Publications by authors named "Rossella Lupo"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Mutational analysis of the HIV-1 auxiliary protein Vif identifies independent domains important for the physical and functional interaction with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

Nucleic Acids Res 2009 Jun 15;37(11):3660-9. Epub 2009 Apr 15.

Institute of Molecular Genetics IGM-CNR, via Abbiategrasso 207, I-27100 Pavia, Italy.

The HIV-1 accessory protein Vif plays a dual role: it counteracts the natural restriction factors APOBEC3G and 3F and ensures efficient retrotranscription of the HIV-1 RNA genome. We have previously shown that Vif can act as an auxiliary factor for HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), increasing its rate of association to RNA or DNA templates. Here, by using seven different Vif mutants, we provide in vitro evidences that Vif stimulates HIV-1 RT through direct protein-protein interaction, which is mediated by its C-terminal domain. Physical interaction appears to require the proline-rich region comprised between amino acid (aa) 161 and 164 of Vif, whereas the RT stimulatory activity requires, in addition, the extreme C-terminal region (aa 169-192) of the Vif protein. Neither the RNA interaction domain, nor the Zn(++)-binding domain of Vif are required for its interaction with the viral RT. Pseudotyped HIV-1 lentiviral vectors bearing Vif mutants deleted in the RNA- or RT-binding domains show defects in retrotranscription/integration processes in both permissive and nonpermissive cells. Our results broaden our knowledge on how three important functions of Vif (RNA binding, RT binding and stimulation and Zn(++) binding), are coordinated by different domains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkp226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2699511PMC
June 2009

The F12-Vif derivative Chim3 inhibits HIV-1 replication in CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD34+-derived macrophages by blocking HIV-1 DNA integration.

Blood 2009 Apr 11;113(15):3443-52. Epub 2009 Feb 11.

MolMed S.p.A., Milano, Italy.

The viral infectivity factor (Vif) is essential for HIV-1 infectivity and hence is an ideal target for promising anti-HIV-1/AIDS gene therapy. We previously demonstrated that F12-Vif mutant inhibits HIV-1 replication in CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Despite macrophage relevance to HIV-1 pathogenesis, most gene therapy studies do not investigate macrophages because of their natural resistance to genetic manipulation. Here, we confirm the F12-Vif antiviral activity also in macrophages differentiated in vitro from transduced CD34(+) human stem cells (HSCs). Moreover, we identified the 126- to 170-amino-acid region in the C-terminal half of F12-Vif as responsible for its antiviral function. Indeed, Chim3 protein, containing this 45-amino-acid region embedded in a WT-Vif backbone, is as lethal as F12-Vif against HIV-1. Of major relevance, we demonstrated a dual mechanism of action for Chim3. First, Chim3 functions as a transdominant factor that preserves the antiviral function of the natural restriction factor APOBEC3G (hA3G). Second, Chim3 blocks the early HIV-1 retrotranscript accumulation and thereby HIV-1 DNA integration regardless of the presence of WT-Vif and hA3G. In conclusion, by impairing the early steps of HIV-1 life cycle, Chim3 conceivably endows engineered cells with survival advantage, which is required for the efficient immune reconstitution of patients living with HIV/AIDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2008-06-158790DOI Listing
April 2009

Naturally occurring C-terminally truncated STAT5 is a negative regulator of HIV-1 expression.

Blood 2007 Jun 1;109(12):5380-9. Epub 2007 Mar 1.

AIDS Immunopathogenesis Unit and the Division of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, Italy.

CD4(+) cells of most individuals infected with HIV-1 harbor a C-terminally truncated and constitutively activated form of signal transducer and activator of transcription-5 (STAT5 Delta). We report that the chronically HIV-infected U1 cell line expresses STAT5 Delta but not full-length STAT5. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) stimulation of U1 cells promoted early activation of STAT5 Delta and of extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERKs), followed by later activation of activator protein 1 (AP-1) and HIV expression. Inhibition of ERK/AP-1 by PD98,059 abolished, whereas either tyrphostin AG490 or a STAT5 small interfering RNA (siRNA) enhanced, virion production in GM-CSF-stimulated U1 cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated the induction of STAT5 Delta binding to STAT consensus sequences in the HIV-1 promoter together with a decreased recruitment of RNA polymerase II after 1 hour of GM-CSF stimulation of U1 cells. Down-regulation of STAT5 Delta by siRNA resulted in the up-regulation of both HIV-1 gag-pol RNA and p24 Gag antigen expression in CD8-depleted leukocytes of several HIV-positive individuals cultivated ex vivo in the presence of interleukin-2 but not of interleukin-7. Thus, the constitutively activated STAT5 Delta present in the leukocytes of most HIV-positive individuals acts as a negative regulator of HIV expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2006-08-042556DOI Listing
June 2007

Heterogeneity of signal transducer and activator of transcription binding sites in the long-terminal repeats of distinct HIV-1 subtypes.

Open Virol J 2007 20;1:26-32. Epub 2007 Oct 20.

AIDS Immunopathogenesis, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, Italy.

HIV-1 can be subdivided into distinct subtypes; the consequences of such a genomic variability remain largely speculative. The long terminal repeats (LTR) control HIV transcription and reflect the major differences of distinct viral subtypes. Three regions in the HIV-1 subtype B LTR are close matches to the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) consensus sequence. Here, we show heterogeneity in these putative STAT binding sites among HIV-1 LTR subtypes A through G. Transfection of constitutively activated STAT5 lead to transcriptional activation of HIV-1 expression in 293T cells transfected with a reporter assay driven by HIV-1 LTR subtype B. Constitutively activated STAT5 transactivated the LTR of various subtypes in U937 cells with different potency. These findings support and expand the potential relevance of STAT5 activation in HIV infection and may bear relevance for a differential regulation of latency and expression of different subtypes of HIV-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874357900701010026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2675545PMC
June 2009

T Lymphocytes transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing F12-Vif are protected from HIV-1 infection in an APOBEC3G-independent manner.

Mol Ther 2005 Oct;12(4):697-706

Molmed SpA, Milan, Italy.

The viral infectivity factor (Vif) is an essential component of the HIV-1 infectious cycle. Vif counteracts the action of the cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (AP3G), which confers nonimmune antiviral defense against HIV-1 to T lymphocytes. Disabling or interfering with the function of Vif could represent an alternative therapeutic approach to AIDS. We have expressed a natural mutant of Vif, F12-Vif, in a VSV-G-pseudotyped lentiviral vector under the Tat-inducible control of the HIV-1 LTR. Conditional expression of F12-Vif prevents replication and spreading of both CXCR4 and CCR5 strains of HIV-1 in human primary T lymphocyte and T cell lines. T cells transduced with F12-Vif release few HIV-1 virions and with reduced infectivity. Several lines of evidence indicate that HIV-1 interference requires the presence of both wild-type and F12-Vif proteins, suggesting a dominant-negative feature of the F12-Vif mutant. Surprisingly, however, the F12-Vif-mediated inhibition does not depend on the reestablishment of the AP3G function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2005.05.014DOI Listing
October 2005

HMGB1 interacts differentially with members of the Rel family of transcription factors.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2003 Mar;302(2):421-6

DIBIT, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

HMGB1 is an architectural factor that enhances the DNA binding affinity of several proteins. We have investigated the influence of HMGB1 on DNA binding by members of the Rel family. HMGB1 enhances DNA binding by p65/p50 and p50/p50, but reduces binding by p65/p65, c-Rel/c-Rel, p65/c-Rel, and p50/c-Rel. In pull-down assays, HMGB1 interacts directly with the p50 subunit via its HMG boxes and this interaction is weakened by the presence of the acidic tail. Functionally, HMGB1 is required for the NF-kappaB-dependent expression of the adhesion molecule VCAM-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0006-291x(03)00184-0DOI Listing
March 2003