Publications by authors named "Rose-Marie Amini"

72 Publications

Revisiting IL-6 expression in the tumor microenvironment of classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2021 Mar;5(6):1671-1681

Experimental and Clinical Oncology, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, and.

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) can induce therapeutic resistance for several cancer agents currently used to treat classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). We aimed to investigate whether the presence of IL-6+ leukocytes and IL-6+ Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) was associated with adverse survival outcomes, expression of other immune markers, and serum IL-6 levels. We used a contemporarily treated cohort (n = 136), with a median follow-up of 13.8 years (range, 0.59-15.9 years). We performed immunohistochemistry with an IL-6 antibody on tissue microarrays from diagnostic biopsies of cHL patients. Patients with IL-6+ leukocytes ≥1% (n = 54 of 136) had inferior event-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.80-7.15) and overall survival (HR = 6.71; 95% CI, 2.51-17.99). The adverse survival was maintained in multivariate Cox regression and propensity score-matched analyses, adjusting for well-known poor-prognostic covariates. The presence of IL-6+ HRS cells and high serum IL-6 levels were not associated with survival. IL-6+ leukocytes correlated with increased proportions of IL-6+ HRS cells (P < .01), CD138+ plasma cells (P < .01), CD68+ macrophages (P = .02), and tryptase-positive mast cells (P < .01). IL-6+ HRS cells correlated with increased proportions of CD68+ macrophages (P = .03), programmed death-ligand 1-positive (PD-L1+) leukocytes (P = .04), and PD-L1+ HRS cells (P < .01). Serum-IL-6 lacked correlation with IL-6 expression in the TME. This is the first study highlighting the adverse prognostic impact of IL-6+ leukocytes in the TME in a cohort of contemporarily treated adult patients with cHL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003664DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993098PMC
March 2021

Infiltration of CD163-, PD-L1- and FoxP3-positive cells adversely affects outcome in patients with mantle cell lymphoma independent of established risk factors.

Br J Haematol 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical and Experimental Oncology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

We characterised patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) with poor prognosis based on differences in immune infiltration. Different expressions of the tumour cell markers Cyclin D1 and sex-determining region Y-box transcription factor 11 (SOX11), and the immune markers cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3), CD4, CD8, CD25, forkhead box protein P3 (FoxP3), T-box transcription factor TBX21 (T-bet), programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), programmed-death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and CD163 were investigated for all-cause mortality in 282 patients with MCL and time-to-progression (TTP) in 106 clinical trial patients. With increasing age, a significantly lower infiltration of CD3 T lymphocytes was seen. T-cell infiltration was independent of cellular tumour antigen p53 (p53) expression, Ki-67, morphology and frequency of tumour cells. The all-cause mortality was higher in patients with PD-L1-expression above cut-off [hazard ratio (HR) 1·97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·18-3·25, adjusted for sex and MCL International Prognostic Index (MIPI)] and a higher frequency of CD163 cells (continuously, HR 1·51, 95% CI 1·03-2·23, adjusting for age, sex, morphology, Ki-67 and p53). In patients treated within the Nordic Lymphoma Group MCL2/3 trials, TTP was shorter in patients with a higher frequency of FoxP3 cells (HR 3·22, 95% CI 1·40-7·43) and CD163 cells (HR 6·09, 95% CI 1·84-20·21), independent of sex and MIPI. When combined a higher frequency of CD163 macrophages and PD-L1 cells or high CD163 macrophages and FoxP3 regulatory T cells indicated worse outcome independent of established risk factors. The T-cell infiltrate was in turn independent of molecular characteristics of the malignant cells and decreased with age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17366DOI Listing
March 2021

PD-L1 and IDO1 are potential targets for treatment in patients with primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the CNS.

Acta Oncol 2021 Apr 12;60(4):531-538. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Clinical and Experimental Pathology, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University and University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2, as well as Indoleamine 2,3-deoxygenase (IDO1) can be expressed both by tumor and microenvironmental cells and are crucial for tumor immune escape. We aimed to evaluate the role of PD-1, its ligands and IDO1 in a cohort of patients with primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the CNS (PCNSL).

Material And Methods: Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed in 45 PCNSL cases. RNA extraction from whole tissue sections and RNA sequencing were successfully performed in 33 cases. Immunohistochemical stainings for PD-1, PD-L1/paired box protein 5 (PAX-5), PD-L2/PAX-5 and IDO1, and Epstein-Barr virus encoding RNA (EBER) hybridization were analyzed.

Results: High proportions of PD-L1 and PD-L2 positive tumor cells were observed in 11% and 9% of cases, respectively. High proportions of PD-L1 and PD-L2 positive leukocytes were observed in 55% and 51% of cases, respectively. RNA sequencing revealed that gene expression of was high in patients with high proportion of PD-L1 positive leukocytes ( = .01). Protein expression of IDO1 in leukocytes was detected in 14/45 cases, in 79% of these cases a high proportion of PD-L1 positive leukocytes was observed. Gene expression of was high in EBER-positive cases ( = .0009) and protein expression of IDO1 was detected in five of six EBER-positive cases.

Conclusion: Our study shows a significant association between gene and protein expression of IDO1 and protein expression of PD-L1 in the tumor microenvironment of PCNSL, possibly of importance for prediction of response to immunotherapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2021.1881161DOI Listing
April 2021

Triggering interferon signaling in T cells with avadomide sensitizes CLL to anti-PD-L1/PD-1 immunotherapy.

Blood 2021 01;137(2):216-231

School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences & Medicine, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Cancer treatment has been transformed by checkpoint blockade therapies, with the highest anti-tumor activity of anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1) antibody therapy seen in Hodgkin lymphoma. Disappointingly, response rates have been low in the non-Hodgkin lymphomas, with no activity seen in relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with PD-1 blockade. Thus, identifying more powerful combination therapy is required for these patients. Here, we preclinically demonstrate enhanced anti-CLL activity following combinational therapy with anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) and avadomide, a cereblon E3 ligase modulator (CELMoD). Avadomide induced type I and II interferon (IFN) signaling in patient T cells, triggering a feedforward cascade of reinvigorated T-cell responses. Immune modeling assays demonstrated that avadomide stimulated T-cell activation, chemokine expression, motility and lytic synapses with CLL cells, as well as IFN-inducible feedback inhibition through upregulation of PD-L1. Patient-derived xenograft tumors treated with avadomide were converted to CD8+ T cell-inflamed tumor microenvironments that responded to anti-PD-L1/PD-1-based combination therapy. Notably, clinical analyses showed increased PD-L1 expression on T cells, as well as intratumoral expression of chemokine signaling genes in B-cell malignancy patients receiving avadomide-based therapy. These data illustrate the importance of overcoming a low inflammatory T-cell state to successfully sensitize CLL to checkpoint blockade-based combination therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020006073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820876PMC
January 2021

Clonal hematopoiesis in patients with high-grade B-cell lymphoma is associated with inferior outcome.

Am J Hematol 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25927DOI Listing
July 2020

CD30 expression and survival in posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders.

Acta Oncol 2020 Jun 27;59(6):673-680. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Experimental and Clinical Oncology, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a rare but life-threatening complication of transplantation. For refractory and relapsed PTLD new therapies are needed, such as the antibody-drug conjugate brentuximab vedotin that targets CD30. There is limited knowledge of CD30 expression in various subtypes of PTLD and its correlation to clinicopathological features. Therefore, we studied the expression of CD30 in PTLD following solid organ transplantation and correlated CD30 expression to PTLD subtype, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-status, intratumoral regulatory T-cells (Tregs), clinical features, and outcome. We included 50 cases of PTLD from a nation-wide study of PTLDs following solid organ transplantation in Sweden. The tumor biopsies were reevaluated, and clinical data were collected. CD30 expression on tumor cells was analyzed by immunohistochemistry with the clone Ber-H2. Thirty-one cases were stained with clone 236 A/E7 for detection of forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3, a Treg biomarker). The case series consisted of 6% polymorphic, 88% monomorphic, and 6% Hodgkin lymphoma-like PTLDs and 53% of the cases were EBV+. Overall, 70% (35/50) of the PTLDs were CD30+ (≥1% CD30+ tumor cells) and 30% (15/50) were CD30-. All polymorphic PTLDs ( = 3) and Hodgkin lymphomas ( = 3), 88% (14/16) of non-germinal center type of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and 75% (9/12) of T-cell PTLDs were CD30+ whereas all germinal center-type of DLBCL ( = 5) and Burkitt type PTLD ( = 2) were CD30-. CD30+ PTLD tended to be EBV+ more frequently ( = .07) and occurred earlier posttransplant (2.1 vs. 8.2 years,  = .01) than CD30- PTLD. Type of transplant and localization of the tumor did not differ between the groups except that CNS engagement was more common in CD30- PTLD ( = .02). CD30-status was not associated with presence of intratumoral Tregs or overall survival. Expression of CD30 varied with PTLD subtype. There was no association between CD30 and survival, regardless of subtype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2020.1731924DOI Listing
June 2020

Precursor cells and implications of a T-cell inflamed immune response in the pre-malignant setting in Hodgkin lymphoma.

Immunobiology 2020 01 25;225(1):151872. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Experimental and Clinical Oncology, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

The etiology of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is largely unknown. High serum CD30-levels are associated with increased risk of cHL. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detectable in the tumor cells in 1/3 of cHL cases in the Western world. The PD-1 pathway (T-cell inflamed immune response) might contribute to the pathogenesis by enabling pre-malignant CD30+ or EBV + cells to evade immune surveillance. We aimed to investigate if high infiltrations of CD30+, PD-1+, PD-L1+ and EBV + cells in benign lymph nodes from patients that later develop cHL (cases) (n = 15) were associated with risk of cHL compared to controls (n = 45) with benign lymph nodes from patients that did not develop cHL. Pathology registries including 3500 cH L patients were screened. Lymph nodes were stained with immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization and the risk for cHL calculated with logistic regression. High CD30-expression by B- and T-cells was associated with a decreased risk of cHL [(OR = 0.10, 95 % CI:0.03-0.39) and (OR = 0.13, 95 % CI:0.01-0.71), respectively], which remained significant for CD30 + B-cells (OR = 0.15, 95 % CI:0.03-0.60) in multivariate analyses. Amount of PD-1+, PD-L1+ and EBV + cells were not statistically significantly associated with risk of cHL. However, the amount of PD-L1+ leukocytes tended to be higher in cases later developing cHL (OR = 2.84, 95 % CI:0.61-12.61). High proportions of potential precursors to cHL, i.e. CD30 + B-cells in benign lymph nodes are not associated with an increased risk of cHL, while a tendency for a T-cell inflamed immune response, i.e. abundant PD-L1+ cells, was observed in biopsies taken prior to the cHL diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imbio.2019.11.007DOI Listing
January 2020

Prognostic impact of abdominal lymph node involvement in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Eur J Haematol 2020 Mar 20;104(3):207-213. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Clinical and Experimental Pathology, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University and University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.

Objective: The prognostic value of site of nodal involvement in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) is mainly unknown. We aimed to determine the prognostic significance of nodal abdominal involvement in relation to tumour cell markers and clinical characteristics of 249 DLBCL patients in a retrospective single-centre study.

Methods: Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and thorax revealed pathologically enlarged abdominal lymph nodes in 156 patients, while in 93 patients there were no pathologically enlarged lymph nodes in the abdomen. In 81 cases, the diagnosis of DLBCL was verified by histopathological biopsy obtained from abdominal lymph node.

Results: Patients with abdominal nodal disease had inferior lymphoma-specific survival (P = .04) and presented with higher age-adjusted IPI (P < .001), lactate dehydrogenase (P < .001) and more often advanced stage (P < .001), bulky disease (P < .001), B symptoms (P < .001), and double expression of MYC and BCL2 (P = .02) compared to patients without nodal abdominal involvement, but less often extranodal involvement (P < .02). The worst outcome was observed in those where the abdominal nodal involvement was verified by histopathological biopsy.

Conclusion: Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas patients with abdominal nodal disease had inferior outcome and more aggressive behaviour, reflected both in clinical and biological characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13361DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7065091PMC
March 2020

Cell-of-origin determined by both gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry is the strongest predictor of survival in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Am J Hematol 2020 01 7;95(1):57-67. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Clinical and Experimental Pathology, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

The tumor cells in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) are considered to originate from germinal center derived B-cells (GCB) or activated B-cells (ABC). Gene expression profiling (GEP) is preferably used to determine the cell of origin (COO). However, GEP is not widely applied in clinical practice and consequently, several algorithms based on immunohistochemistry (IHC) have been developed. Our aim was to evaluate the concordance of COO assignment between the Lymph2Cx GEP assay and the IHC-based Hans algorithm, to decide which model is the best survival predictor. Both GEP and IHC were performed in 359 homogenously treated Swedish and Danish DLBCL patients, in a retrospective multicenter cohort. The overall concordance between GEP and IHC algorithm was 72%; GEP classified 85% of cases assigned as GCB by IHC, as GCB, while 58% classified as non-GCB by IHC, were categorized as ABC by GEP. There were significant survival differences (overall survival and progression-free survival) if cases were classified by GEP, whereas if cases were categorized by IHC only progression-free survival differed significantly. Importantly, patients assigned as non-GCB/ABC both by IHC and GEP had the worst prognosis, which was also significant in multivariate analyses. Double expression of MYC and BCL2 was more common in ABC cases and was associated with a dismal outcome. In conclusion, to determine COO both by IHC and GEP is the strongest outcome predictor to identify DLBCL patients with the worst outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25666DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6916573PMC
January 2020

Focal skeletal FDG uptake indicates poor prognosis in cHL regardless of extent and first-line chemotherapy.

Br J Haematol 2019 08 22;186(3):431-439. Epub 2019 May 22.

Department of Haematology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark.

F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is used for staging classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) with high sensitivity for skeletal involvement. However, it is unclear whether a single bone lesion carries the same adverse prognosis as multifocal lesions and if this is affected by type of chemotherapy [ABVD (adriamycin, bleomycin, vincristine, dacarbazine) versus BEACOPP (bleomycin, etoposide, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone)]. We reviewed the clinico-pathological and outcome data from 209 patients with newly diagnosed cHL staged by FDG-PET/CT. Patterns of skeletal/bone marrow uptake (BMU) were divided into 'low' and 'high' diffuse BMU (i.e. without focal lesions), and unifocal or multifocal lesions. Additional separate survival analysis was performed, taking type of chemotherapy into account. Forty patients (19·2%) had skeletal lesions (20 unifocal, 20 multifocal). The 3-year progression-free-survival (PFS) was 80% for patients with 'low BMU', 87% for 'high BMU', 69% for 'unifocal' and 51% for 'multifocal' lesions; median follow-up was 38 months. The presence of bone lesions, both uni- and multifocal, was associated with significantly inferior PFS (log rank P = 0·0001), independent of chemotherapy type. Thus, increased diffuse BMU should not be considered as a risk factor in cHL, whereas unifocal or multifocal bone lesions should be regarded as important predictors of adverse outcome, irrespective of the chemotherapy regimen used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15933DOI Listing
August 2019

Single-cell analysis reveals the KIT D816V mutation in haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in systemic mastocytosis.

EBioMedicine 2019 May 8;43:150-158. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm 17164, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background: Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a haematological disease characterised by organ infiltration by neoplastic mast cells. Almost all SM patients have a mutation in the gene encoding the tyrosine kinase receptor KIT causing a D816V substitution and autoactivation of the receptor. Mast cells and CD34 haematopoietic progenitors can carry the mutation; however, in which progenitor cell subset the mutation arises is unknown. We aimed to investigate the distribution of the D816V mutation in single mast cells and single haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

Methods: Fluorescence-activated single-cell index sorting and KIT D816V mutation assessment were applied to analyse mast cells and >10,000 CD34 bone marrow progenitors across 10 haematopoietic progenitor subsets. In vitro assays verified cell-forming potential.

Findings: We found that in SM 60-99% of the mast cells harboured the KIT D816V mutation. Despite increased frequencies of mast cells in SM patients compared with control subjects, the haematopoietic progenitor subset frequencies were comparable. Nevertheless, the mutation could be detected throughout the haematopoietic landscape of SM patients, from haematopoietic stem cells to more lineage-primed progenitors. In addition, we demonstrate that FcεRI bone marrow progenitors exhibit mast cell-forming potential, and we describe aberrant CD45RA expression on SM mast cells for the first time.

Interpretation: The KIT D816V mutation arises in early haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and the mutation frequency is approaching 100% in mature mast cells, which express the aberrant marker CD45RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.03.089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6557764PMC
May 2019

High tumour plasma cell infiltration reflects an important microenvironmental component in classic Hodgkin lymphoma linked to presence of B-symptoms.

Br J Haematol 2019 01 2;184(2):192-201. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Experimental and Clinical Oncology, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Plasma cells are important prognostic actors in different malignancies. The tumour microenvironmental composition in classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is a major prognostic key element; however, clinicopathological studies regarding plasma cells in cHL are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate CD138+ (also termed SDC1+) plasma cell and IgG4 producing (IgG4+) plasma cells infiltration in the microenvironment of cHL. Immunohistochemistry with anti-CD138 and IgG4 antibodies was performed on diagnostic tumour biopsies from 124 patients with cHL, on tissue micro array (TMA). In 120 cases, CD138+ plasma cell-infiltration was associated with the presence of B-symptoms (P = 0·028) and advanced stage, IIB-IVB (P = 0·009). In multivariate analysis, CD138+ plasma cells correlated with eosinophil infiltration (P = 0·013). The subgroup of IgG4+ plasma cells was analysed in 122 cases and only correlated to CD138+ plasma cells (P = 0·004). Patients with high proportion of tumour infiltrating CD138+ plasma cells (defined as ≥10%), had a more inferior event-free survival (P = 0·007) and overall survival (P = 0·004) than patients with a low proportion of infiltrating CD138+ plasma cells (<10%), although significance was not maintained in multivariate analysis. In summary, a high proportion of tumour-associated plasma cells in cHL reflect an important component in the microenvironment of cHL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15703DOI Listing
January 2019

Disease-biased and shared characteristics of the immunoglobulin gene repertoires in marginal zone B cell lymphoproliferations.

J Pathol 2019 04 30;247(4):416-421. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Institute of Applied Biosciences, CERTH, Thessaloniki, Greece.

The B cell receptor immunoglobulin (Ig) gene repertoires of marginal zone (MZ) lymphoproliferations were analyzed in order to obtain insight into their ontogenetic relationships. Our cohort included cases with MZ lymphomas (n = 488), i.e. splenic (SMZL), nodal (NMZL) and extranodal (ENMZL), as well as provisional entities (n = 76), according to the WHO classification. The most striking Ig gene repertoire skewing was observed in SMZL. However, restrictions were also identified in all other MZ lymphomas studied, particularly ENMZL, with significantly different Ig gene distributions depending on the primary site of involvement. Cross-entity comparisons of the MZ Ig sequence dataset with a large dataset of Ig sequences (MZ-related or not; n = 65 837) revealed four major clusters of cases sharing homologous ('public') heavy variable complementarity-determining region 3. These clusters included rearrangements from SMZL, ENMZL (gastric, salivary gland, ocular adnexa), chronic lymphocytic leukemia, but also rheumatoid factors and non-malignant splenic MZ cells. In conclusion, different MZ lymphomas display biased immunogenetic signatures indicating distinct antigen exposure histories. The existence of rare public stereotypes raises the intriguing possibility that common, pathogen-triggered, immune-mediated mechanisms may result in diverse B lymphoproliferations due to targeting versatile progenitor B cells and/or operating in particular microenvironments. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.5209DOI Listing
April 2019

Expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 increase in consecutive biopsies in patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

PLoS One 2018 27;13(9):e0204870. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Experimental and Clinical Oncology, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology; Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

High expression of programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) by leukocytes in primary classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is associated with inferior outcome. However, it is unclear how expression varies during disease progression, and in the event of relapse. Our aim was to study PD-1 and PD-L1 in consecutive biopsies from untreated and treated cHL patients. We screened pathology registries from 3500 cHL patients. Eleven patients had a diagnostic cHL biopsy and a previous benign lymph node biopsy reclassified as cHL when reviewed and designated as the untreated. Thirty patients had a primary and a relapse biopsy, designated as the treated. Biopsies were immunostained to detect PD-1+ and PD-L1+ leukocytes, and PD-L1+ tumor cells. In the untreated, none of the markers were statistically significantly different when biopsies 1 and 2 were compared. In the treated, 19, 22, and 18 of 30 cases had increased proportions of PD-1+ leukocytes, PD-L1+ leukocytes and PD-L1+ tumor cells, respectively, and were all statistically significantly increased when primary and relapse biopsies were compared. PD-1 and PD-L1 most likely increase due to primary treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which could have implications regarding treatment with PD-1 inhibitors.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0204870PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6160169PMC
March 2019

Refractory chronic "ITP": When platelet size matters.

Clin Case Rep 2018 Sep 20;6(9):1779-1780. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology Clinical and Experimental Pathology Uppsala University and Uppsala University Hospital Uppsala Sweden.

Inherited conditions associated with thrombocytopenia should be included in the differential diagnosis of young patients with refractory immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), even in the absence of a positive family history. Early identification of such conditions is of vital importance in order to reach the right diagnosis and avoid unnecessary or even harmful medication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.1711DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6132098PMC
September 2018

A Phase I/IIa Trial Using CD19-Targeted Third-Generation CAR T Cells for Lymphoma and Leukemia.

Clin Cancer Res 2018 12 10;24(24):6185-6194. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Rudbeck Laboratory C11, Uppsala, Sweden.

Purpose: The chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has been effective for patients with CD19 B-cell malignancies. Most studies have investigated the second-generation CARs with either CD28 or 4-1BB costimulatory domains in the CAR receptor. Here, we describe the first clinical phase I/IIa trial using third-generation CAR T cells targeting CD19 to evaluate safety and efficacy.

Patients And Methods: Fifteen patients with B-cell lymphoma or leukemia were treated with CAR T cells. The patients with lymphoma received chemotherapy during CAR manufacture and 11 of 15 were given low-dose cyclophosphamide and fludarabine conditioning prior to CAR infusion. Peripheral blood was sampled before and at multiple time points after CAR infusion to evaluate the persistence of CAR T cells and for immune profiling, using quantitative PCR, flow cytometry, and a proteomic array.

Results: Treatment with third-generation CAR T cells was generally safe with 4 patients requiring hospitalization due to adverse reactions. Six of the 15 patients had initial complete responses [4/11 lymphoma and 2/4 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)], and 3 of the patients with lymphoma were in remission at 3 months. Two patients are still alive. Best predictor of response was a good immune status prior to CAR infusion with high IL12, DC-Lamp, Fas ligand, and TRAIL. Responding patients had low monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs; CD14CD33HLADR) and low levels of IL6, IL8, NAP3, sPDL1, and sPDL2.

Conclusions: Third-generation CARs may be efficient in patients with advanced B-cell lymphoproliferative malignancy with only modest toxicity. Immune profiling pre- and posttreatment can be used to find response biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-0426DOI Listing
December 2018

A Biological Signature for Breast Ductal Carcinoma to Predict Radiotherapy Benefit and Assess Recurrence Risk.

Clin Cancer Res 2018 12 27;24(23):5895-5901. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Department of Surgery, Uppsala Academic Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.

Purpose: Ductal carcinoma (DCIS) patients and their physicians currently face challenging treatment decisions with limited information about the individual's subsequent breast cancer risk or treatment benefit. The DCISionRT biological signature developed in this study provides recurrence risk and predicts radiotherapy (RT) benefit for DCIS patients following breast-conserving surgery (BCS).

Experimental Design: A biological signature that calculates an individualized Decision Score (DS) was developed and cross-validated in 526 DCIS patients treated with BCS ± RT. The relationship was assessed between DS and 10-year risk of invasive breast cancer (IBC) or any ipsilateral breast event (IBE), including IBC or DCIS. RT benefit was evaluated by risk group and as a function of DS.

Results: The DS was significantly associated with IBC and IBE risk, HR (per 5 units) of 4.2 and 3.1, respectively. For patients treated without RT, DS identified a Low Group with 10-year IBC risk of 4% (7% IBE) and an Elevated Risk Group with IBC risk of 15% (23% IBE). In analysis of DS and RT by group, the Elevated Risk Group received significant RT benefit, HR of 0.3 for IBC and IBE. In a clinicopathologically low-risk subset, DS reclassified 42% of patients into the Elevated Risk Group. In an interaction analysis of DS and RT, patients with elevated DS had significant RT benefit over baseline.

Conclusions: The DS was prognostic for risk and predicted RT benefit for DCIS patients. DS identified a clinically meaningful low-risk group and a group with elevated 10-year risks that received substantial RT benefit over baseline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-0842DOI Listing
December 2018

High proportions of PD-1 and PD-L1 leukocytes in classical Hodgkin lymphoma microenvironment are associated with inferior outcome.

Blood Adv 2017 Aug 8;1(18):1427-1439. Epub 2017 Aug 8.

Experimental and Clinical Oncology, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Immune checkpoint inhibition targeting the programmed death receptor (PD)-1 pathway is a novel treatment approach in relapsed and refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Identifying patients with a high risk of treatment failure could support the use of PD-1 inhibitors as front-line treatment. Our aim was to investigate the prognostic impact of PD-1, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), and PD-L2 in the tumor microenvironment in diagnostic biopsies of patients with cHL. Patients from Denmark and Sweden, diagnosed between 1990 and 2007 and ages 15 to 86 years, were included. Tissue microarray samples were available from 387 patients. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2, and the proportions of positive cells were calculated. Event-free survival (EFS; time to treatment failure) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression. High proportions of both PD-1 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-2.86) and PD-L1 (HR = 1.89; 95% CI, 1.08-3.30) leukocytes in the microenvironment were associated with inferior EFS in a multivariate analysis (adjusted for white blood cell count >15 × 10/L, hemoglobin <105 g/L, albumin <40 g/L, B symptoms, extranodal involvement, stage, bulky tumor, nodular sclerosis subtype, Epstein-Barr virus status, lymphocyte count <0.6 × 10/L, sex, and country). A high proportion of PD-L1 leukocytes was also associated with inferior OS in a multivariate analysis (HR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.15-10.37). This is the first study to show a correlation after multivariate analysis between inferior outcome in cHL and a high proportion of both PD-1 and PD-L1 leukocytes in the tumor microenvironment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2017006346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5727849PMC
August 2017

An anergic immune signature in the tumor microenvironment of classical Hodgkin lymphoma is associated with inferior outcome.

Eur J Haematol 2018 Jan 14;100(1):88-97. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

Experimental and Clinical Oncology, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Objective: The classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) tumor microenvironment shows an ongoing inflammatory response consisting of varying degrees of infiltrating eosinophils, mast cells, macrophages, regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs), and activated lymphocytes surrounding the malignant cells. Herein, different immune signatures are characterized and correlated with treatment outcome.

Methods: Tumor-infiltrating leukocytes were phenotyped in biopsies from 459 patients with cHL. Time to progression (TTP) (primary progression, relapse, or death from cHL) and overall survival were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression.

Results: The leukocyte infiltration in the microenvironment was highly diverse between patients and was categorized in 4 immune signatures (active, anergic, innate, or mixed). A high proportion of Tregs (anergic) resulted in shorter TTP (median 12.9-year follow-up) in age-adjusted analyses (hazard ratio = 1.82; 95% confidence interval 1.05-3-15). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive cases had higher proportions of macrophages and activated lymphocytes than EBV negative, but neither of those leukocytes predicted prognosis.

Conclusions: Abundant Tregs (anergic signature) indicate a shorter TTP, particularly in younger patients. This is probably due to a reduced ability of the immune system to attack the tumor cells. Our data warrant further investigation if these suggested immune signatures could predict outcome of immunotherapy such as immune checkpoint inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.12987DOI Listing
January 2018

KIT signaling is dispensable for human mast cell progenitor development.

Blood 2017 10 8;130(16):1785-1794. Epub 2017 Aug 8.

Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Human hematopoietic progenitors are generally assumed to require stem cell factor (SCF) and KIT signaling during differentiation for the formation of mast cells. Imatinib treatment, which inhibits KIT signaling, depletes mast cells in vivo. Furthermore, the absence of SCF or imatinib treatment prevents progenitors from developing into mast cells in vitro. However, these observations do not mean that mast cell progenitors require SCF and KIT signaling throughout differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that circulating mast cell progenitors are present in patients undergoing imatinib treatment. In addition, we show that mast cell progenitors from peripheral blood survive, mature, and proliferate without SCF and KIT signaling in vitro. Contrary to the prevailing consensus, our results show that SCF and KIT signaling are dispensable for early mast cell development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2017-03-773374DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5659818PMC
October 2017

[Core needle biopsies for lymphoma diagnosis seriously affect diagnostics, treatment development and research].

Lakartidningen 2017 06 16;114. Epub 2017 Jun 16.

Akademiska sjukhuset - Dept of Pathology Uppsala, Sweden Akademiska sjukhuset - Dept of Immunology Genetics and Pathology Uppsala, Sweden.

Core needle biopsies for lymphoma diagnosis seriously affect diagnostics, treatment development and research Core needle biopsies (CNBs) are widely used in clinical diagnostic labs to aid in the diagnosis of malignant lymphomas and in latter years their use is increasing. CNBs provide a rapid method for obtaining tumour material and may be beneficial when the affected lymph nodes are located deep in the abdominal cavity or mediastinum and surgical excisional biopsies may be difficult to perform. However, according to the Swedish Haematopathology Quality and Standardization Committee, CNBs are insufficient for lymphoma diagnostic purposes and the guidelines state that material from surgical excisional biopsies are mandatory in order to obtain a robust histopathological evaluation of the lymph node architecture, cellular composition and growth pattern. Surgical excision biopsies also ensure that adequate material is available if additional molecular analyses should be required and also to facilitate future research.
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June 2017

Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Cell Line U-2946: Model for MCL1 Inhibitor Testing.

PLoS One 2016 1;11(12):e0167599. Epub 2016 Dec 1.

Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University and Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.

Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma worldwide. We describe the establishment and molecular characteristics of the DLBCL cell line U-2946. This cell line was derived from a 52-year-old male with DLBCL. U-2946 cells carried the chromosomal translocation t(8;14) and strongly expressed MYC, but not the mature B-cell lymphoma associated oncogenes BCL2 and BCL6. Instead, U-2946 cells expressed the antiapoptotic BCL2 family member MCL1 which was highly amplified genomically (14n). MCL1 amplification is recurrent in DLBCL, especially in the activated B cell (ABC) variant. Results of microarray expression cluster analysis placed U-2946 together with ABC-, but apart from germinal center (GC)-type DLBCL cell lines. The 1q21.3 region including MCL1 was focally coamplified with a short region of 17p11.2 (also present at 14n). The MCL1 inhibitor A-1210477 triggered apoptosis in U-2946 (MCL1pos/BCL2neg) cells. In contrast to BCL2pos DLBCL cell lines, U-2946 did not respond to the BCL2 inhibitor ABT-263. In conclusion, the novel characteristics of cell line U-2946 renders it a unique model system to test the function of small molecule inhibitors, especially when constructing a panel of DLBCL cell lines expressing broad combinations of antiapoptotic BCL2-family members.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0167599PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5132233PMC
July 2017

Core needle biopsies for the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma - a great concern for research.

Acta Oncol 2017 Jan 31;56(1):106-109. Epub 2016 Oct 31.

a Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Unit of Pathology , Uppsala University and Uppsala University Hospital , Uppsala , Sweden.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2016.1245863DOI Listing
January 2017

Frequent NFKBIE deletions are associated with poor outcome in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma.

Blood 2016 12 26;128(23):2666-2670. Epub 2016 Sep 26.

Department of Hematology, Oncology, and Tumor Immunology, Charité, University Medical Center, Berlin, Germany.

We recently reported a truncating deletion in the NFKBIE gene, which encodes IκBε, a negative feedback regulator of NF-κB, in clinically aggressive chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Because preliminary data indicate enrichment of NFKBIE aberrations in other lymphoid malignancies, we screened a large patient cohort (n = 1460) diagnosed with different lymphoid neoplasms. While NFKBIE deletions were infrequent in follicular lymphoma, splenic marginal zone lymphoma, and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (<2%), slightly higher frequencies were seen in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, and primary central nervous system lymphoma (3% to 4%). In contrast, a remarkably high frequency of NFKBIE aberrations (46/203 cases [22.7%]) was observed in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (3/11 cases [27.3%]). NFKBIE-deleted PMBL patients were more often therapy refractory (P = .022) and displayed inferior outcome compared with wild-type patients (5-year survival, 59% vs 78%; P = .034); however, they appeared to benefit from radiotherapy (P =022) and rituximab-containing regimens (P = .074). NFKBIE aberrations remained an independent factor in multivariate analysis (P = .003) and when restricting the analysis to immunochemotherapy-treated patients (P = .008). Whole-exome sequencing and gene expression profiling verified the importance of NF-κB deregulation in PMBL. In summary, we identify NFKBIE aberrations as a common genetic event across B-cell malignancies and highlight NFKBIE deletions as a novel poor-prognostic marker in PMBL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2016-03-704528DOI Listing
December 2016

A population-based study of cellular markers in R-CHOP treated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients.

Acta Oncol 2016 Sep - Oct;55(9-10):1126-1131. Epub 2016 Aug 23.

a Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Unit of Pathology , Uppsala University and Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.

Aim: To determine the prognostic significance of co-expression of MYC, BCL-2 and BCL-6 proteins in combination with other biomarkers and clinical characteristics within a population-based cohort of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients uniformly treated with R-CHOP.

Patients And Methods: The immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of CD10, BCL-2, BCL-6, MUM1, MYC, CD5, CD30, Ki-67 and p53 was evaluated in a retrospective, population-based study comprising 188 DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP and diagnosed in Sweden between 2002 and 2012.

Results: Patients had a median age at diagnosis of 64 years (26-85 years) with a male:female ratio of 1.4:1. Approximately half (52%) of the patients presented with an International Prognostic Index (IPI) age adjusted (IPIaa) ≥ 2. Median follow-up time was 51 months (range 0.4-158) and the five-year lymphoma-specific survival (LSS) was 76%, five-year overall survival (OS) was 65% and five-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 61%. A high Ki-67 value was found in 59% of patients, while p53 overexpression was detected in 12% of patients and MYC, BCL-2 and BCL-6 expression were detected in 42%, 55% and 74% of patients, respectively. IPIaa ≥2 (p = 0.002), Ki-67 ≥ 70% (p = 0.04) and p53 overexpression ≥50% (p = 0.02) were associated with inferior LSS and OS. Co-expression of both MYC (>40%) and BCL-2 (>70%) proteins was detected in 27% of patients and correlated with a significantly inferior LSS (p = 0.0002), OS (p = 0.009) and PFS (p = 0.03). In addition, triple expression of MYC, BCL-2 and BCL-6, also correlated with a significantly inferior LSS (p = 0.02).

Conclusion: Concurrent expression of MYC and BCL-2 proteins, as detected by IHC, was strongly associated with an inferior survival in DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP. Other markers affecting survival were triple expression of MYC, BCL-2 and BCL-6, IPIaa, high Ki-67 and p53 overexpression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2016.1189093DOI Listing
January 2018

Estrogen receptor β1 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma growth and as a prognostic biomarker.

Leuk Lymphoma 2017 02 29;58(2):418-427. Epub 2016 Jun 29.

a Department of Biosciences and Nutrition , Karolinska Institutet , Huddinge , Sweden.

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) shows a higher incidence in males versus females. Epidemiological studies have shown that female gender is a favorable prognostic factor, which may be explained by estrogens. Here we show that when grafting human DLBCL cells to immunocompromised mice, tumor growth in males is faster. When treating mice grafted with either germinal center or activated B-cell like DLBCL cells with the selective estrogen receptor β (ERβ) agonist diarylpropionitrile, tumor growth was significantly inhibited. Furthermore, nuclear ERβ1 expression analysis in primary DLBCL's by immunohistochemistry revealed expression in 89% of the cases. Nuclear ERβ1 expression was in a univariate and multivariate analysis, an independent prognostic factor for adverse progression-free survival in Rituximab-chemotherapy treated DLBCL (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively). These results suggest that estrogen signaling through ERβ1 is an interesting future therapeutic target for treatment of DLBCL, and that ERβ1 expression can be used as a prognostic marker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2016.1193853DOI Listing
February 2017

The role of tumour-infiltrating eosinophils, mast cells and macrophages in Classical and Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma in children.

Eur J Haematol 2016 Nov 23;97(5):430-438. Epub 2016 Mar 23.

Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Unit of Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Objectives: To study Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) microenvironment in a Swedish paediatric population and its relation to clinical parameters.

Methods: Tumour tissue from classical HL (cHL) (n = 87) and nodular lymphocyte predominant HL (NLPHL) (n = 11) was investigated for Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and analysed for eosinophils, mast cells and macrophages.

Results: In cHL, EBV positivity was more common in low age (P < 0.001) and in mixed cellularity (MC) (P < 0.001). Higher mast cell infiltration was seen in stage III-IV (P < 0.001), and with presence of B-symptoms (P = 0.01). Cases with high mast cell counts displayed higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), lower haemoglobin and albumin levels. Higher macrophage infiltration was seen in stage III-IV (P = 0.02) and there was elevated ESR and neutrophil count. All NLPHL cases were EBV negative, had lower rates of inflammatory cells and lower degree of inflammatory reaction in laboratory parameters. There was no difference in survival estimates with regard to infiltration of inflammatory cells.

Conclusions: Higher levels of mast cells and macrophages in cHL tumours reflected the clinical presentation in laboratory parameters, B-symptoms and more advanced stages. NLPHL differs from cHL in numbers of inflammatory cells in the tumour, and in laboratory parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.12747DOI Listing
November 2016

Autoimmune and Atopic Disorders and Risk of Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma.

Am J Epidemiol 2015 Oct 6;182(7):624-32. Epub 2015 Sep 6.

Results from previous investigations have shown associations between the risk of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and a history of autoimmune and atopic diseases, but it remains unknown whether these associations apply to all types of HL or only to specific subtypes. We investigated immune diseases and the risk of classical HL in a population-based case-control study that included 585 patients and 3,187 controls recruited from October 1999 through August 2002. We collected information on immune diseases through telephone interviews and performed serological analyses of specific immunoglobulin E reactivity. Tumor Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status was determined for 498 patients. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression analysis. Rheumatoid arthritis was associated with a higher risk of HL (odds ratio (OR) = 2.63; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47, 4.70), especially EBV-positive HL (OR = 3.18; 95% CI: 1.23, 8.17), and with mixed-cellularity HL (OR = 4.25; 95% CI: 1.66, 10.90). HL risk was higher when we used proxies of severe rheumatoid arthritis, such as ever having received daily rheumatoid arthritis medication (OR = 3.98; 95% CI: 2.08, 7.62), rheumatoid arthritis duration of 6-20 years (OR = 3.80; 95% CI: 1.72, 8.41), or ever having been hospitalized for rheumatoid arthritis (OR = 7.36; 95% CI: 2.95, 18.38). Atopic diseases were not associated with the risk of HL. EBV replication induced by chronic inflammation in patients with autoimmune diseases might explain the higher risk of EBV-positive HL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwv081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4581588PMC
October 2015

The prognostic role of HER2 expression in ductal breast carcinoma in situ (DCIS); a population-based cohort study.

BMC Cancer 2015 Jun 11;15:468. Epub 2015 Jun 11.

Department of Surgical Science, Uppsala University, Uppsala, SE-75105, Sweden.

Background: HER2 is a well-established prognostic and predictive factor in invasive breast cancer. The role of HER2 in ductal breast carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is debated and recent data have suggested that HER2 is mainly related to in situ recurrences. Our aim was to study HER2 as a prognostic factor in a large population based cohort of DCIS with long-term follow-up.

Methods: All 458 patients diagnosed with a primary DCIS 1986-2004 in two Swedish counties were included. Silver-enhanced in situ hybridisation (SISH) was used for detection of HER2 gene amplification and protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in tissue microarrays. HER2 positivity was defined as amplified HER2 gene and/or HER2 3+ by IHC. HER2 status in relation to new ipsilateral events (IBE) and Invasive Breast Cancer Recurrences, local or distant (IBCR) was assessed by Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and Cox proportional hazards regression models.

Results: Primary DCIS was screening-detected in 75.5% of cases. Breast conserving surgery (BCS) was performed in 78.6% of whom 44.0% received postoperative radiotherapy. No patients received adjuvant endocrine- or chemotherapy. The majority of DCIS could be HER2 classified (N=420 (91.7%)); 132 HER2 positive (31%) and 288 HER2 negative (69%)). HER2 positivity was related to large tumor size (P=0.002), high grade (P<0.001) and ER- and PR negativity (P<0.001 for both). During follow-up (mean 184 months), 106 IBCRs and 105 IBEs were identified among all 458 cases corresponding to 54 in situ and 51 invasive recurrences. Eighteen women died from breast cancer and another 114 had died from other causes. The risk of IBCR was statistically significantly lower subsequent to a HER2 positive DCIS compared to a HER2 negative DCIS, (Log-Rank P=0.03, (HR) 0.60 (95% CI 0.38-0.94)). Remarkably, the curves did not separate until after 10 years. In ER-stratified analyses, HER2 positive DCIS was associated with lower risk of IBCR among women with ER negative DCIS (Log-Rank P=0.003), but not for women with ER positive DCIS.

Conclusions: Improved prognostic tools for DCIS patients are warranted to tailor adjuvant therapy. Here, we demonstrate that HER2 positive disease in the primary DCIS is associated with lower risk of recurrent invasive breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-015-1479-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4464713PMC
June 2015

Satisfactory outcome after intensive chemotherapy with pragmatic use of minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring in older patients with Philadelphia-negative B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a Swedish registry-based study.

Med Oncol 2015 Apr 22;32(4):135. Epub 2015 Mar 22.

Department of Medical Sciences, Haematology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden,

The introduction of minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring, in the Swedish national guidelines for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, was evaluated in 35 patients aged 46-79 years (median 61), who were diagnosed from 2007 to 2011 and treated with high-intensity, block-based chemotherapy (ABCDV/VABA induction). Both a high complete remission rate (91 %) and acceptable overall survival (OS) rate (47 %) at 5 years were achieved. MRD by flow cytometry was measured in 73 % of the patients reaching complete remission after the first course, but was omitted by the clinicians for eight patients who were either over 70 years of age or already met conventional high-risk criteria. Factors negatively influencing OS were age over 65 years and WHO status ≥2. MRD < 0.1 % after induction had positive impact on continuous complete remission but not on OS. Only five patients were allocated to allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in first remission, mainly due to conventional high risk factors. Thus, use of intensive remission induction therapy is effective in a selection of older patients. In a population for whom the possibilities of treatment escalation are limited, the optimal role of MRD monitoring remains to be determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12032-015-0582-2DOI Listing
April 2015