Publications by authors named "Rosanna Abbate"

283 Publications

Altered clot formation and lysis are associated with increased fibrinolytic activity in ascites in patients with advanced cirrhosis.

Intern Emerg Med 2021 Mar 22;16(2):339-347. Epub 2020 May 22.

Dipartimento Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale (DMSC)-Liver Unit, University of Florence, School of Medicine-Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Careggi (AOUC), Largo Brambilla, 3 and Viale Morgagni, 50, 50134, Florence, Italy.

Analysis of coagulation disorders and assessment of rebalanced hemostasis with the use of traditional coagulation assays is challenging in cirrhotic patients. Therefore, alternative tests are under investigation for the evaluation of coagulopathy in this specific setting. Aim of this study was to analyze the modifications of clot structure and function in cirrhotic patients with different degrees of severity. Cirrhotic patients referred to our Unit were consecutively enrolled. Global test measurements, including clot and lysis assays, clot lysis time, and determination of other fibrinolytic parameters, were performed. Analyses of clot formation, morphology, and lysis were performed with a turbidimetric clotting and lysis assay (EuroCLOT). Lysis of a tissue factor-induced clot by exogenous tissue plasminogen activator was analyzed by studying the modifications of turbidity during clot formation and the following lysis. We evaluated coagulative and fibrinolytic parameters in both plasma and ascites. Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and gelatinase activity in ascites were also measured. We analyzed data from 33 cirrhotic patients (11 in Child-Pugh class A; 22 in class B or C and with ascites) and 21 healthy subjects (HS). In class B/C patients prolonged latency time, a decline in clotting absorbance, and decreased fibrin formation were observed in comparison with class A and HS. Generated curves and Thrombin-Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor (TAFI) progressively declined from HS to class C patients, whereas levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator increased. D-dimer levels were markedly increased in ascites, together with significantly smaller levels of TAFI, αlfa2-antiplasmin, and plasminogen. Caseinolytic activity was also present. Class C patients showed smaller amount of uPA and significantly lower levels of matrix metallopeptidases (MMP)2 in ascites in comparison with Class B subjects. Clot formation and lysis are altered in cirrhosis and fibrinolysis is activated in ascites. Ascitic levels of uPA and MMP2 are reduced and inversely related to the severity of liver disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-020-02375-3DOI Listing
March 2021

Genetic and nutritional factors determining circulating levels of lipoprotein(a): results of the "Montignoso Study".

Intern Emerg Med 2020 10 28;15(7):1239-1245. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Atherothrombotic Diseases Center, Careggi Hospital, Largo Brambilla 3, 50134, Florence, Italy.

Increasing evidence shows an association between high lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels and atherothrombotic diseases. Lp(a) trait is largely controlled by kringle-IV type 2 (KIV-2) size polymorphism in LPA gene, encoding for apo(a). Environmental factors are considered to determinate minor phenotypic variability in Lp(a) levels. In the present study, we investigated the possible gene-environment interaction between KIV-2 polymorphism and Mediterranean diet adherence or fish weekly intake in determining Lp(a) levels. We evaluated Lp(a), KIV-2 polymorphism, fish intake and Mediterranean diet adherence in 452 subjects [median age (range) 66 (46-80)years] from Montignoso Heart and Lung Project (MEHLP) population. In subjects with high KIV-2 repeats number, influence of Mediterranean diet adherence in reducing Lp(a) levels was observed (p = 0.049). No significant difference in subjects with low KIV-2 repeats according to diet was found. Moreover, in high-KIV-2-repeat subjects, we observed a trend towards influence of fish intake on reducing Lp(a) levels (p = 0.186). At multivariate linear regression analysis, high adherence to Mediterranean diet remains a significant and independent determinant of lower Lp(a) levels (β = - 64.97, standard error = 26.55, p = 0.015). In conclusion, this study showed that only subjects with high KIV-2 repeats can take advantage to lower Lp(a) levels from correct nutritional habits and, in particular, from Mediterranean diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-020-02276-5DOI Listing
October 2020

Small vessel disease and biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction after ischaemic stroke.

Eur Stroke J 2019 Jun 22;4(2):119-126. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Department of NEUROFARBA, Neuroscience Section, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Introduction: Although pathogenesis of small vessel disease is poorly understood, increasing evidence suggests that endothelial dysfunction may have a relevant role in development and progression of small vessel disease. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the associations between imaging signs of small vessel disease and blood biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction at two different time points in a population of ischaemic stroke patients.

Patients And Methods: In stroke patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis, we analysed blood levels of von Willebrand factor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Three reviewers independently assessed small vessel disease features using computed tomography. At baseline and 90 days after the index stroke, we tested the associations between single and combined small vessel disease features and levels of blood biomarkers using linear regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, smoke.

Results: A total of 263 patients were available for the analysis. Mean age (±SD) was 69 (±13) years, 154 (59%) patients were male. We did not find any relation between small vessel disease and endothelial dysfunction at baseline. At 90 days, leukoaraiosis was independently associated with intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (β = 0.21; p = 0.016) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (β = 0.22; p = 0.009), and lacunes were associated with vascular endothelial growth factor levels (β = 0.21; p = 0.009) whereas global small vessel disease burden was associated with vascular endothelial growth factor (β = 0.26; p = 0.006).

Discussion: Leukoaraiosis and lacunes were associated with endothelial dysfunction, which could play a key role in pathogenesis of small vessel disease.

Conclusions: Small vessel disease features and total burden were associated with endothelial dysfunction 90 days after the stroke, whereas there was no relation during the acute phase. Our results suggest that endothelial dysfunction, particularly vascular endothelial growth factor, is involved in pathological process of small vessel disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2396987318805905DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6591766PMC
June 2019

Chronic venous disease: a comparison of real-life experiences.

Minerva Med 2018 08;109(4):334-336

Division of Health Care Management, T&C Financial Counseling, Milan, Italy -

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4806.18.05584-2DOI Listing
August 2018

Small Vessel Disease Is Associated with Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinase-4 After Ischaemic Stroke.

Transl Stroke Res 2019 02 23;10(1):44-51. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

Institute of Neuroscience, Italian National Research Council, Florence, Italy.

Small vessel disease (SVD) is frequent in aging and stroke patients. Inflammation and remodeling of extracellular matrix have been suggested as concurrent mechanisms of SVD. We investigated the relationship between imaging features of SVD and circulating metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in patients with ischaemic stroke. In patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis, we took blood samples before intravenous thrombolysis and 90 days after the acute stroke and analysed levels of MMPs and TIMPs. We assessed leukoaraiosis, number of lacunes and brain atrophy on pre-treatment CT scan and graded global SVD burden combining such features. We investigated associations between single features, global SVD and MMPs and TIMPs at baseline and at follow-up, retaining univariate statistically significant associations in multivariate linear regression analysis and adjusting for clinical confounders. A total of 255 patients [mean (±SD) = 68.6 (± 12.7) years, 154 (59%) males] were included, 107 (42%) had no signs of SVD; 47 (19%) had from moderate to severe SVD burden. A total of 107 (42%) patients had no signs of SVD; 47 (19%) had from moderate to severe SVD burden. After adjustment, only TIMP-4 proved associations with SVD features. Brain atrophy was associated with baseline TIMP-4 (β = 0.20;p = 0.019) and leukoaraiosis with 90 days TIMP-4 (β = 0.19; p = 0.013). Global SVD score was not associated with baseline TIMP-4 levels (β = 0.10; p = 0.072), whereas was associated with 90 days TIMP-4 levels (β = 0.21; p = 0.003). Total SVD burden was associated with higher TIMP-4 levels 90 days after stroke, whereas was not during the acute phase. Our results support a biological relationship between SVD grade and TIMP-4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12975-018-0627-xDOI Listing
February 2019

The impact of gender on mortality after NSTEMI.

Intern Emerg Med 2018 03 29;13(2):269-271. Epub 2018 Jan 29.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-017-1785-7DOI Listing
March 2018

Red blood cell transfusions can induce proinflammatory cytokines in preterm infants.

Transfusion 2017 May 11;57(5):1304-1310. Epub 2017 Mar 11.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence-Atherothrombotic Diseases Centre, Careggi University Hospital of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Background: The risk of developing red blood cell (RBC) transfusion-associated necrotizing enterocolitis (TANEC) in preterm infants has recently been emphasized. Our aim was to assess changes in cytokine serum levels after RBC transfusions in a cohort of very preterm infants to evaluate their possible proinflammatory effect.

Study Design And Methods: We carried out a prospective observational study. One transfusion event was studied in infants less than 32 weeks' gestation and more than 7 days old (n = 20) admitted to a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-17, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interferon-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10), intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule serum levels were measured in enrolled patients within 120 minutes before (T ) the RBC transfusion and then within 120 minutes (T ), 12 ± 3 hours (T ), 24 ± 6 hours (T ), and 48 ± 6 hours (T ) after the end of RBC transfusion.

Results: Infants received 19.8 ± 3.0 mL of RBCs at the mean age of 50 ± 18 days. Their hematocrit level increased from 24.1 ± 1.2% to 39.4 ± 2.9%. IL-1β, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-17, MCP-1, IP-10, and ICAM-1 increased significantly after RBC transfusions.

Conclusion: Proinflammatory cytokines are increased after RBC transfusion. These findings may contribute to explaining the pathogenesis of TANEC and suggest the opportunity of adopting wise transfusion guidelines that would help to avoid detrimental risks of transfusion-related immunomodulation and of undertransfusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.14080DOI Listing
May 2017

Inflammatory and metalloproteinases profiles predict three-month poor outcomes in ischemic stroke treated with thrombolysis.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2017 Sep 7;37(9):3253-3261. Epub 2017 Mar 7.

3 Stroke Unit, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy.

Inflammatory mediators and metalloproteinases are altered in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and play a detrimental effect on clinical severity and hemorrhagic transformation of the ischemic brain lesion. Using data from the Italian multicenter observational MAGIC (MArker bioloGici nell'Ictus Cerebrale) Study, we evaluated the effect of inflammatory and metalloproteinases profiles on three-month functional outcome, hemorrhagic transformation and mortality in 327 patients with AIS treated with intravenous thrombolys in according to SITS-MOST (Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-MOnitoring STudy) criteria. Circulating biomarkers were assessed at baseline and 24 h after thrombolysis. Adjusting for age, sex, baseline glycemia and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, history of atrial fibrillation or congestive heart failure, and of inflammatory diseases or infections, baseline alpha-2macroglobulin (A2M), baseline serum amyloid protein (SAP) and pre-post tissue-plasminogen activator (tPA) variations (Δ) of metalloproteinase 9, remained significantly and independently associated with three-month death [OR (95% CI):A2M:2.99 (1.19-7.53); SAP:5.46 (1.64-18.74); Δmetalloproteinase 9:1.60 (1.12-2.27)]. The addition of baseline A2M and Δmetalloproteinase 9 or baseline SAP and Δmetalloproteinase 9 (model-2 or model-3) to clinical variables (model-1) significantly improved the area under curve for prediction of death [model-2 with A2M: p = 0.0205; model-3 with SAP: p = 0.001]. In conclusion, among AIS patients treated with thrombolysis, circulating A2M, SAP and Δmetalloproteinase 9 are independent markers of poor outcome. These results may prompt controlled clinical research about agents antagonizing their effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0271678X17695572DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5584701PMC
September 2017

Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Identifies Four New Disease-Specific Risk Loci.

Circ Res 2017 Jan 29;120(2):341-353. Epub 2016 Nov 29.

For the author affiliations, please see the Appendix.

Rationale: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex disease with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Together, 6 previously identified risk loci only explain a small proportion of the heritability of AAA.

Objective: To identify additional AAA risk loci using data from all available genome-wide association studies.

Methods And Results: Through a meta-analysis of 6 genome-wide association study data sets and a validation study totaling 10 204 cases and 107 766 controls, we identified 4 new AAA risk loci: 1q32.3 (SMYD2), 13q12.11 (LINC00540), 20q13.12 (near PCIF1/MMP9/ZNF335), and 21q22.2 (ERG). In various database searches, we observed no new associations between the lead AAA single nucleotide polymorphisms and coronary artery disease, blood pressure, lipids, or diabetes mellitus. Network analyses identified ERG, IL6R, and LDLR as modifiers of MMP9, with a direct interaction between ERG and MMP9.

Conclusions: The 4 new risk loci for AAA seem to be specific for AAA compared with other cardiovascular diseases and related traits suggesting that traditional cardiovascular risk factor management may only have limited value in preventing the progression of aneurysmal disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.308765DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5253231PMC
January 2017

Circulating Biomarkers in Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy Patients.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2017 Apr 18;26(4):823-833. Epub 2016 Nov 18.

NEUROFARBA Department, Neuroscience Section, University of Florence, Florence, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited cerebral microangiopathy presenting with variable features, including migraine, psychiatric disorders, stroke, and cognitive decline and variable disability. On neuroimaging, CADASIL is characterized by leukoencephalopathy, multiple lacunar infarcts, and microbleeds. Previous studies suggest a possible role of endothelial impairment in the pathogenesis of the disease.

Methods: We assessed plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (vWF) and thrombomodulin (TM) and the blood levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and circulating progenitor cells (CPCs) in 49 CADASIL patients and 49 age-matched controls and their association with clinical/functional and neuroimaging features.

Results: In multivariate analysis, CADASIL patients had significantly higher vWF and lower EPC levels. TM levels were similar in the 2 groups. CADASIL patients with a more severe clinical phenotype (history of stroke or dementia) presented lower CPC levels in comparison with patients with a milder phenotype. On correlation analysis, lower CPC levels were associated with worse performances on neuropsychological, motor and functional tests, and with higher lesion load on brain magnetic resonance imaging (degree of leukoencephalopathy and number of lacunar infarcts).

Conclusions: This is the first CADASIL series in which multiple circulating biomarkers have been studied. Our findings support previous studies on the presence and the possible modulating effect of endothelial impairment in the disease. Furthermore, our research data suggest that blood CPCs may be markers of disease severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2016.10.027DOI Listing
April 2017

Bleeding events and maintenance dose of prasugrel: BLESS pilot study.

Open Heart 2016;3(2):e000460. Epub 2016 Oct 31.

Department of Cardiology , Careggi Hospital , Florence , Italy.

Objective: To evaluate changes in residual platelet reactivity (RPR) over time, and bleeding and ischaemic events rate using 5 vs 10 mg maintenance dose (MD) regimens of prasugrel 1 month after acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

Background: The optimal level of RPR with prasugrel may change over time after an ACS.

Methods: After 60 mg loading dose of prasugrel (T0) followed by 10 mg/day for 1 month, patients were randomised to receive prasugrel 10 mg/day (n=95, group A) or 5 mg/day MD (n=98, group B) up to 1 year. RPR was assessed at T0, 37 (T1) and 180 days (T2). The primary end point was Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) bleeding events ≥2 between 1 and 12 months, and the secondary composite end point was cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stroke and definite/probable stent thrombosis.

Results: From T0 to T1, RPR significantly increased in both groups A and B and the increase was higher for group B (δ ADP 10 µmol: 13.8%±14.7% vs 23.5%±19.2%, p=0.001). At T2 a lower rate of high RPR patients were found in group A (2.6% vs13.3%; p=0.014). The BARC type ≥2 bleeding occurred in 12.6% of group A versus 4.1% of group B (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.94) and secondary end point in 2.1% vs 1.0% (p=0.542), respectively, without stent thrombosis.

Conclusions: RPR increases shifting from 60 mg loading dose to 10 mg/day prasugrel MD with a further increase of RPR reducing prasugrel MD to 5 mg 1 month after ACS. Clinical value of these pharmacodynamic findings should be proved in larger clinical trials.

Trial Registration Number: NCT01790854.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/openhrt-2016-000460DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5093371PMC
October 2016

Residual thrombin potential predicts cardiovascular death in acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

Thromb Res 2016 Nov 19;147:52-57. Epub 2016 Sep 19.

Don Gnocchi Foundation, Florence, Italy; University of Florence, Italy; CESMAV, Florence, Italy.

Introduction: Thrombin generation (TG) is a central step of the coagulation system involved in hemostatic and thrombotic roles. Scarce data evaluating in the acute phase the association between TG and the risk of cardiovascular death of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients are available, in the era of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and stenting with the use of dual antiplatelet treatment.

Materials And Methods: We investigated TG in 292 ACS patients undergoing PCI with stent implantation on dual antiplatelet treatment. Venous samples were obtained 12-24h after PCI. TG was assessed using the Calibrated Automated Thrombogram (CAT).

Results: At two years of follow-up, 57 out of 292 patients (19.5%) died from cardiovascular causes. Higher values of endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) [1115.9 (705-1441.3) vs 940.2 (666.0-1253.1), p=0.049], peak [176.1 (80.5-259.4) vs 107.3 (59.9-181.1), p=0.002] and velocity index [61.75 (21.03-97.88) vs 25.64 (11.95-50.90), p<0.001] were observed in relation to survival patients. At the multivariate model adjusted for the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score, the association between TG and cardiovascular death remained significant for ETP [OR (95% CI): 2.58 (1.10-6.03), p=0.029], peak [OR (95%CI): 3.27 (1.35-7.92), p=0.009] and velocity index [OR (95% CI): 3.06 (1.27-7.39), p=0.013]. This result was confirmed after adjustment for high on-treatment platelet reactivity [ETP: OR (95% CI) 2.35 (1.11-5.00), p=0.027; peak: OR (95% CI) 2.42 (1.13-5.15), p=0.022; velocity index: OR (95% CI) 2.43 (1.14-5.20), p=0.022].

Conclusions: ACS patients with a residual TG after PCI and stent implantation have a significantly higher risk of long-term cardiovascular death. These results might be useful in improving risk stratification for ACS patients and support the need of a tailored antithrombotic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2016.09.020DOI Listing
November 2016

A Case Based Approach to Clinical Genetics of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm/Dissection.

Biomed Res Int 2016 25;2016:9579654. Epub 2016 May 25.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Section of Critical Medical Care and Medical Specialities, DENOTHE Center, University of Florence, Florence 50134, Italy; Department of Heart and Vessels, Marfan Syndrome and Related Disorders Regional Referral Center, Careggi Hospital, Florence 50134, Italy.

Thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection (TAAD) is a potential lethal condition with a rising incidence. This condition may occur sporadically; nevertheless, it displays familial clustering in >20% of the cases. Family history confers a six- to twentyfold increased risk of TAAD and has to be considered in the identification and evaluation of patients needing an adequate clinical follow-up. Familial TAAD recognizes a number of potential etiologies with a significant genetic heterogeneity, in either syndromic or nonsyndromic forms of the manifestation. The clinical impact and the management of patients with TAAD differ according to the syndromic and nonsyndromic forms of the manifestation. The clinical management of TAAD patients varies, depending on the different forms. Starting from the description of patient history, in this paper, we summarized the state of the art concerning assessment of clinical/genetic profile and therapeutic management of TAAD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9579654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4897665PMC
February 2017

Marfan syndrome: current perspectives.

Appl Clin Genet 2016 9;9:55-65. Epub 2016 May 9.

Cardiothoracovascular Department, Marfan Syndrome and Related Disorders Regional Referral Center, Careggi Hospital, Florence, Italy; Cardiology Service, CMSR Veneto Medica, Altavilla Vicentina, Italy.

Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a pleiotropic connective tissue disease inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, due to mutations in the FBN1 gene encoding fibrillin 1. It is an important protein of the extracellular matrix that contributes to the final structure of a microfibril. Few cases displaying an autosomal recessive transmission are reported in the world. The FBN1 gene, which is made of 66 exons, is located on chromosome 15q21.1. This review, after an introduction on the clinical manifestations that leads to the diagnosis of MFS, focuses on cardiovascular manifestations, pharmacological and surgical therapies of thoracic aortic aneurysm and/or dissection (TAAD), mechanisms underlying the progression of aneurysm or of acute dissection, and biomarkers associated with progression of TAADs. A Dutch group compared treatment with losartan, an angiotensin II receptor-1 blocker, vs no other additional treatment (COMPARE clinical trial). They observed that losartan reduces the aortic dilatation rate in patients with Marfan syndrome. Later on, they also reported that losartan exerts a beneficial effect on patients with Marfan syndrome carrying an FBN1 mutation that causes haploinsufficiency (quantitative mutation), while it has no significant effect on patients displaying dominant negative (qualitative) mutations. Moreover, a French group in a 3-year trial compared the administration of losartan vs placebo in patients with Marfan syndrome under treatment with beta-receptor blockers. They observed that losartan decreases blood pressure but has no effect on aortic diameter progression. Thus, beta-receptor blockers remain the gold standard therapy in patients with Marfan syndrome. Three potential biochemical markers are mentioned in this review: total homocysteine, serum transforming growth factor beta, and lysyl oxidase. Moreover, markers of oxidative stress measured in plasma, previously correlated with clinical features of Marfan syndrome, may be explored as potential biomarkers of clinical severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TACG.S96233DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4869846PMC
June 2016

Increased homocysteine and lipoprotein(a) levels highlight systemic atherosclerotic burden in patients with a history of acute coronary syndromes.

J Vasc Surg 2016 Jul 29;64(1):163-70. Epub 2016 Apr 29.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, AOU-Careggi, Florence, Italy.

Background: Strong evidence supports an association between high levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and an increased rate of ischemic vascular events.

Methods: The study population comprised 162 patients (50 women [30.9%]; age, 66.71 ± 12.76 years) having a history of acute coronary syndrome within 1 year who underwent fasting blood sampling, measurement of intima-media thickness and pulse wave velocity at the common carotid and femoral arteries by Doppler ultrasound, and ankle-brachial index measurement. Cutoff values were considered 0.9 mm and 1.2 mm for carotid and femoral intima-media thickness, respectively; 12 m/s for pulse wave velocity; and <0.9 for ankle-brachial index. We included hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, overweight/obesity, smoking, and family history of cardiovascular disease in the count of traditional risk factors (CRFs). Adding Hcy ≥15 μmol/L and Lp(a) ≥500 mg/L to CRFs, we obtained a new score, named TOTAL.

Results: On univariate analysis, Hcy and Lp(a) were significantly associated with presence of atherosclerotic extracoronary lesions (for Hcy: β = .934; standard error = 0.178; P < .0001; for Lp(a): β = .961; standard error = 0.177; P < .0001) and compliance alterations (for Hcy: odds ratio, 13.3; 95% confidence interval, 3.9-45.3; P < .0001; for Lp(a): odds ratio, 14.6; 95% confidence interval, 5.69-37.62; P < .0001). On multivariate analysis, Lp(a) and Hcy were significantly associated with extracoronary atherosclerosis, even after correction for CRFs. The area under the curve of the TOTAL score for both atherosclerosis and vascular compliance alterations was significantly higher than the area under the curve of traditional CRFs plus only Hcy ≥15 μmol/L or plus Lp(a) ≥500 mg/L, separately added.

Conclusions: The addition of evaluation of Hcy ≥15 μmol/L and Lp(a) ≥500 mg/L to the traditional CRF count does improve detection of systemic atherosclerotic burden of patients with acute coronary syndrome and can offer a new opportunity to optimize secondary prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2016.01.056DOI Listing
July 2016

The left atrial appendage: from embryology to prevention of thromboembolism.

Eur Heart J 2017 Mar;38(12):877-887

Department of Cardiovascular Science, Catholic University, Rome, Italy.

The left atrial appendage (LAA) is the main source of thromboembolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). As such, the LAA can be the target of specific occluding device therapies. Optimal management of patients with AF includes a comprehensive knowledge of the many aspects related to LAA structure and thrombosis. Here we provide baseline notions on the anatomy and function of the LAA, and then focus on current imaging tools for the identification of anatomical varieties. We also describe pathogenetic mechanisms of LAA thrombosis in AF patients, and examine the available evidence on treatment strategies for LAA thrombosis, including the use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants and interventional approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehw159DOI Listing
March 2017

Prevalence of thrombophilic disorders in takotsubo patients: the (ThROmbophylia in TAkotsubo cardiomyopathy) TROTA study.

Clin Res Cardiol 2016 Sep 22;105(9):717-26. Epub 2016 Mar 22.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) pathophysiology is still unclear. A transient intracoronary thrombosis dissolved at the time of angiography has been hypothesized. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of thrombophilic disorders in TTC patients. In 75 TTC women, 75 age- and sex-matched acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients, both enrolled during the acute phase, and in 75 control subjects, we compared the prevalence of congenital and acquired thrombophilic alterations and the values of clotting and endothelial activation biomarkers. Some parameters were re-assessed 1 month after the acute phase in TTC patients. No significant difference between the three groups was observed in factor II (G20210A) and V (G1691A) polymorphisms prevalence. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher in ACS patients vs. TTC and control subjects. Lipoprotein(a) values trended to be higher in TTC patients vs. control subjects, though not significantly. Other thrombophilic alterations in TTC patients were similar to that previously reported in healthy women. Von Willebrand factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were significantly higher in TTC and in ACS patients than controls. Clotting activation biomarkers were not statistically different between TTC patients and controls. During follow-up, in TTC patients, endothelial damage indices significantly decreased while clotting activation biomarkers remained unchanged. In conclusion, our results, showing a rate of thrombophilic alterations in TTC patients similar to control subjects, do not support the transient intracoronary thrombus hypothesis. However, several endothelial damage markers and lipoprotein(a) were higher in TTC patients vs. controls suggesting a role of endothelial dysfunction and of other factors concurring to hyperviscosity, as recently hypothesized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00392-016-0977-xDOI Listing
September 2016

ACE gene in pregnancy complications: Insights into future vascular risk.

Hypertens Pregnancy 2016 24;35(1):62-72. Epub 2016 Feb 24.

a Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine , University of Florence, Thrombosis Centre, Largo Brambilla , Florence , Italy.

Objective: A history of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications (PMPCs) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease later in life, possibly related to the persistence of endothelial dysfunction. We performed this study in order to search for a common genetic background shared by women with a history of PMPC and vascular disorders, due to their common pathophysiologic pathway of endothelial dysfunction.

Methods: We analyzed the prevalence of seven polymorphisms in ACE, AGTR1, AGT, and eNOS genes, endothelial-function related, in 290 women with a history of premature cardiovascular events (CVDs), and in 367 women with a history of PMPC (preeclampsia (PE), stillbirth (SB), and small for gestational age (SGA)), compared with 300 healthy women (HW) who delivered after uneventful pregnancy (HW).

Results: ACE D allele frequency was similar between women with history of CVD and PMPC, and significantly higher than that observed in HW [OR (95% CI) 1.91, p = 0.002, and OR (95% CI) 2.18, p < 0.0001, respectively]. In women carrying ACE-240T or eNOS-786C allele, a two-fold increase in SB susceptibility was evidenced (p = 0.004 and p = 0.005, respectively). Women with a history of SB and premature CVD exhibited a significantly higher unfavorable allelic burden ≥ 3 in comparison to that observed in HW (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.002, respectively).

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate a common genetic background shared by women with a history of vascular disorders and PMPCs; pregnancy may be considered a window to future cardiovascular risk; therefore, "non-classic" genetic biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction might allow one to identify women who could have a greater benefit for an early cardiovascular screening and prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10641955.2015.1115059DOI Listing
January 2017

Apolipoprotein(a) Kringle-IV Type 2 Copy Number Variation Is Associated with Venous Thromboembolism.

PLoS One 2016 22;11(2):e0149427. Epub 2016 Feb 22.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence-Atherothrombotic Disease Center, Careggi Hospital, Florence, Italy.

In addition to the established association between high lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] concentrations and coronary artery disease, an association between Lp(a) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) has also been described. Lp(a) is controlled by genetic variants in LPA gene, coding for apolipoprotein(a), including the kringle-IV type 2 (KIV-2) size polymorphism. Aim of the study was to investigate the role of LPA gene KIV-2 size polymorphism and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs1853021, rs1800769, rs3798220, rs10455872) in modulating VTE susceptibility. Five hundred and sixteen patients with VTE without hereditary and acquired thrombophilia and 1117 healthy control subjects, comparable for age and sex, were investigated. LPA KIV-2 polymorphism, rs3798220 and rs10455872 SNPs were genotyped by TaqMan technology. Concerning rs1853021 and rs1800769 SNPs, PCR-RFLP assay was used. LPA KIV-2 repeat number was significantly lower in patients than in controls [median (interquartile range) 11(6-17) vs 15(9-25), p<0.0001]. A significantly higher prevalence of KIV-2 repeat number ≤7 was observed in patients than in controls (33.5% vs 15.5%, p<0.0001). KIV-2 repeat number was independently associated with VTE (p = 4.36 x10-9), as evidenced by the general linear model analysis adjusted for transient risk factors. No significant difference in allele frequency for all SNPs investigated was observed. Haplotype analysis showed that LPA haplotypes rather than individual SNPs influenced disease susceptibility. Receiver operating characteristic curves analysis showed that a combined risk prediction model, including KIV-2 size polymorphism and clinical variables, had a higher performance in identifying subjects at VTE risk than a clinical-only model, also separately in men and women.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0149427PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4762703PMC
July 2016

A group of patients with Marfan's syndrome, who have finger and toe contractures, displays tendons' alterations upon an ultrasound examination: are these features common among classical Marfan patients?

Intern Emerg Med 2016 Aug 22;11(5):703-11. Epub 2016 Feb 22.

Department of Heart and Vessels, Regional Marfan Syndrome and Related Disorders Center, Careggi Hospital, Florence, Italy.

The involvement of the musculoskeletal system with other mild pleiotropic manifestations represents a clinical criterion, called "systemic features," to d iagnose Marfan's syndrome. We aimed to investigate the features of the hands and feet redressable contractures present in a group of Marfan patients. In 13 patients with previously diagnosed Marfan's syndrome, an accurate clinical examination was performed. In particular the characterization of the musculoskeletal system by visual analogic scale to measure muscle pain (VAS) and muscle strength (MRC system) was carried out; the Beighton scale score was used to evaluate the articular hypermobility. Ultrasound examination (US) was performed to detect deep-superficial flexor tendons and extensor tendons of both hands, and the short and long flexor and extensor tendons of the fingers and toes in static and dynamic positions. The ImageJ program was adopted to measure a profile of tendon echo-intensity. A reduction of the thickness of all tendons was detected by US in our patients; the VAS and Beighton scale scores were in normal ranges. The profile of tendon echo-intensity showed different textural details in all Marfan patients. This study provides evidence for other contractures' localization, and for altered findings of the tendons in patients with Marfan syndrome and finger/toe contractures. These changes may be associated with structural modifications in connective tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-016-1399-5DOI Listing
August 2016

Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: A systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2017 Nov;57(17):3640-3649

a Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine , University of Florence , Florence , Italy.

Background: Beneficial effects of vegetarian and vegan diets on health outcomes have been supposed in previous studies.

Objectives: Aim of this study was to clarify the association between vegetarian, vegan diets, risk factors for chronic diseases, risk of all-cause mortality, incidence, and mortality from cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, total cancer and specific type of cancer (colorectal, breast, prostate and lung), through meta-analysis.

Methods: A comprehensive search of Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, The Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar was conducted.

Results: Eighty-six cross-sectional and 10 cohort prospective studies were included. The overall analysis among cross-sectional studies reported significant reduced levels of body mass index, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and glucose levels in vegetarians and vegans versus omnivores. With regard to prospective cohort studies, the analysis showed a significant reduced risk of incidence and/or mortality from ischemic heart disease (RR 0.75; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.82) and incidence of total cancer (RR 0.92; 95% CI 0.87 to 0.98) but not of total cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, all-cause mortality and mortality from cancer. No significant association was evidenced when specific types of cancer were analyzed. The analysis conducted among vegans reported significant association with the risk of incidence from total cancer (RR 0.85; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.95), despite obtained only in a limited number of studies.

Conclusions: This comprehensive meta-analysis reports a significant protective effect of a vegetarian diet versus the incidence and/or mortality from ischemic heart disease (-25%) and incidence from total cancer (-8%). Vegan diet conferred a significant reduced risk (-15%) of incidence from total cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2016.1138447DOI Listing
November 2017

Searching for a common mechanism for placenta-mediated pregnancy complications and cardiovascular disease: role of lipoprotein(a).

Fertil Steril 2016 May 29;105(5):1287-1293.e3. Epub 2016 Jan 29.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Thrombosis Center, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; Department of Heart and Vessels, Thrombosis Center, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Florence, Italy. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], a well known cardiovascular risk factor, in women with history of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications (PMPC) compared with healthy uneventful-pregnancy women (HW), and the role of LPA gene functional polymorphisms in modulating both Lp(a) levels and PMPC risk.

Design: Retrospective observational study.

Setting: University hospital.

Patient(s): A total of 360 women with history of PMPC (154 preeclampsia [PE], 121 stillbirth [SB], and 85 small for gestational age [SGA]) and 270 HW.

Intervention(s): Not applicable.

Main Outcome Measure(s): Lp(a) levels measurement and LPA +93C >T and +121G>A polymorphisms genotyping.

Result(s): In PMPCs we observed higher Lp(a) levels than those found in HW and an association with PMPC risk, also after adjustment for age, familial history of cardiovascular disease, and traditional risk factors. By analyzing Lp(a) concentrations according to each pregnancy complication, we observed significantly higher Lp(a) levels in women with history of SB and PE, conferring 2.5-fold and 2-fold increased risks, respectively; no association with SGA was observed. Lp(a) concentrations progressively and significantly increased as LPA unfavorable allelic burden increased; unfavorable allelic burden influenced SB and PE risk.

Conclusion(s): We evidenced, for the first time, an association between high Lp(a) concentrations and history of SB, and we confirmed the role of Lp(a) in PE risk; this well known atherothrombotic marker might represent one of the possible mechanisms shared by PMPC and cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2016.01.014DOI Listing
May 2016

Plasma levels of direct oral anticoagulants in real life patients with atrial fibrillation: Results observed in four anticoagulation clinics.

Thromb Res 2016 Jan 2;137:178-183. Epub 2015 Dec 2.

Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Introduction: Direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) intra- and inter-individual variability was previously reported, but its magnitude is still considered negligible for patient management.

Objective: To evaluate inter- and intra-individual variability in real-world atrial fibrillation patients on dabigatran, rivaroxaban or apixaban in four Italian anticoagulation clinics and to assess the correlation between DOAC plasma concentration and creatinine-clearance (CrCl).

Materials And Methods: A total of 330 consecutive patients were enrolled, of which 160 were on dabigatran (70 and 90 taking 150 mg or 110 mg twice-daily, respectively), 71 on rivaroxaban (37 and 34 taking 20mg or 15 mg once-daily) and 99 on apixaban (73 and 26 taking 5mg or 2.5mg twice-daily). Blood was taken at trough and peak within the first month (15-25 days) of treatment. Diluted-thrombin-time (dTT) calibrated for dabigatran and anti-FXa calibrated for rivaroxaban or apixaban was performed.

Results: Mean inter-individual variability expressed as overall CV values for all drugs was lower at peak (CV=46%) than at trough (CV=63%). Mean CV% intra-individual variability was 36.6% at trough and 34.0% at peak. Correlation with CrCl was poor for all drugs and only dabigatran at trough showed a significant correlation.

Conclusion: This multicenter study confirms high DOAC inter-individual variability that cannot be explained by the rate of renal clearance to which the three DOAC were subjected since the correlation with CrCl was relatively poor. This poor correlation suggests caution in using CrCl as the sole laboratory parameter to indirectly evaluate residual circulating DOAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2015.12.001DOI Listing
January 2016

Neutrophil Activation Promotes Fibrinogen Oxidation and Thrombus Formation in Behçet Disease.

Circulation 2016 Jan 19;133(3):302-11. Epub 2015 Nov 19.

From Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences "Mario Serio" (M.B., G.B., N.T., C.F.) and Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine (G.E., E.S., L.C., D.S., R.A., D.P.), University of Florence, Italy; Nephrology Unit, University Hospital of Parma, Italy (A.V.); Interdisciplinary Internal Medicine, Center for Autoimmune Systemic Diseases, Behçet Center and Lupus Clinic, AOU Careggi, Florence, Italy (L.E., D.P.); and Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University Medical School and University Hospital of Parma, Italy (M.G.).

Background: Behçet disease (BD) is a systemic vasculitis with a broad range of organ involvement, characterized by a multisystemic, immune-inflammatory disorder involving vessels of all sizes and often complicated by thrombosis. Systemic redox imbalance and circulating neutrophil hyperactivation have been observed in BD patients and are thought to be responsible for impaired coagulation. We here focused on the pathogenetic mechanisms potentially linking immune cell activation and thrombosis, and specifically examined whether neutrophil activation can affect fibrinogen modifications and consequently elicit thrombosis.

Methods And Results: Blood samples were collected from 98 consecutive BD patients attending our dedicated Center and from 70 age- and sex-matched healthy controls; in all patients fibrinogen function and structure, fibrin susceptibility to plasmin-lysis, plasma redox status, leukocyte oxidative stress markers, and possible reactive oxygen species sources were examined. Thrombin-catalyzed fibrin formation and fibrin susceptibility to plasmin-induced lysis were significantly impaired in BD patients (P<0.001). These findings were associated with increased plasma oxidative stress markers (P<0.001) and with a marked carbonylation of fibrinogen (P<0.001), whose secondary structure appeared deeply modified. Neutrophils displayed an enhanced NADPH oxidase activity and increased reactive oxygen species production (P<0.001), which significantly correlated with fibrinogen carbonylation level (r(2)=0.33, P<0.0001), residual β-band intensity (r(2)=0.07, P<0.01), and fibrinogen clotting ability (r(2)=0.073, P<0.01) CONCLUSIONS: In BD patients, altered fibrinogen structure and impaired fibrinogen function are associated with neutrophil activation and enhanced reactive oxygen species production whose primary source is represented by neutrophil NADPH oxidase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.017738DOI Listing
January 2016

Autoantibodies against β1-Adrenergic Receptors: Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy and Renal Function.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2016 Jan 26;39(1):65-72. Epub 2015 Oct 26.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Medical Pathology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Background: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) nonresponse remains a major clinical problem. Autoantibodies specific for the β1-adrenergic (β1-AAbs) and muscarinic (M2-AAbs) receptors are found in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) of various etiologies.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 73 HF patients (median age 67 years, 84% males, New York Heart Association II-IV, in sinus rhythm, left ventricular ejection fraction <35%) who received CRT defibrillator (CRT-D) from 2010 to 2013. β1-AAbs and M2-AAbs were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Echocardiography was used to assess CRT response (reduction >15% in left ventricular end-systolic volume at 6 months follow-up). Renal function (RF) parameters (creatinine [Cr], blood urea nitrogen [BUN], estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR Modified Diet in Renal Disease], cystatin C [Cys-C], and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL]) were also evaluated.

Results: A significantly higher percentage of patients positive for β1-AAbs (OD sample/OD reference ratio >2.1) in nonresponders than in responder patients was observed (57% vs 27%, P = 0.004). No influence of M2-AAbs on CRT-D response was demonstrated. β1-AAbs were predictive of a poor CRT-D response (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval (CI)] 3.64 [1.49-8.88], P = 0.005), also after adjustment for RF parameters (OR [95% CI] 4.95 [1.51-16.26], P = 0.008) observed to influence CRT-D response (Cr P = 0.03, BUN P = 0.009, Cys-C P = 0.02). The positive rates of β1-AABs in patients with abnormal blood level of Cr, eGFR, Cys-C, and NGAL were significantly higher than those with normal levels (P = 0.03, P = 0.02, P = 0.001, P = 0.007, respectively).

Conclusions: Our study suggests that (1) the evaluation of β1-AAb is useful to identify responders to CRT-D; (2) the presence of β1-AAbs is in relationship with elevated renal function parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pace.12757DOI Listing
January 2016

Prasugrel in Clopidogrel Nonresponders Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: The RECLOSE-3 Study (REsponsiveness to CLOpidogrel and StEnt Thrombosis).

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2015 Oct 17;8(12):1563-70. Epub 2015 Sep 17.

Department of Cardiology, Careggi Hospital, Florence, Italy. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study sought to investigate the efficacy of prasugrel compared with clopidogrel in clopidogrel nonresponders.

Background: Clopidogrel nonresponsiveness is a strong marker of the risk of cardiac death and stent thrombosis after a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). It is unknown whether clopidogrel nonresponsiveness is a nonmodifiable risk factor or whether prasugrel with more potent and predictable platelet inhibition as measured by ex vivo techniques is associated with a positive effect on clinical outcome.

Methods: The RECLOSE-3 (REsponsiveness to CLOpidogrel and StEnt thrombosis) study screened clopidogrel nonresponders after a 600-mg loading dose of clopidogrel. Clopidogrel nonresponders switched to prasugrel (10 mg/day) the day of the PCI, and an adenosine diphosphate (ADP) test (10 μmol/l of ADP) was performed 6 days after the PCI. The primary endpoint was 2-year cardiac mortality. Patient outcome was compared with the RECLOSE-2-ACS study.

Results: We screened 1,550 patients, of whom 302 were clopidogrel nonresponders. The result of the ADP test was 77.6 ± 6.2%. After switching to prasugrel, the ADP test result decreased to 47.1 ± 16.8%. The 2-year cardiac mortality rate was 4% in the RECLOSE-3 study and 9.7% in nonresponders of the RECLOSE-2-ACS study (p = 0.007). The definite and probable stent thrombosis rates were 0.7% and 4.4%, respectively (p = 0.004). On multivariable analysis, prasugrel treatment was related to the risk of 2-year cardiac death (hazard ratio: 0.32, p = 0.036).

Conclusions: Clopidogrel nonresponsiveness can be overcome by prasugrel (10 mg/day), and optimal platelet aggregation inhibition on prasugrel treatment is associated with a low rate of long-term cardiac mortality and stent thrombosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2015.07.010DOI Listing
October 2015

Prognostic impact of high residual platelet reactivity after chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with diabetes mellitus.

Int J Cardiol 2015 Dec 10;201:561-7. Epub 2015 Apr 10.

Department of Heart and Vessels, Careggi Hospital, Florence, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: The study sought to determine the impact of high residual platelet reactivity (HRPR) on long-term cardiac mortality in diabetic patients treated with PCI for CTO. No data exist about the impact of HRPR after 600 mg clopidogrel loading on long-term clinical outcome in patients with diabetes mellitus and treated with percutaneous coronary angioplasty (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO).

Methods: From the Florence CTO-PCI registry, we identified consecutive diabetic patients with available in vitro platelet reactivity assessment by light transmittance aggregometry after a loading dose of 600 mg of clopidogrel. HRPR was defined as residual platelet aggregation by 10 μmol/L ADP test ≥70%. The primary end point of the study was long-term cardiac mortality.

Results: Two-hundred and three diabetic patients underwent CTO-PCI. The incidence of HRPR was 23%. The 3-year cardiac survival was lower in the HRPR group than the low residual platelet reactivity (LRPR) group (70 ± 7% and 92 ± 3%, respectively; p=0.001). Within the oral antidiabetic patients there were no significant differences in long-term survival between HRPR and LRPR groups. Conversely, the association of insulin therapy and HRPR was related to a dramatic decrease in survival compared to the LRPR group (34 ± 14% vs. 89 ± 4%; p<0.001). At multivariable analysis insulin therapy (HR 4.31; p=0.001) and HRPR (HR 3.26; p=0.004) were significantly related to long-term mortality, while completeness of revascularization was inversely related to cardiac mortality (HR 0.40; p=0.029).

Conclusion: HRPR is a strong marker of increased risk of cardiac death in patients with DM who underwent PCI for CTO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.04.052DOI Listing
December 2015

Detrimental effects of niacin/laropiprant on microvascular reactivity and red cell deformability in patients with elevated lipoprotein(a) levels.

J Thromb Thrombolysis 2016 Apr;41(3):433-5

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla 3, 50132, Florence, Italy.

Several studies have found a beneficial effect of nicotinic acid on lipid profile, but there remains a limitation in the clinical use of nicotinic acid due to its side effects. In this study, 46 (F/M = 22/24, age = 58.74 ± 10.02 years) patients with Lp(a) ≥500 mg/L and with a previous arterial thrombotic event were treated with nicotinic acid/laropiprant (Tredaptive®). We found a significant reduction in the Lp(a) values at T1 (after 12 months), with a decrease of 32.3 % from baseline levels. At T1, 11 patients (23.9 %) showed Lp(a) levels to be <500 mg/L. PAT values were significantly decreased after treatment (2.13 ± 0.81 vs 1.74 ± 0.42, p = 0.001), showing a worsening of endothelial function in 27 (58.6 %) patients. A significantly higher number of patients had RHI <1.5 after the treatment [18 (39.1 %) vs 8 (17.4 %)]. Blood rheology worsened as ED was impaired (p < 0.0001) after 12 months, whereas WHV, plasma viscosity, and red cell aggregation did not show any significant differences in comparison to baseline. Patients with a worsening in microvascular reactivity in comparison to baseline showed a marked impairment in ED (0.3327 ± 0.037 vs 0.3091 ± 0.0351; p < 0.0001), while others showed only a mild, even though significant, reduction (0.3347 ± 0.0299 vs 0.3272 ± 0.0235; p = 0.044). In the light of the results of HPS2-THRIVE study, we may hypothesize that the addition of laropiprant to niacin might be responsible for these negative effects. In turn, these effects might explain, at least in part, the lack of a clinical net benefit of niacin/laropiprant in the trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11239-015-1256-9DOI Listing
April 2016