Publications by authors named "Roshanak Monzavi"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Health-related quality of life in parents and partners of people with type 1 diabetes: Development and validation of type 1 diabetes and life (T1DAL) measures.

Fam Syst Health 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Pediatrics.

Introduction: Despite the significant impact of type 1 diabetes (T1D) on family, few instruments are available to assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among family members of people with T1D. This study aimed to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of new measures of diabetes-specific HRQOL for parents and partners of people with T1D. We report on the multistep development and validation process for the self-report Type 1 Diabetes and Life (T1DAL) measures, with versions for parents of youth age <8, 8-11, 12-17, and 18-25 years, and for partners of people age ≥18 years with T1D.

Method: First, we conducted qualitative interviews (total parents/partners n = 38) to develop draft measures and piloted them (total n = 20). Next, we tested the measures' psychometric properties. Participants (total across versions n = 813) at six T1D Exchange Clinic Network sites completed the appropriate T1DAL measure and validated measures of related constructs. We then reduced each T1DAL measure to 20-30 items in length based on psychometric data and participant feedback. Eleven participants reviewed the final measures via cognitive debriefing.

Results: The T1DAL measures for parents and partners demonstrated good internal consistency (α = .80-.88) and test-retest reliability (r = .73-.86). Correlations with measures of general quality of life, generic and diabetes-specific HRQOL, and diabetes burden demonstrated construct validity. Factor analyses identified 3-4 subscales/measure. Participants reported being satisfied with the shortened measures, which took 5-10 minutes to complete.

Discussion: The new T1DAL measures for parents and partners of people with T1D are reliable, valid, and ready for use in research and clinical settings. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/fsh0000507DOI Listing
April 2021

Design and psychometrics for new measures of health-related quality of life in adults with type 1 diabetes: Type 1 Diabetes and Life (T1DAL).

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2021 Apr 13;174:108537. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, United States.

Aims: To use a three-phase process to develop and validate new self-report measures of diabetes-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for adults with type 1 diabetes. We report on four versions of the Type 1 Diabetes and Life (T1DAL) measure for people age 18-25, 26-45, 46-60, and over 60 years.

Methods: We first conducted qualitative interviews to guide measure creation, then piloted the draft measures. We evaluated psychometric properties at six T1D Exchange Clinic Network sites via completion of T1DAL and validated measures of related constructs. Participants completed the T1DAL again in 4-6 weeks. We used psychometric data to reduce each measure to 23-27 items in length. Finally, we obtained participant feedback on the final measures.

Results: The T1DAL-Adult measures demonstrated good internal consistency (α = 0.85-0.88) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.77-0.87). Significant correlations with measures of general quality of life, generic and diabetes-specific HRQOL, diabetes burden, self-management, and glycemic control demonstrated validity. Factor analyses yielded 4-5 subscales per measure. Participants were satisfied with the final measures and reported they took 5-10 min to complete.

Conclusions: The strong psychometric properties of the newly developed self-report T1DAL measures for adults with type 1 diabetes make them appropriate for use in clinical research and care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108537DOI Listing
April 2021

Effect of Continuous Glucose Monitoring on Glycemic Control in Adolescents and Young Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2020 06;323(23):2388-2396

Jaeb Center for Health Research, Tampa, Florida.

Importance: Adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes exhibit the worst glycemic control among individuals with type 1 diabetes across the lifespan. Although continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has been shown to improve glycemic control in adults, its benefit in adolescents and young adults has not been demonstrated.

Objective: To determine the effect of CGM on glycemic control in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Randomized clinical trial conducted between January 2018 and May 2019 at 14 endocrinology practices in the US including 153 individuals aged 14 to 24 years with type 1 diabetes and screening hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of 7.5% to 10.9%.

Interventions: Participants were randomized 1:1 to undergo CGM (CGM group; n = 74) or usual care using a blood glucose meter for glucose monitoring (blood glucose monitoring [BGM] group; n = 79).

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was change in HbA1c from baseline to 26 weeks. There were 20 secondary outcomes, including additional HbA1c outcomes, CGM glucose metrics, and patient-reported outcomes with adjustment for multiple comparisons to control for the false discovery rate.

Results: Among the 153 participants (mean [SD] age, 17 [3] years; 76 [50%] were female; mean [SD] diabetes duration, 9 [5] years), 142 (93%) completed the study. In the CGM group, 68% of participants used CGM at least 5 days per week in month 6. Mean HbA1c was 8.9% at baseline and 8.5% at 26 weeks in the CGM group and 8.9% at both baseline and 26 weeks in the BGM group (adjusted between-group difference, -0.37% [95% CI, -0.66% to -0.08%]; P = .01). Of 20 prespecified secondary outcomes, there were statistically significant differences in 3 of 7 binary HbA1c outcomes, 8 of 9 CGM metrics, and 1 of 4 patient-reported outcomes. The most commonly reported adverse events in the CGM and BGM groups were severe hypoglycemia (3 participants with an event in the CGM group and 2 in the BGM group), hyperglycemia/ketosis (1 participant with an event in CGM group and 4 in the BGM group), and diabetic ketoacidosis (3 participants with an event in the CGM group and 1 in the BGM group).

Conclusions And Relevance: Among adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes, continuous glucose monitoring compared with standard blood glucose monitoring resulted in a small but statistically significant improvement in glycemic control over 26 weeks. Further research is needed to understand the clinical importance of the findings.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03263494.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.6940DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7298603PMC
June 2020

Assessing Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents with Diabetes: Development and Psychometrics of the Type 1 Diabetes and Life (T1DAL) Measures.

J Pediatr Psychol 2020 04;45(3):328-339

Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital.

Objective: To develop and validate new measures of diabetes-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) that are brief, developmentally appropriate, and usable in clinical research and care. Here we report on the phases of developing and validating the self-report Type 1 Diabetes and Life (T1DAL) measures for children (age 8-11) and adolescents (age 12-17).

Methods: Measure development included qualitative interviews with youth and parents (n = 16 dyads) followed by piloting draft measures and conducting cognitive debriefing with youth (n = 9) to refine the measures. To evaluate the psychometric properties, children (n = 194) and adolescents (n = 257) at three T1D Exchange Clinic Network sites completed the age-appropriate T1DAL measure and previously validated questionnaires measuring related constructs. Using psychometric data, the investigators reduced the length of each T1DAL measure to 21 and 23 items, respectively, and conducted a final round of cognitive debriefing with six children and adolescents.

Results: The T1DAL measures for children and adolescents demonstrated good internal consistency (α = 0.84 and 0.89, respectively) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.78 and 0.80, respectively). Significant correlations between the T1DAL scores and measures of general quality of life, generic and diabetes-specific HRQOL, diabetes burden, and diabetes strengths demonstrated construct validity. Correlations with measures of self-management (child and adolescent) and glycemic control (adolescent only) demonstrated criterion validity. Factor analyses indicated four developmentally specific subscales per measure. Participants reported satisfaction with the measures.

Conclusions: The new T1DAL measures for children and adolescents with T1D are reliable, valid, and suitable for use in care settings and clinical research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsz083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7850123PMC
April 2020

Meeting Report: 2018 Annual Meeting of the Pediatric Endocrine Society, Toronto, Canada, May 5-8, 2018, Selected Highlights.

Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 2018 Dec;16(2):284-293

Children's Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Blvd, MS #61, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA, E-mail:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17458/per.vol16.2018.lama.mr.pestorontoDOI Listing
December 2018

Improved medical-alert ID ownership and utilization in youth with congenital adrenal hyperplasia following a parent educational intervention.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2018 Jan;31(2):213-219

Center for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a potentially life-threatening condition, and adrenal crisis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in affected children. Medical-alert identification (ID) could prevent complications of adrenal crisis by identifying the need for time-sensitive, critical treatment. Our objectives were to evaluate usage of medical-alert IDs by CAH youth, ownership and awareness of IDs amongst their parents, and the effect of an in-clinic educational intervention on ID utilization.

Methods: Fifty families of youth with classical CAH secondary to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (11.2±5.0 years old, 58% female) were prospectively studied. An in-clinic needs assessment survey was administered at baseline to parents, paired with an educational intervention, and a follow-up needs assessment phone survey 1 month post-intervention. A quality improvement (QI) framework was utilized with plan-do-study-act (PDSA) process-improvement cycles.

Results: At baseline, 20/50 (40%) CAH families owned a medical-alert ID, of which only 10/20 (50%) of ID owners reported usage >3 days per week. Only 26/50 (52%) parents were aware of ID options. Post-intervention, ID ownership doubled to 39/50 (78%; p<0.05), usage amongst ID owners reached 100% (39/39), and awareness increased to 42/50 (84%; p<0.05). A surprising barrier reported by five Spanish-speaking families was the inability to order medical-alert IDs online.

Conclusions: Only a small percentage of CAH youth frequently wear a medical-alert ID, but utilization can be effectively improved with an in-clinic educational intervention. Further study is merited to assess a potential reduction in morbidity and mortality of adrenal crisis with increased medical-alert ID utilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2017-0435DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7140978PMC
January 2018

Alefacept provides sustained clinical and immunological effects in new-onset type 1 diabetes patients.

J Clin Invest 2015 Aug 20;125(8):3285-96. Epub 2015 Jul 20.

Background: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from destruction of pancreatic β cells by autoreactive effector T cells. We hypothesized that the immunomodulatory drug alefacept would result in targeted quantitative and qualitative changes in effector T cells and prolonged preservation of endogenous insulin secretion by the remaining β cells in patients with newly diagnosed T1D.

Methods: In a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we compared alefacept (two 12-week courses of 15 mg/wk i.m., separated by a 12-week pause) with placebo in patients with recent onset of T1D. Endpoints were assessed at 24 months and included meal-stimulated C-peptide AUC, insulin use, hypoglycemic events, and immunologic responses.

Results: A total of 49 patients were enrolled. At 24 months, or 15 months after the last dose of alefacept, both the 4-hour and the 2-hour C-peptide AUCs were significantly greater in the treatment group than in the control group (P = 0.002 and 0.015, respectively). Exogenous insulin requirements were lower (P = 0.002) and rates of major hypoglycemic events were about 50% reduced (P < 0.001) in the alefacept group compared with placebo at 24 months. There was no apparent between-group difference in glycemic control or adverse events. Alefacept treatment depleted CD4+ and CD8+ central memory T cells (Tcm) and effector memory T cells (Tem) (P < 0.01), preserved Tregs, increased the ratios of Treg to Tem and Tcm (P < 0.01), and increased the percentage of PD-1+CD4+ Tem and Tcm (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: In patients with newly diagnosed T1D, two 12-week courses of alefacept preserved C-peptide secretion, reduced insulin use and hypoglycemic events, and induced favorable immunologic profiles at 24 months, well over 1 year after cessation of therapy.

Trial Registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ NCT00965458.

Funding: NIH and Astellas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI81722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4623571PMC
August 2015

Effects of vitamin D repletion on glycemic control and inflammatory cytokines in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

Pediatr Diabetes 2016 Feb 18;17(1):36-43. Epub 2014 Dec 18.

Center for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, 90027, USA.

Objective: Little is known about the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. On the basis of adult studies showing that vitamin D improves insulin sensitivity and decreases inflammatory cytokines linked to microvascular complications, we hypothesized that treating vitamin D deficiency in adolescents with type 1 diabetes would improve glycemia and reduce inflammatory markers.

Research Design And Methods: This was a randomized, prospective, crossover study of 25 adolescents with type 1 diabetes for at least a year (aged: 13-21 yr; 62% female; 62% Hispanic) and vitamin D deficiency (25-OH vitamin D ≤30 ng/mL). Subjects received vitamin D3 (20 000 IU/week) for 6 months, either immediately or after 6 months of observation.

Results: At baseline, 63% of subjects screened were vitamin D deficient and randomized. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was significantly higher in the vitamin D deficient group compared with the sufficient group (medians: 0.36 vs. 0.18) (p = 0.026), whereas neither C-reactive protein (CRP) nor tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) differed. Vitamin D treatment increased serum levels of 25-OH vitamin D from 22 ± 5.3 to 34.3 ± 12.1 ng/mL (p < 0.01). However, treatment did not affect glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin dosage, CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6), or TNF-α.

Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in the adolescent type 1 diabetes population, and could be associated with changes in inflammatory markers. However, vitamin D repletion over 6 months did not affect glycemia or markers of inflammation in our study, highlighting the need for additional research to validate these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pedi.12238DOI Listing
February 2016

Targeting of memory T cells with alefacept in new-onset type 1 diabetes (T1DAL study): 12 month results of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2013 Dec 23;1(4):284-94. Epub 2013 Sep 23.

Immune Tolerance Network, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Type 1 diabetes results from autoimmune targeting of the pancreatic β cells, likely mediated by effector memory T (Tem) cells. CD2, a T cell surface protein highly expressed on Tem cells, is targeted by the fusion protein alefacept, depleting Tem cells and central memory T (Tcm) cells. We postulated that alefacept would arrest autoimmunity and preserve residual β cells in patients newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.

Methods: The T1DAL study is a phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with type 1 diabetes, aged 12-35 years who, within 100 days of diagnosis, were enrolled at 14 US sites. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive alefacept (two 12-week courses of 15 mg intramuscularly per week, separated by a 12-week pause) or a placebo. Randomisation was stratified by site, and was computer-generated with permuted blocks of three patients per block. All participants and site personnel were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in mean 2 h C-peptide area under the curve (AUC) at 12 months. Secondary endpoints at 12 months were the change from baseline in the 4 h C-peptide AUC, insulin use, major hypoglycaemic events, and HbA1c concentrations. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00965458.

Findings: Of 73 patients assessed for eligibility, 33 were randomly assigned to receive alefacept and 16 to receive placebo. The mean 2 h C-peptide AUC at 12 months increased by 0.015 nmol/L (95% CI -0.080 to 0.110) in the alefacept group and decreased by 0.115 nmol/L (-0.278 to 0.047) in the placebo group, and the difference between groups was not significant (p=0.065). However, key secondary endpoints were met: the mean 4 h C-peptide AUC was significantly higher (mean increase of 0.015 nmol/L [95% CI -0.076 to 0.106] vs decrease of -0.156 nmol/L [-0.305 to -0.006]; p=0.019), and daily insulin use (0.48 units per kg per day for placebo vs 0.36 units per kg per day for alefacept; p=0.02) and the rate of hypoglycaemic events (mean of 10.9 events per person per year for alefacept vs 17.3 events for placebo; p<0.0001) was significantly lower at 12 months in the alefacept group than in the placebo group. Mean HbA1c concentrations at week 52 were not different between treatment groups (p=0.75). So far, no serious adverse events were reported and all patients had at least one adverse event. In the alefacept group, 29 (88%) participants had an adverse event related to study drug versus 15 (94%) participants in the placebo group. In the alefacept group, 14 (42%) participants had grade 3 or 4 adverse events compared with nine (56%) participants in the placebo group; no deaths occurred.

Interpretation: Although the primary outcome was not met, at 12 months, alefacept preserved the 4 h C-peptide AUC, lowered insulin use, and reduced hypoglycaemic events, suggesting efficacy. Safety and tolerability were similar in the alefacept and placebo groups. Alefacept could be useful to preserve β-cell function in patients with new-onset type 1 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(13)70111-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3957186PMC
December 2013

Costimulation modulation with abatacept in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes: follow-up 1 year after cessation of treatment.

Diabetes Care 2014 Apr 2;37(4):1069-75. Epub 2013 Dec 2.

Corresponding author: Jay S. Skyler,

OBJECTIVE We previously reported that 2 years of costimulation modulation with abatacept slowed decline of β-cell function in recent-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D). Subsequently, abatacept was discontinued and subjects were followed to determine whether there was persistence of effect. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Of 112 subjects (ages 6-36 years) with T1D, 77 received abatacept and 35 received placebo infusions intravenously for 27 infusions over 2 years. The primary outcome-baseline-adjusted geometric mean 2-h area under the curve (AUC) serum C-peptide during a mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) at 2 years-showed higher C-peptide with abatacept versus placebo. Subjects were followed an additional year, off treatment, with MMTTs performed at 30 and 36 months. RESULTS C-peptide AUC means, adjusted for age and baseline C-peptide, at 36 months were 0.217 nmol/L (95% CI 0.168-0.268) and 0.141 nmol/L (95% CI 0.071-0.215) for abatacept and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.046). The C-peptide decline from baseline remained parallel with an estimated 9.5 months' delay with abatacept. Moreover, HbA1c levels remained lower in the abatacept group than in the placebo group. The slightly lower (nonsignificant) mean total insulin dose among the abatacept group reported at 2 years was the same as the placebo group by 3 years. CONCLUSIONS Costimulation modulation with abatacept slowed decline of β-cell function and improved HbA1c in recent-onset T1D. The beneficial effect was sustained for at least 1 year after cessation of abatacept infusions or 3 years from T1D diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc13-0604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3964491PMC
April 2014

Co-stimulation modulation with abatacept in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Lancet 2011 Jul 28;378(9789):412-9. Epub 2011 Jun 28.

Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: The immunopathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus is associated with T-cell autoimmunity. To be fully active, immune T cells need a co-stimulatory signal in addition to the main antigen-driven signal. Abatacept modulates co-stimulation and prevents full T-cell activation. We evaluated the effect of abatacept in recent-onset type 1 diabetes.

Methods: In this multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial, patients aged 6-45 years recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive abatacept (10 mg/kg, maximum 1000 mg per dose) or placebo infusions intravenously on days 1, 14, 28, and monthly for a total of 27 infusions over 2 years. Computer-generated permuted block randomisation was used, with a block size of 3 and stratified by participating site. Neither patients nor research personnel were aware of treatment assignments. The primary outcome was baseline-adjusted geometric mean 2-h area-under-the-curve (AUC) serum C-peptide concentration after a mixed-meal tolerance test at 2 years' follow-up. Analysis was by intention to treat for all patients for whom data were available. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00505375.

Findings: 112 patients were assigned to treatment groups (77 abatacept, 35 placebo). Adjusted C-peptide AUC was 59% (95% CI 6·1-112) higher at 2 years with abatacept (n=73, 0·378 nmol/L) than with placebo (n=30, 0·238 nmol/L; p=0·0029). The difference between groups was present throughout the trial, with an estimated 9·6 months' delay (95% CI 3·47-15·6) in C-peptide reduction with abatacept. There were few infusion-related adverse events (36 reactions occurred in 17 [22%] patients on abatacept and 11 reactions in six [17%] on placebo). There was no increase in infections (32 [42%] patients on abatacept vs 15 [43%] on placebo) or neutropenia (seven [9%] vs five [14%]).

Interpretation: Co-stimulation modulation with abatacept slowed reduction in β-cell function over 2 years. The beneficial effect suggests that T-cell activation still occurs around the time of clinical diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Yet, despite continued administration of abatacept over 24 months, the decrease in β-cell function with abatacept was parallel to that with placebo after 6 months of treatment, causing us to speculate that T-cell activation lessens with time. Further observation will establish whether the beneficial effect continues after cessation of abatacept infusions.

Funding: US National Institutes of Health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60886-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3462593PMC
July 2011

Antigen-based therapy with glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) vaccine in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes: a randomised double-blind trial.

Lancet 2011 Jul 27;378(9788):319-27. Epub 2011 Jun 27.

Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is a major target of the autoimmune response that occurs in type 1 diabetes mellitus. In animal models of autoimmunity, treatment with a target antigen can modulate aggressive autoimmunity. We aimed to assess whether immunisation with GAD formulated with aluminum hydroxide (GAD-alum) would preserve insulin production in recent-onset type 1 diabetes.

Methods: Patients aged 3-45 years who had been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes for less than 100 days were enrolled from 15 sites in the USA and Canada, and randomly assigned to receive one of three treatments: three injections of 20 μg GAD-alum, two injections of 20 μg GAD-alum and one of alum, or 3 injections of alum. Injections were given subcutaneously at baseline, 4 weeks later, and 8 weeks after the second injection. The randomisation sequence was computer generated at the TrialNet coordinating centre. Patients and study personnel were masked to treatment assignment. The primary outcome was the baseline-adjusted geometric mean area under the curve (AUC) of serum C-peptide during the first 2 h of a 4-h mixed meal tolerance test at 1 year. Secondary outcomes included changes in glycated haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) and insulin dose, and safety. Analysis included all randomised patients with known measurements. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00529399.

Findings: 145 patients were enrolled and treated with GAD-alum (n=48), GAD-alum plus alum (n=49), or alum (n=48). At 1 year, the 2-h AUC of C-peptide, adjusted for age, sex, and baseline C-peptide value, was 0·412 nmol/L (95% CI 0·349-0·478) in the GAD-alum group, 0·382 nmol/L (0·322-0·446) in the GAD-alum plus alum group, and 0·413 nmol/L (0·351-0·477) in the alum group. The ratio of the population mean of the adjusted geometric mean 2-h AUC of C-peptide was 0·998 (95% CI 0·779-1·22; p=0·98) for GAD-alum versus alum, and 0·926 (0·720-1·13; p=0·50) for GAD-alum plus alum versus alum. HbA(1c), insulin use, and the occurrence and severity of adverse events did not differ between groups.

Interpretation: Antigen-based immunotherapy therapy with two or three doses of subcutaneous GAD-alum across 4-12 weeks does not alter the course of loss of insulin secretion during 1 year in patients with recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes. Although antigen-based therapy is a highly desirable treatment and is effective in animal models, translation to human autoimmune disease remains a challenge.

Funding: US National Institutes of Health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60895-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3580128PMC
July 2011

Meeting highlights: Endocrine Society, San Diego, California, June 19-22, 2010.

Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 2010 Dec;8(2):114-22

Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA.

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December 2010

2007 Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society Toronto, Canada (June 2-5, 2007): selected pediatric highlights.

Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 2008 Mar;5(3):796-803

Keck USC School of Medicine, Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles CA 90027, USA.

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March 2008

Improvement in risk factors for metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in overweight youth who are treated with lifestyle intervention.

Pediatrics 2006 Jun 8;117(6):e1111-8. Epub 2006 May 8.

Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of risk factors that are associated with the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in overweight youth and to determine the effect of a short-term, family-centered, lifestyle intervention on various associated anthropometric and metabolic measures.

Methods: Overweight youth who were between 8 and 16 years of age participated in a 12-week, family-centered, lifestyle intervention program. Anthropometric and metabolic measures were assessed before the program in all participants (n = 109) and after the program in a subset of the participants (n = 43).

Results: At baseline, 49.5% of youth had multiple risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome, based on a modified definition of the National Cholesterol Education Program, and 10% had impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance. Measures of insulin resistance correlated significantly with the risk factors of the metabolic syndrome. Forty-three youth had pre- and postintervention evaluations that showed statistically significant improvements in body mass index, systolic blood pressure, lipids (total, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides), postprandial glucose, and leptin levels.

Conclusion: Overweight youth have multiple risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome. A 12-week lifestyle program may have a positive effect on reducing risk factors for the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in overweight youth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2005-1532DOI Listing
June 2006

Prader-Willi syndrome and mosaic Turner's syndrome.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2005 Jul;18(7):711-7

Center for Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Pediatrics, USC Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

We present a female with both Prader-Willi syndrome and Turner's syndrome, a combination not previously reported. We review her clinical presentation and discuss her growth pattern, mental development, and puberty, in relation to her mosaic Turner and Prader-Willi syndromes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpem.2005.18.7.711DOI Listing
July 2005

Rathke's cleft cyst in two girls with precocious puberty.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2004 May;17(5):781-5

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA.

Rathke's cleft cysts arise from remnants of Rathke's pouch and are usually found incidentally on MRI or autopsy. In childhood, the most common presenting symptoms of Rathke's cleft cysts are endocrine abnormalities, such as reduced growth hormone secretion, hyperprolactinemia, or diabetes insipidus. Non-specific symptoms, such as headache and visual disturbance, may also occur. Although precocious puberty has occasionally been described in association with suprasellar lesions, such as hamartomas, arachnoid cysts, and craniopharyngiomas, to our knowledge there have been no documented cases secondary to Rathke's cleft cysts. We report here two patients, both of whom presented with precocious puberty, and were found to have Rathke's cleft cysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpem.2004.17.5.781DOI Listing
May 2004

Hypertension in hypophosphatemic rickets--role of secondary hyperparathyroidism.

Pediatr Nephrol 2003 Feb 18;18(2):155-8. Epub 2003 Jan 18.

Section of Pediatric Nephrology, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Missouri at Kansas City, 2401 Gillham Road, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA.

Hypertension has been anecdotally reported in children with familial hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH). To better identify and characterize the clinical and laboratory features of hypertensive XLH children, we reviewed the medical records of 41 XLH children, all treated with phosphate and vitamin D analogues. Eight children, who were originally normotensive, developed hypertension during the 2nd decade of life. At diagnosis of hypertension all had persistent secondary/tertiary hyperparathyroidism (HPTD), defined as high serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) for 12 months or longer. Seven had nephrocalcinosis (NC). Analysis of data showed that of 11 children with HPTD, 8 developed hypertension compared with 0 among 30 without HPTD (P<0.001). Of 40 children studied, 18 had NC that was significantly associated with both HPTD (P<0.01) and hypertension (P<0.025). At diagnosis of hypertension, serum calcium was elevated in 2. Plasma renin activity was high in 3 of 4 patients in whom it was measured. Doppler ultrasonography or renal scan was normal in the 5 children studied. Early echocardiography showed left ventricular hypertrophy in only 2 of 5 children studied. In 3 patients who underwent parathyroidectomy, hypertension persisted and 1 progressed to renal failure. Serum creatinine remained normal in all others. Successful treatment of hypertension consisted of beta-adrenergic blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and Ca channel blockers as monotherapy or in combination. We conclude that hypertension in treated XLH children is closely associated with HPTD. Emphasis should therefore be placed on prevention of the development of HPTD as a complication of XLH treatment, and close monitoring for hypertension in those who do develop HPTD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-002-1044-6DOI Listing
February 2003

IGFs and IGFBPs: role in health and disease.

Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002 Sep;16(3):433-47

Mattel Children's Hospital, David Geffen School Of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, MDCC 22-315, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1752, USA.

The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), and IGFBP proteases are the main regulators of somatic growth and cellular proliferation. IGFs are involved in growth pre-natally and post-natally. Dysregulation of the IGF axis can lead to growth disorders such as growth hormone deficiency and acromegaly. Pre-natally, this dysregulation can lead to IUGR or macrosomia. IGFs also have an important mitogenic action and play a role in tumorigenesis and cancer. These actions are regulated by co-interactions with IGFBPs, especially IGFBP-3. In addition to somatic growth and mitogenic activity, IGFs have hypoglycaemic and insulin sensitizing actions, and their dysregulation is involved in diabetes and its complications. In this chapter, we examine the role of IGFs and IGFBPs in growth, tumorigenesis and diabetes, and discuss treatment modalities for each disease involving the GH-IGF-IGFBP axis, including discussion of current in vitro and in vivo investigations in this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/beem.2002.0212DOI Listing
September 2002
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