Publications by authors named "Rosita Lupi"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Comprehensive kinome NGS targeted expression profiling by KING-REX.

BMC Genomics 2019 Apr 23;20(1):307. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

NMS Oncology, Nerviano Medical Sciences Srl, Nerviano, MI, Italy.

Background: Protein kinases are enzymes controlling different cellular functions. Genetic alterations often result in kinase dysregulation, making kinases a very attractive class of druggable targets in several human diseases. Existing approved drugs still target a very limited portion of the human 'kinome', demanding a broader functional knowledge of individual and co-expressed kinase patterns in physiologic and pathologic settings. The development of novel rapid and cost-effective methods for kinome screening is therefore highly desirable, potentially leading to the identification of novel kinase drug targets.

Results: In this work, we describe the development of KING-REX (KINase Gene RNA EXpression), a comprehensive kinome RNA targeted custom assay-based panel designed for Next Generation Sequencing analysis, coupled with a dedicated data analysis pipeline. We have conceived KING-REX for the gene expression analysis of 512 human kinases; for 319 kinases, paired assays and custom analysis pipeline features allow the evaluation of 3'- and 5'-end transcript imbalances as readout for the prediction of gene rearrangements. Validation tests on cell line models harboring known gene fusions demonstrated a comparable accuracy of KING-REX gene expression assessment as in whole transcriptome analyses, together with a robust detection of transcript portion imbalances in rearranged kinases, even in complex RNA mixtures or in degraded RNA.

Conclusions: These results support the use of KING-REX as a rapid and cost effective kinome investigation tool in the field of kinase target identification for applications in cancer biology and other human diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-019-5676-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6480677PMC
April 2019

Establishment and genomic characterization of the new chordoma cell line Chor-IN-1.

Sci Rep 2017 08 23;7(1):9226. Epub 2017 Aug 23.

Oncology, Nerviano Medical Sciences, Nerviano, (MI), Italy.

Chordomas are rare, slowly growing tumors with high medical need, arising in the axial skeleton from notochord remnants. The transcription factor "brachyury" represents a distinctive molecular marker and a key oncogenic driver of chordomas. Tyrosine kinase receptors are also expressed, but so far kinase inhibitors have not shown clear clinical efficacy in chordoma patients. The need for effective therapies is extremely high, but the paucity of established chordoma cell lines has limited preclinical research. Here we describe the isolation of the new Chor-IN-1 cell line from a recurrent sacral chordoma and its characterization as compared to other chordoma cell lines. Chor-IN-1 displays genomic identity to the tumor of origin and has morphological features, growth characteristics and chromosomal abnormalities typical of chordoma, with expression of brachyury and other relevant biomarkers. Chor-IN-1 gene variants, copy number alterations and kinome gene expression were analyzed in comparison to other four chordoma cell lines, generating large scale DNA and mRNA genomic data that can be exploited for the identification of novel pharmacological targets and candidate predictive biomarkers of drug sensitivity in chordoma. The establishment of this new, well characterized chordoma cell line provides a useful tool for the identification of drugs active in chordoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-10044-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5569021PMC
August 2017

Discovery of 2-[1-(4,4-Difluorocyclohexyl)piperidin-4-yl]-6-fluoro-3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindole-4-carboxamide (NMS-P118): A Potent, Orally Available, and Highly Selective PARP-1 Inhibitor for Cancer Therapy.

J Med Chem 2015 Sep 26;58(17):6875-98. Epub 2015 Aug 26.

Oncology, Nerviano Medical Sciences Srl , Viale Pasteur 10, 20014 Nerviano, Milan, Italy.

The nuclear protein poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) has a well-established role in the signaling and repair of DNA and is a prominent target in oncology, as testified by the number of candidates in clinical testing that unselectively target both PARP-1 and its closest isoform PARP-2. The goal of our program was to find a PARP-1 selective inhibitor that would potentially mitigate toxicities arising from cross-inhibition of PARP-2. Thus, an HTS campaign on the proprietary Nerviano Medical Sciences (NMS) chemical collection, followed by SAR optimization, allowed us to discover 2-[1-(4,4-difluorocyclohexyl)piperidin-4-yl]-6-fluoro-3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindole-4-carboxamide (NMS-P118, 20by). NMS-P118 proved to be a potent, orally available, and highly selective PARP-1 inhibitor endowed with excellent ADME and pharmacokinetic profiles and high efficacy in vivo both as a single agent and in combination with Temozolomide in MDA-MB-436 and Capan-1 xenograft models, respectively. Cocrystal structures of 20by with both PARP-1 and PARP-2 catalytic domain proteins allowed rationalization of the observed selectivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b00680DOI Listing
September 2015

Optimization of diarylthiazole B-raf inhibitors: identification of a compound endowed with high oral antitumor activity, mitigated hERG inhibition, and low paradoxical effect.

ChemMedChem 2015 Feb 27;10(2):276-95. Epub 2014 Nov 27.

Nerviano Medical Sciences Srl, Business Unit Oncology, Viale Pasteur 10, 20014 Nerviano (MI) (Italy).

Aberrant activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated pathway components, RAF-MEK-ERK, is frequently observed in human cancers and clearly contributes to oncogenesis. As part of a project aimed at finding inhibitors of B-Raf, a key player in the MAPK cascade, we originally identified a thiazole derivative endowed with high potency and selectivity, optimal in vitro ADME properties, and good pharmacokinetic profiles in rodents, but that suffers from elevated hERG inhibitory activity. An optimization program was thus undertaken, focused mainly on the elaboration of the R(1) and R(2) groups of the scaffold. This effort ultimately led to N-(4-{2-(1-cyclopropylpiperidin-4-yl)-4-[3-(2,5-difluorobenzenesulfonylamino)-2-fluorophenyl]thiazol-5-yl}-pyridin-2-yl)acetamide (20), which maintains favorable in vitro and in vivo properties, but lacks hERG liability. Besides exhibiting potent antiproliferative activity against only cell lines bearing B-Raf V600E or V600D mutations, compound 20 also intriguingly shows a weaker "paradoxical" activation of MEK in non-mutant B-Raf cells than other known B-Raf inhibitors. It also demonstrates very good efficacy in vivo against the A375 xenograft melanoma model (tumor volume inhibition >90% at 10 mg kg(-1) ); it is therefore a suitable candidate for preclinical development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cmdc.201402424DOI Listing
February 2015

Insights into PARP Inhibitors' Selectivity Using Fluorescence Polarization and Surface Plasmon Resonance Binding Assays.

J Biomol Screen 2014 Sep 10;19(8):1212-9. Epub 2014 Jun 10.

Nerviano Medical Sciences S.r.l., Nerviano, Italy

PARP inhibitors are an exciting new class of antineoplastic drugs that have been proven to be efficacious as single agents in cancer settings with inherent DNA repair defects, as well as in combination with DNA-damaging chemotherapeutics. Currently, they are designed to target the catalytic domain of PARP-1, the most studied member of the family, with a key role in the DNA-damage repair process. Because PARP inhibitors are substrate (NAD(+)) competitors, there is a need for a deeper understanding of their cross-reactivity. This is particularly relevant for PARP-2, the PARP-1 closest homologue, for which an embryonic lethal phenotype has been observed in double knockout mice. In this study, we describe the development and validation of binding assays based on fluorescence polarization (FP) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) techniques. PARP-1, PARP-2, PARP-3, and TNKS-1 FP displacement assays are set up by employing ad hoc synthesized probes. These assays are suitable for high-throughput screening (HTS) and selectivity profiling, thus allowing the identification of NAD(+)binding site selective inhibitors. The PARP-1 and PARP-2 complementary SPR binding assays confirm displacement data and the in-depth inhibitor characterization. Moreover, these formats have the potential to be broadly applicable to other members of the PARP family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1087057114538319DOI Listing
September 2014

Identification of candidate substrates for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP2) in the absence of DNA damage using high-density protein microarrays.

FEBS J 2011 Oct 6;278(19):3676-87. Epub 2011 Sep 6.

Department of Biotechnology, BU Oncology, Nerviano Medical Sciences Srl, Nerviano (MI), Italy.

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP2) belongs to the ADP-ribosyltransferase family of enzymes that catalyze the addition of ADP-ribose units to acceptor proteins, thus affecting many diverse cellular processes. In particular, PARP2 shares with PARP1 and, as recently highlighted, PARP3 the sole property of being catalytically activated by DNA-strand breaks, implying key downstream functions in the cellular response to DNA damage for both enzymes. However, evidence from several studies suggests unique functions for PARP2 in additional processes, possibly mediated through its basal, DNA-damage unstimulated ADP-ribosylating activity. Here, we describe the development and application of a protein microarray-based approach tailored to identify proteins that are ADP-ribosylated by PARP2 in the absence of DNA damage mimetics and might thus represent useful entry points to the exploration of novel PARP2 functions. Several candidate substrates for PARP2 were identified and global hit enrichment analysis showed a clear enrichment in translation initiation and RNA helicase molecular functions. In addition, the top scoring candidates FK506-binding protein 3 and SH3 and cysteine-rich domain-containing protein 1 were selected and confirmed in a complementary assay format as substrates for unstimulated PARP2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08286.xDOI Listing
October 2011

Crystal structure of the T315I Abl mutant in complex with the aurora kinases inhibitor PHA-739358.

Cancer Res 2007 Sep;67(17):7987-90

Nerviano Medical Sciences Srl-Oncology, Milan, Italy.

Mutations in the kinase domain of Bcr-Abl are the most common cause of resistance to therapy with imatinib in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Second-generation Bcr-Abl inhibitors are able to overcome most imatinib-resistant mutants, with the exception of the frequent T315I substitution, which is emerging as a major cause of resistance to these drugs in CML patients. Structural studies could be used to support the drug design process for the development of inhibitors able to target the T315I substitution, but until now no crystal structure of the T315I Abl mutant has been solved. We show here the first crystal structure of the kinase domain of Abl T315I in complex with PHA-739358, an Aurora kinase inhibitor currently in clinical development for solid and hematologic malignancies. This compound inhibits in vitro the kinase activity of wild-type Abl and of several mutants, including T315I. The cocrystal structure of T315I Abl kinase domain provides the structural basis for this activity: the inhibitor associates with an active conformation of the kinase domain in the ATP-binding pocket and lacks the steric hindrance imposed by the substitution of threonine by isoleucine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-1825DOI Listing
September 2007

Endogenous mono-ADP-ribosylation of the free Gbetagamma prevents stimulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase-gamma and phospholipase C-beta2 and is activated by G-protein-coupled receptors.

Biochem J 2002 Nov;367(Pt 3):825-32

Department of Cell Biology and Oncology, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Consorzio Mario Negri Sud, Via Nazionale, 66030 Santa Maria Imbaro (Chieti), Italy.

We have recently demonstrated that the beta subunit of the heterotrimeric G-proteins is endogenously mono-ADP-ribosylated in intact cells. The modified betagamma heterodimer loses its ability to inhibit calmodulin-stimulated type 1 adenylate cyclase and, remarkably, is de-ADP-ribosylated by a cytosolic hydrolase that completes an ADP-/de-ADP-ribosylation cycle of potential physiological relevance. In the present study, we show that this ADP-ribosylation might indeed be a general mechanism for termination of betagamma signalling, since the ADP-ribosylated betagamma subunit is also unable to activate both phosphoinositide 3-kinase-gamma and phospholipase C-beta2. Moreover, we show that beta subunit ADP-ribosylation is induced by G-protein-coupled receptor activation, since hormone stimulation of Chinese-hamster ovary plasma membranes leads to increases in beta subunit labelling. This occurs when betagamma is in its active heterodimeric conformation, since full inhibition of this modification can be achieved by binding of GDP-alphai3 to the betagamma heterodimer. Taken together, these findings delineate a pathway that arises from the activation of a G-protein-coupled receptor and leads to the inhibition of betagamma activity through its reversible mono-ADP-ribosylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BJ20020660DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1222935PMC
November 2002