug 10.

Laboratory of Onco-virology, Institut Pasteur du Maroc, Casablanca, Morocco.

Cancer is typically classified as a leading non-communicable disease; however, infectious agents, such as Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human papilloma virus (HPV), contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of various cancers. Less developed countries, including countries of the North African (NA) region, endure the highest burden of infection-related cancers. The five most common infection-associated cancers in NA in order of incidence are bladder cancer, cervical cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. This review aims to outline the epidemiologic pattern of infection-associated cancers in five NA countries (namely: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt) highlighting the similarities and differences across the region. The present study employed an initial literature review of peer-reviewed articles selected from PubMed, ScienceDirect and World Health Organization (WHO) databases based on key word searches without restriction on publication dates. Original research articles and reports written in French, as well as data from institutional reports and regional meeting abstracts were also included in this extensive review. Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco were selected to be the focus of this review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13027-016-0083-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4979152PMC
August 2016

Molecular characterization of hepatitis C virus core region in moroccan intravenous drug users.

J Med Virol 2016 08 12;88(8):1376-83. Epub 2016 Feb 12.

Molecular Biology Laboratory, Pasteur Institute of Morocco, Casablanca, Morocco.

Intravenous drug users (IDUs) represent a highly-infected reservoir for Hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide, harboring some of the most elevated prevalences and majority of the epidemic in developed nations. Studies aimed at sequencing regions of the viral genome uncovered amino acid mutations, some of which have been implicated in resistance to standard of care pegylated interferon/Ribavirin double therapy. Using the nested PCR method on the Core region of HCV strains in Moroccan IDUs living in the Tangier region this study sought to identify genotype-specific amino acid mutations, followed by Phylogenetic methods in order to compare them with international strains so as to identify sequences of highest homology. Genotyping was confirmed and recombination events excluded by line-probe assay. Italy was found most homologous for genotypes 1a and 3a, Iran for genotype 1a and Egypt for genotype 4a. Amino Acid Mutation analysis revealed the following novel genotype 3a-specific mutations: N16I, L36V, T49A, P71S, T75S, and T110N. The outcome of this work describes the HCV genetic heterogeneity in high-risk intravenous drug users, and it gives clues to the global migratory flow of genotypes as they cross geographical boundaries between various IDU populations and identifies "signature" amino acid mutations traceable to HCV genotype 3a. Identification of key amino acid positions in the HCV Core region with higher rates of mutations paves the way for eventual clinical trials seeking to establish a link between these recurrent mutations and response to standard of care Interferon and Ribavirin antiviral therapy. J. Med. Virol. 88:1376-1383, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.24470DOI Listing
August 2016

Infectious diseases in North Africa and North African immigrants to Europe.

Eur J Public Health 2014 Aug;24 Suppl 1:47-56

2 Department of Molecular Genetic Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

The epidemiological transition has reduced infectious diseases mortality in most European countries, yet increased migrant influx risks importing diseases. All reported prevalence rates must be considered on a case-by-case basis depending on the disease in question, respective European Union (EU) country and migratory patterns at work. Tuberculosis has seen a re-emergence in Europe and is concentrated among migrants. Migrants arriving from North Africa (NA) and sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) carry higher rates of hepatitis C and B than the local EU population. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) impact of NA migrants to Europe is very low but a hallmark of the HIV epidemic is the penetration and circulation of non-B strains, recombinant forms and HIV-drug-resistant profiles through SSA migrants using NA as a transit point into Europe. Leishmaniasis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease prevalent to Southern Europe although not specifically isolated in migrant groups. Although not endemic in NA countries, malaria represent S: a risk in terms of re-emergence in Europe through transitory migrants arriving from SSA with the destination to Europe. Schistosomiasis has been largely eliminated from NA. High migrant flux into European countries has resulted in changing patterns of communicable disease and collectively requires a continuous surveillance. World Health Organization guidelines recommend targeted screening and preventative vaccination, followed by integration of migrants into the local health-care systems allowing for long-term treatment and follow-up. Finally, effective public health campaigns as a form of prevention are essential for the mitigation of disease dissemination in the migrant pool and for second-generation children of migrants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/cku109DOI Listing
August 2014

The "hidden" epidemic: a snapshot of Moroccan intravenous drug users.

Virol J 2014 Mar 6;11:43. Epub 2014 Mar 6.

Pasteur Institute of Morocco, Place Louis Pasteur, 20360 Casablanca, Morocco.

Background: Hepatitis C virus is a persistent epidemiological problem, with an estimated 170 million individuals infected worldwide, and the leading cause of asymptomatic chronic infection, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Injection drug users (IDUs) have the highest seroprevalence as compared to chronic hemodialysis and transfusion patients, and this cohort remains the most under-studied high-risk group in North Africa to date. This study first sought to characterize the demographic, epidemiological, and genotypic profile of a total sample size of 211 chronically-infected IDUs living in the Tangier region of Northern Morocco, and secondly to contrast this to other chronically-infected patients, in order to uncover possible discrepancies.

Results: The general 'profile' of local IDUs marks a stark contrast to chronically-infected HCV Moroccan patients, other African countries, and neighboring European countries. The majority of Moroccan drug users were found to be middle-aged and celibate. A relatively high seroprevalence was found among drug users (60%), and this increased with age. The majority of drug users shared their needles and this hold implications for transmission, as seropositive status was significantly different between those users that shared vs. those that did not share their needles. In addition, IDUs exhibited genotypes 1a and 3a predominantly, as compared to the predominant 1b and 2a/2c genotypes found in chronically HCV-infected patients. The IDU genotypic profile closely matches the one in other European countries (Portugal, Spain, France, and Italy), which are invariably speculated as the potential source of currently-circulating genotypes in Moroccan IDUs.

Conclusion: These findings have implications for disease prevention, transmission and treatment, as this distinct IDU subgroup cannot be collectively pooled along with other HCV-positive high-risk groups. Local government, practitioners, and health institutions should take this into account when treating, prescribing antiviral therapy, and designing preventative public health campaigns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-11-43DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3995948PMC
March 2014
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