Publications by authors named "Roschan Salimi Dafsari"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Challenges in management of transient hyperinsulinism - a retrospective analysis of 36 severely affected children.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of General Pediatrics, Neonatology and Pediatric Cardiology, University Children's Hospital, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Objectives: Transient hyperinsulinism (THI) is a hypoglycemia disorder which resolves spontaneously within the first weeks or months of life. The pathomechanism of THI is not elucidated yet; however, it is known that perinatal stress predisposes for THI. We aimed to characterize the clinical phenotype and treatment of children with THI, and to identify options for improved management.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of 36 children with THI treated at the University Children's Hospital Düsseldorf between 2007 and 2019 was performed.

Results: All children had risk factors for neonatal hypoglycemia or indicators of perinatal stress. Eighty three percent were diagnosed with hypoglycemia on day of life (DOL)1. None of the six diagnosed later had routine blood glucose screening and showed significantly lower blood glucose levels at the time of first blood glucose measurement compared to the children diagnosed on DOL1. Ninety seven percent of all children received intravenous glucose, 42% received continuous glucagon and 81% were started on diazoxide. Diazoxide withdrawal and subsequent fasting tests lacked standardization and were based on clinical experience. Three patients had a subsequent episode of hypoglycemia, after fasting studies only demonstrated "clinical" remission without proving the ability to ketogenesis.

Conclusions: Any kind of perinatal stress might pose a risk to develop THI, and postnatal monitoring for hypoglycemia still needs to be improved. Diazoxide is effective in children with THI; however, further studies are needed to guide the development of criteria and procedures for the initiation and discontinuation of treatment. Furthermore, establishing consensus diagnostic criteria/definitions for THI would improve comparability between studies.
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April 2021

Clinical management and knowledge of neonatal hypoglycaemia in Germany: A national survey of midwives and nurses.

J Paediatr Child Health 2021 06 8;57(6):854-859. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of General Pediatrics, Neonatology and Pediatric Cardiology, University Children's Hospital Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf, Germany.

Aim: Despite being a common metabolic condition, the detection and care of neonatal hypoglycaemia in Germany largely depends on the infant's health-care provider, rather than a national protocol. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate midwives' and nurses' knowledge and management of neonatal hypoglycaemia and to determine the need for national guidelines.

Methods: An anonymous online survey was developed and completed by 127 perinatal nurses and midwives. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney-U, χ and Fisher's exact tests were used to summarise and analyse the results.

Results: In total, 82% of respondents indicated using guidelines but routine blood glucose screening for neonates at risk for hypoglycaemia was rarely reported (44%). A blood glucose concentration of 2.5 mmol/L (45 mg/dL) was considered the treatment threshold by 52% of the respondents. However, the responses to clinical scenarios showed distinct differences regarding the management of neonatal hypoglycaemia. Finally, 49% of respondents reported insufficient knowledge regarding neonatal hypoglycaemia and 77% indicated that they would advocate the implication of enhanced national guidelines.

Conclusions: There is considerable variation in knowledge about the prevention, screening and management of neonatal hypoglycaemia among nurses and midwives in Germany. Enhanced guidelines and education of health-care professionals are urgently needed to provide the best possible care to all hypoglycaemic newborns.
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June 2021

Risk Factors for Adverse Neurodevelopment in Transient or Persistent Congenital Hyperinsulinism.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 30;11:580642. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of General Pediatrics, Neonatology and Pediatric Cardiology, University Children's Hospital, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf, Germany.

Objective: Aim was to identify hypotheses why adverse neurodevelopment still occurs in children with transient or persistent hyperinsulinism despite improvements in long-term treatment options during the last decades.

Material And Methods: A retrospective review of 87 children with transient (n=37) or persistent congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) (n=50) was conducted at the University Children's Hospital Duesseldorf, Germany. Possible risk factors for neurodevelopmental sequelae due to hypoglycemia were analyzed with a focus on the first days after onset of disease.

Results: Median age at follow-up was 7 years (IQR 8). Adverse neurodevelopmental outcome was seen in 34.5% (n=30) of all CHI patients. Fifteen had mildly abnormal neurodevelopment and 15 had a severe hypoglycemic brain injury. In univariate analysis, mildly abnormal neurodevelopment was associated with the diagnosis of persistent CHI (odds ratio (OR) 8.3; p=0.004) and higher birth weight (mean difference 1049 g; p<0.001). Severe hypoglycemic brain injury was associated with the diagnosis of persistent CHI (OR 5.1; p=0.013), being born abroad (OR 18.3; p<0.001) or in a lower-level maternity hospital (OR 4.8; p=0.039), and of note history of hypoglycemic seizures (OR 13.0; p=<0.001), and a delay between first symptoms of hypoglycemia and first blood glucose measurement/initiation of treatment (OR 10.7; p<0.001). Children with severe hypoglycemic brain injury had lower recorded blood glucose (mean difference -8.34 mg/dl; p=0.022) and higher birth weight than children with normal development (mean difference 829 g; p=0.012). In multivariate binary logistic regression models, lowest blood glucose <20 mg/dl (OR 134.3; p=0.004), a delay between initial symptoms and first blood glucose measurement/initiation of treatment (OR 71.7; p=0.017) and hypoglycemic seizures (OR 12.9; p=0.008) were positively correlated with severe brain injury. Analysis showed that the odds for brain injury decreased by 15% (OR 0.85; p=0.035) if the blood glucose increased by one unit.

Conclusion: While some risk factors for adverse outcome in CHI are not influenceable, others like lowest recorded blood glucose values <20 mg/dl, hypoglycemic seizures, and insufficiently-or even untreated hypoglycemia can be avoided. Future guidelines for management of neonatal hypoglycemia should address this by ensuring early identification and immediate treatment with appropriate escalation steps.
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June 2021

Comparative meta-analysis of Kabuki syndrome with and without hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2020 09 15;93(3):346-354. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of General Pediatrics, Neonatology and Pediatric Cardiology, University Children's Hospital Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Background And Objective: Kabuki syndrome (KS), caused by pathogenic variants in KMT2D or KDM6A, is associated with hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HH) in 0.3%-4% of patients. We characterized the clinical, biochemical and molecular data of children with KS and HH compared to children with KS without HH in a multicentre meta-analysis.

Methods: Data of seven new and 17 already published children with KS and HH were compared to 373 recently published KS patients without HH regarding molecular and clinical characteristics.

Results: Seven new patients were identified with seven different pathogenic variants in KDM6A (n = 4) or KMT2D (n = 3). All presented with HH on the first day of life and were responsive to diazoxide. KS was diagnosed between 9 months and 14 years of age. In the meta-analysis, 24 KS patients with HH had a significantly higher frequency of variants in KDM6A compared to 373 KS patients without HH (50% vs 11.5%, P < .001), and KDM6A-KS was more likely to be associated with HH than KMT2D-KS (21.8% vs. 3.5%, P < .001). Sex distribution and other phenotypic features did not differ between KS with and without HH.

Conclusion: The higher incidence of HH in KDM6A-KS compared to KMT2D-KS indicates that KDM6A loss of function variants predispose more specifically to beta cell dysfunction compared to KMT2D variants. As difficulties to assign syndromic characteristics to KS in early infancy often lead to delayed diagnosis, genetic testing for KS should be considered in children with HH, especially in the presence of other extrapancreatic/syndromic features.
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September 2020