Publications by authors named "Rosanne Aleong"

10 Publications

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Using Standardized Tools to Characterize Adult Day Program Populations: Implications for Future Research and Clinical Practice.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2020 Oct 17. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Health Sciences, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Medicine and Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Medicine, Baycrest Health Sciences, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Objectives: To demonstrate the usefulness of primary data collection using clinician-rated and self-rated standardized measures to describe adult day program (ADP) populations and address programming issues such as identifying members at risk of dropping out.

Setting And Participants: One ADP in London, Ontario, and 2 ADPs in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. A total of 223 community-dwelling older adults were recruited across the 3 different programs.

Methods: The interRAI Community Health or Home Care Assessment and self-rated psychosocial assessments were collected on program enrollment. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, comparison of the populations between ADPs, and multinomial regression models to assess reasons for program withdrawal.

Results: Mean ages across the 3 programs ranged from 78.3 to 83.8 years and the proportion of women ranged from 49.3% to 56.6%. Compared with one of the ADPs, members from 2 other ADPs exhibited higher use of mobility aids (P < .001), higher levels of cognitive impairment (P < .05), increased risk for institutionalization (P < .001), lower levels of depression (P < .01), and greater need for supervision for basic and instrumental activities of daily living (P < .01). Members assessed to be at higher risk for institutionalization and have increased medical complexity showed possible association with program withdrawal at one ADP.

Conclusions And Implications: The tools were useful in identifying differences in physical and psychosocial characteristics of members across the 3 ADPs. Information collected from interRAI and self-rated psychosocial assessments may be helpful in the development of individualized care plans, program services, and recommendations that target transitional care. By understanding member profiles and reasons for withdrawal, ADPs may be able to develop strategies to help members stay in the program and live in the community longer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2020.08.038DOI Listing
October 2020

Impact of Antimicrobial Stewardship on Physician Practice in a Geriatric Facility.

Can J Hosp Pharm 2016 Nov-Dec;69(6):460-465. Epub 2016 Dec 23.

, MDCM, FCFP, is with the Department of Family Medicine, Baycrest Health Sciences, Toronto, Ontario.

Background: There is a paucity of literature describing the implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) in long-term care (LTC) facilities. The current study evaluated the impact of an ASP that was implemented across a geriatric facility, which included an inpatient specialty hospital and an LTC facility. The program included prospective audits with feedback, multidisciplinary education, information technology interventions, and guideline development.

Objective: To investigate the impact of the ASP on physicians' prescribing practices in this geriatric facility.

Methods: Utilization data for antibiotics commonly used to treat urinary tract infections were retrieved for the period September 1, 2011, to August 31, 2013. The study examined whether there were significant changes in overall antibiotic use, ciprofloxacin use, and physician prescribing behaviour after program implementation in September 2012.

Results: There was no significant change in the total number of antibiotic prescriptions for urinary tract infections in the hospital or the LTC facility after ASP implementation. Significant reductions were seen in the average days of therapy initially prescribed and the actual days of therapy after ASP implementation in the LTC facility but not the hospital. Across both facilities, significant reductions were seen in the number of ciprofloxacin prescriptions.

Conclusions: The current study showed that an ASP can affect physicians' antibiotic prescribing behaviour and antibiotic usage in an LTC environment.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5242278PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.4212/cjhp.v69i6.1609DOI Listing
March 2018

Novel Use of a Smartphone to Measure Standing Balance.

JMIR Rehabil Assist Technol 2016 Mar 29;3(1):e4. Epub 2016 Mar 29.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Balance assessment and training is utilized by clinicians and their patients to measure and improve balance. There is, however, little consistency in terms of how clinicians, researchers, and patients measure standing balance. Utilizing the inherent sensors in every smartphone, a mobile application was developed to provide a method of objectively measuring standing balance.

Objective: We aimed to determine if a mobile phone application, which utilizes the phone's accelerometer, can quantify standing balance.

Methods: Three smartphones were positioned simultaneously above the participants' malleolus and patella and at the level of the umbilicus. Once secured, the myAnkle application was initiated to measure acceleration. Forty-eight participants completed 8 different balance exercises separately for the right and left legs. Accelerometer readings were obtained from each mobile phone and mean acceleration was calculated for each exercise at each ankle and knee and the torso.

Results: Mean acceleration vector magnitude was reciprocally transformed to address skewness in the data distribution. Repeated measures ANOVAs were completed using the transformed data. A significant 2-way interaction was revealed between exercise condition and the body position of the phone (P<.001). Post-hoc tests indicated higher acceleration vector magnitude for exercises of greater difficulty. ANOVAs at each body position were conducted to examine the effect of exercise. The results revealed the knee as the location most sensitive for the detection of differences in acceleration between exercises. The accelerometer ranking of exercise difficulty showed high agreement with expert clinical rater rankings (kappa statistic>0.9).

Conclusions: The myAnkle application revealed significantly greater acceleration magnitude for exercises of greater difficulty. Positioning of the mobile phone at the knee proved to be the most sensitive to changes in accelerometer values due to exercise difficulty. Application validity was shown through comparison with clinical raters. As such, the myAnkle app has utility as a measurement tool for standing balance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/rehab.4511DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5454555PMC
March 2016

Maternal smoking during pregnancy and fetal organ growth: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

PLoS One 2013 3;8(7):e67223. Epub 2013 Jul 3.

Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom.

Objective: To study whether maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with alterations in the growth of fetal lungs, kidneys, liver, brain, and placenta.

Design: A case-control study, with operators performing the image analysis blinded.

Setting: Study performed on a research-dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner (1.5 T) with participants recruited from a large teaching hospital in the United Kingdom.

Participants: A total of 26 pregnant women (13 current smokers, 13 non smokers) were recruited; 18 women (10 current smokers, 8 nonsmokers) returned for the second scan later in their pregnancy.

Methods: Each fetus was scanned with MRI at 22-27 weeks and 33-38 weeks gestational age (GA).

Main Outcome Measures: Images obtained with MRI were used to measure volumes of the fetal brain, kidneys, lungs, liver and overall fetal size, as well as placental volumes.

Results: Exposed fetuses showed lower brain volumes, kidney volumes, and total fetal volumes, with this effect being greater at visit 2 than at visit 1 for brain and kidney volumes, and greater at visit 1 than at visit 2 for total fetal volume. Exposed fetuses also demonstrated lower lung volume and placental volume, and this effect was similar at both visits. No difference was found between the exposed and nonexposed fetuses with regards to liver volume.

Conclusion: Magnetic resonance imaging has been used to show that maternal smoking is associated with reduced growth of fetal brain, lung and kidney; this effect persists even when the volumes are corrected for maternal education, gestational age, and fetal sex. As expected, the fetuses exposed to maternal smoking are smaller in size. Similarly, placental volumes are smaller in smoking versus nonsmoking pregnant women.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0067223PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3700970PMC
February 2014

Testosterone-mediated sex differences in the face shape during adolescence: subjective impressions and objective features.

Horm Behav 2011 Nov 29;60(5):681-90. Epub 2011 Sep 29.

Rotman Research Institute, University of Toronto, 3560 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M6A 2E1.

Sex identification of a face is essential for social cognition. Still, perceptual cues indicating the sex of a face, and mechanisms underlying their development, remain poorly understood. Previously, our group described objective age- and sex-related differences in faces of healthy male and female adolescents (12-18 years of age), as derived from magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of the adolescents' heads. In this study, we presented these adolescent faces to 60 female raters to determine which facial features most reliably predicted subjective sex identification. Identification accuracy correlated highly with specific MRI-derived facial features (e.g. broader forehead, chin, jaw, and nose). Facial features that most reliably cued male identity were associated with plasma levels of testosterone (above and beyond age). Perceptible sex differences in face shape are thus associated with specific facial features whose emergence may be, in part, driven by testosterone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2011.09.004DOI Listing
November 2011

Automated analysis of craniofacial morphology using magnetic resonance images.

PLoS One 2011 31;6(5):e20241. Epub 2011 May 31.

Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Quantitative analysis of craniofacial morphology is of interest to scholars working in a wide variety of disciplines, such as anthropology, developmental biology, and medicine. T1-weighted (anatomical) magnetic resonance images (MRI) provide excellent contrast between soft tissues. Given its three-dimensional nature, MRI represents an ideal imaging modality for the analysis of craniofacial structure in living individuals. Here we describe how T1-weighted MR images, acquired to examine brain anatomy, can also be used to analyze facial features. Using a sample of typically developing adolescents from the Saguenay Youth Study (N = 597; 292 male, 305 female, ages: 12 to 18 years), we quantified inter-individual variations in craniofacial structure in two ways. First, we adapted existing nonlinear registration-based morphological techniques to generate iteratively a group-wise population average of craniofacial features. The nonlinear transformations were used to map the craniofacial structure of each individual to the population average. Using voxel-wise measures of expansion and contraction, we then examined the effects of sex and age on inter-individual variations in facial features. Second, we employed a landmark-based approach to quantify variations in face surfaces. This approach involves: (a) placing 56 landmarks (forehead, nose, lips, jaw-line, cheekbones, and eyes) on a surface representation of the MRI-based group average; (b) warping the landmarks to the individual faces using the inverse nonlinear transformation estimated for each person; and (3) using a principal components analysis (PCA) of the warped landmarks to identify facial features (i.e. clusters of landmarks) that vary in our sample in a correlated fashion. As with the voxel-wise analysis of the deformation fields, we examined the effects of sex and age on the PCA-derived spatial relationships between facial features. Both methods demonstrated significant sexual dimorphism in craniofacial structure in areas such as the chin, mandible, lips, and nose.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0020241PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3105012PMC
October 2011

Neural correlates of human body perception.

J Cogn Neurosci 2010 Mar;22(3):482-95

Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University.

The objective of this study was to investigate potential sex differences in the neural response to human bodies using fMRI carried out in healthy young adults. We presented human bodies in a block-design experiment to identify body-responsive regions of the brain, namely, extrastriate body area (EBA) and fusiform body area (FBA). In a separate event-related "adaptation" experiment, carried out in the same group of subjects, we presented sets of four human bodies of varying body size and shape. Varying levels of body morphing were introduced to assess the degree of morphing required for adaptation release. Analysis of BOLD signal in the block-design experiment revealed significant Sex x Hemisphere interactions in the EBA and the FBA responses to human bodies. Only women showed greater BOLD response to bodies in the right hemisphere compared with the left hemisphere for both EBA and FBA. The BOLD response in right EBA was higher in women compared with men. In the adaptation experiment, greater right versus left hemisphere response for EBA and FBA was also identified among women but not men. These findings are particularly novel in that they address potential sex differences in the lateralization of EBA and FBA responses to human body images. Although previous studies have found some degree of right hemisphere dominance in body perception, our results suggest that such a functional lateralization may differ between men and women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2009.21211DOI Listing
March 2010

Pro-inflammatory cytokines modulate glial apolipoprotein E secretion.

Curr Alzheimer Res 2008 Feb;5(1):33-7

Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurological disorder characterized by plaques and an elevated immune response. Specifically, increased expression of interleukin (IL)-1 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, has been observed in AD cerebrospinal fluid and temporal brain tissue. Both of these immunomodulators were shown to carry genetic variants that increase the risk of developing AD. Studies have also established the apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene to be a risk factor for AD with epsilon4 carriers having been found to show lower levels of brain apoE. In the present study, treatment of primary rat mixed glial cell cultures with IL-1beta induced a significant increase in extracellular apoE protein. In contrast, treatment primary rat astrocyte and mixed glial cell cultures with TNF-alpha significantly reduced extracellular apoE protein levels. These results are consistent with the notion that elevated cytokine expression directly modulates immunosuppression and indirectly apoE-mediated neuronal remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/156720508783884666DOI Listing
February 2008

Assessment of adolescent body perception: development and characterization of a novel tool for morphing images of adolescent bodies.

Behav Res Methods 2007 Aug;39(3):651-66

Mcgill University Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

We developed a computer-based method of distorting adolescent body images, which incorporates the covariation between body parts found during growth and sexual maturation. An adolescent body-shape database (AdoBSD) and adolescent body morphing tool (AdoBMT) are described; the AdoBSD comprises real (n=320) and morphed (n approximately 41,000) images (front and side view) of 160 adolescents (9-17 years). We used a point distribution model, based upon principal components analysis, to characterize the covariation between predefined body tag-points manually positioned on the body images and to morph the body images in a realistic manner. Eight principal components (PCs) were found to characterize 96.3% of the covariation between body tag-point. Application of the PCs to the body images resulted in the manipulation of body parts including shoulder width, waist, hip, belly, thigh and calf sizes. The AdoBMT and AdoBSD may be used to investigate changes in body perception during adolescence, and the role of body perception in adolescent obesity and eating disorders. The AdoBSD is available to the research community (www.brainbody.nottingham.ac.uk).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/bf03193037DOI Listing
August 2007

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs mediate increased in vitro glial expression of apolipoprotein E protein.

Eur J Neurosci 2003 Sep;18(6):1428-38

Douglas Hospital Research Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Epidemiological studies have shown that use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by the elderly is associated with a decreased relative risk and a delayed onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In contrast, the apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene has proven to be a risk factor for AD with apoE epsilon 4 AD patients having been found to show lower levels of brain apoE. In the present study, treatment of primary rat mixed glial cell cultures with the common NSAIDs, indomethacin and aspirin, induced significant increases in extracellular apoE protein levels. Similarly, treatment of primary rat astrocyte cell cultures with aspirin and a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2-selective aspirin derivative also stimulated significant increases in apoE protein. However, astrocyte and mixed glial apoE protein levels were significantly reduced following exposure to COX-2-specific indomethacin amides and an inactive indomethacin derivative. ApoE protein modulation was observed at physiological and subphysiological concentrations well below the COX inhibition IC50 values of the NSAIDs used, suggestive of a COX-independent mechanism. In contrast to these results, indomethacin and aspirin treatment failed to induce any significant changes in apoE mRNA levels. The failure of NSAIDs to significantly alter apoE expression may have been indicative of a nontranscriptional mechanism of apoE protein induction. Consequently, NSAID-induced increases in apoE protein may enhance apoE-mediated immunosuppression and compensatory synaptic plasticity, potentially resulting in decreased AD risk and delay of disease onset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1460-9568.2003.02869.xDOI Listing
September 2003