Publications by authors named "Rosa Burdi"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Multiple pathological events in exercised dystrophic mdx mice are targeted by pentoxifylline: outcome of a large array of in vivo and ex vivo tests.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2009 Apr 8;106(4):1311-24. Epub 2009 Jan 8.

Unit of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmaco-biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.

The phosphodiesterases inhibitor pentoxifylline gained attention for Duchenne muscular dystrophy therapy for its claimed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antifibrotic action. A recent finding also showed that pentoxifylline counteracts the abnormal overactivity of a voltage-independent calcium channel in myofibers of dystrophic mdx mice. The possible link between workload, altered calcium homeostasis, and oxidative stress pushed toward a more detailed investigation. Thus a 4- to 8-wk treatment with pentoxifylline (50 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) ip) was performed in mdx mice, undergoing or not a chronic exercise on treadmill. In vivo, the treatment partially increased forelimb strength and enhanced resistance to treadmill running in exercised animals. Ex vivo, pentoxifylline restored the mechanical threshold, an electrophysiological index of calcium homeostasis, and reduced resting cytosolic calcium in extensor digitorum longus muscle fibers. Mn quenching and patch-clamp technique confirmed that this effect was paralleled by a drug-induced reduction of membrane permeability to calcium. The treatment also significantly enhanced isometric tetanic tension in mdx diaphragm. The plasma levels of creatine kinase and reactive oxygen species were both significantly reduced in treated-exercised animals. Dihydroethidium staining, used as an indicator of reactive oxygen species production, showed that pentoxifylline significantly reduced the exercise-induced increase in fluorescence in the mdx tibialis anterior muscle. A significant decrease in connective tissue area and profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor-beta(1) was solely found in tibialis anterior muscle. In both diaphragm and gastrocnemius muscle, a significant increase in neural cell adhesion molecule-positive area was instead observed. This data supports the interest toward pentoxifylline and allows insight in the level of cross talk between pathogenetic events in workloaded dystrophic muscle.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.90985.2008DOI Listing
April 2009

Gentamicin treatment in exercised mdx mice: Identification of dystrophin-sensitive pathways and evaluation of efficacy in work-loaded dystrophic muscle.

Neurobiol Dis 2008 Nov 23;32(2):243-53. Epub 2008 Jul 23.

Unit of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacobiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Bari, Italy.

Aminoglycosides force read through of premature stop codon mutations and introduce new mutation-specific gene-corrective strategies in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. A chronic treatment with gentamicin (32 mg/kg/daily i.p., 8-12 weeks) was performed in exercised mdx mice with the dual aim to clarify the dependence on dystrophin of the functional, biochemical and histological alterations present in dystrophic muscle and to verify the long term efficiency of small molecule gene-corrective strategies in work-loaded dystrophic muscle. The treatment counteracted the exercise-induced impairment of in vivo forelimb strength after 6-8 weeks. We observed an increase in dystrophin expression level in all the fibers, although lower than that observed in normal fibers, and found a concomitant recovery of aquaporin-4 at sarcolemma. A significant reduction in centronucleated fibers, in the area of necrosis and in the percentage of nuclear factor-kB-positive nuclei was observed in gastrocnemious muscle of treated animals. Plasma creatine kinase was reduced by 70%. Ex vivo, gentamicin restored membrane ionic conductance in mdx diaphragm and limb muscle fibers. No effects were observed on the altered calcium homeostasis and sarcolemmal calcium permeability, detected by electrophysiological and microspectrofluorimetric approaches. Thus, the maintenance of a partial level of dystrophin is sufficient to reinforce sarcolemmal stability, reducing leakiness, inflammation and fiber damage, while correction of altered calcium homeostasis needs greater expression of dystrophin or direct interventions on the channels involved.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2008.07.009DOI Listing
November 2008

Overactivity of exercise-sensitive cation channels and their impaired modulation by IGF-1 in mdx native muscle fibers: beneficial effect of pentoxifylline.

Neurobiol Dis 2006 Dec 28;24(3):466-74. Epub 2006 Sep 28.

Unit of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacobiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.

Cell-attached patch-clamp recordings on native striated myofibers from adult dystrophic mdx mice revealed a higher occurrence and open probability compared to non-dystrophic wild-type myofibers of a 30 pS voltage-insensitive Ca2+-permeable channel, inhibited by Gd3+, streptomycin and ruthenium red. Myofibers from in vivo exercised animals had higher channel occurrence and/or open probability. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (3.3 nM) induced and/or enhanced channel activity, via PI3 kinase, in wild-type but not in mdx myofibers. Interestingly, in both genotypes the current was silenced by db-cAMP or pentoxifylline, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. The channel activity/occurrence in pentoxifylline-treated exercised mdx (50 mg/kg/day i.p. for 4-8 weeks) overlapped that of exercised wild-type mice. Thus, a growth factor-sensitive current, likely due to a TRP channel, is activated in vivo by exercise in native striated fibers; its deregulation in the absence of dystrophin may contribute to Ca2+ homeostasis alteration. The possibility to pharmacologically counteract abnormal channel activity discloses important therapeutic application.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2006.08.010DOI Listing
December 2006

First evaluation of the potential effectiveness in muscular dystrophy of a novel chimeric compound, BN 82270, acting as calpain-inhibitor and anti-oxidant.

Neuromuscul Disord 2006 Apr 15;16(4):237-48. Epub 2006 Mar 15.

Unit of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacobiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.

BN 82270 is a membrane-permeable prodrug of a chimeric compound (BN 82204) dually acting as calpain inhibitor and anti-oxidant. Acute in vivo injection of dystrophic mdx mice (30 mg/kg, s.c.) fully counteracted calpain overactivity in diaphragm. A chronic 4-6 weeks administration significantly prevented in vivo the fore limb force drop occurring in mdx mice exercised on treadmill. Ex vivo electrophysiological recordings showed that BN 82270 treatment contrasted the decrease in chloride channel function (gCl) in diaphragm, an index of spontaneous degeneration, while it was less effective on both exercise-impaired gCl and calcium-dependent mechanical threshold of the hind limb extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibres. The BN 82270 treated mdx mice showed a marked reduction of plasma creatine kinase and of the pro-fibrotic cytokine TGF-beta1 in both hind limb muscles and diaphragm; however, the histopathological profile of gastrocnemious muscle was poorly ameliorated. In hind limb muscles of treated mice, the active form was detected by HPLC in the low therapeutic concentration range. In vitro exposure to 100 microM BN 82270 led to higher active form in diaphragm than in EDL muscle. This is the first demonstration that this class of chimeric compounds, dually targeting pathology-related events, exerts beneficial effects in muscular dystrophy. The drug/prodrug system may require posology adjustment to produce wider beneficial effects on all muscle types.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nmd.2006.01.013DOI Listing
April 2006

A multidisciplinary evaluation of the effectiveness of cyclosporine a in dystrophic mdx mice.

Am J Pathol 2005 Feb;166(2):477-89

Sezione di Farmacologia, Dipartimento Farmacobiologico, Facoltà di Farmacia, Università degli Studi di Bari, Via Orabona 4, Campus, 70125 Bari, Italy.

Chronic inflammation is a secondary reaction of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and may contribute to disease progression. To examine whether immunosuppressant therapies could benefit dystrophic patients, we analyzed the effects of cyclosporine A (CsA) on a dystrophic mouse model. Mdx mice were treated with 10 mg/kg of CsA for 4 to 8 weeks throughout a period of exercise on treadmill, a protocol that worsens the dystrophic condition. The CsA treatment fully prevented the 60% drop of forelimb strength induced by exercise. A significant amelioration (P < 0.05) was observed in histological profile of CsA-treated gastrocnemius muscle with reductions of nonmuscle area (20%), centronucleated fibers (12%), and degenerating area (50%) compared to untreated exercised mdx mice. Consequently, the percentage of normal fibers increased from 26 to 35% in CsA-treated mice. Decreases in creatine kinase and markers of fibrosis were also observed. By electrophysiological recordings ex vivo, we found that CsA counteracted the decrease in chloride conductance (gCl), a functional index of degeneration in diaphragm and extensor digitorum longus muscle fibers. However, electrophysiology and fura-2 calcium imaging did not show any amelioration of calcium homeostasis in extensor digitorum longus muscle fibers. No significant effect was observed on utrophin levels in diaphragm muscle. Our data show that the CsA treatment significantly normalized many functional, histological, and biochemical endpoints by acting on events that are independent or downstream of calcium homeostasis. The beneficial effect of CsA may involve different targets, reinforcing the usefulness of immunosuppressant drugs in muscular dystrophy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1602333PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9440(10)62270-5DOI Listing
February 2005

The alteration of calcium homeostasis in adult dystrophic mdx muscle fibers is worsened by a chronic exercise in vivo.

Neurobiol Dis 2004 Nov;17(2):144-54

Unit of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacobiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.

Chronic exercise in vivo aggravates dystrophy in mdx mice. Calcium homeostasis was evaluated ex vivo by micro-spectrofluorometry on tendon-to-tendon dissected extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibers. Resting cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) and sarcolemmal permeability through Gd3+ -sensitive mechanosensitive calcium (MsCa) channel were significantly higher in mdx vs. wild-type fibers. The exercise further enhanced [Ca2+]i in mdx fibers and increased sarcolemmal permeability by activating nifedipine-sensitive leak calcium channels. The two genotypes did not differ in caffeine sensitivity and in the excitation-calcium release (ECaR) coupling mechanism by K+ depolarization. The exercise produced a similar adaptation of activation curve of ECaR and of sensitivity to caffeine. However, the inactivation of ECaR of mdx fibers did not adapt to exercise. No fiber phenotype transition occurred in exercised muscle. We provide the first evidence that an in vivo exercise worsens the impaired calcium homeostasis of dystrophic fibers, supporting the role of enhanced calcium entrance in dystrophic progression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2004.06.002DOI Listing
November 2004

Taurine and skeletal muscle disorders.

Neurochem Res 2004 Jan;29(1):135-42

Unit of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacobiology, University of Bari, Italy.

Taurine is abundantly present in skeletal muscle. We give evidence that this amino acid exerts both short-term and long-term actions in the control of ion channel function and calcium homeostasis in striated fibers. Short-term actions can be estimated as the ability of this amino acid to acutely modulate both ion channel gating and the function of the structures involved in calcium handling. Long-term effects can be disclosed in situations of tissue taurine depletion and are likely related to the ability of the intracellular taurine to control transducing pathways as well as homeostatic and osmotic equilibrium in the tissue. The two activities are strictly linked because the intracellular level of taurine modulates the sensitivity of skeletal muscle to the exogenous application of taurine. Myopathies in which ion channels are directly or indirectly involved, as well as inherited or acquired pathologies characterized by metabolic alterations and change in calcium homeostasis, are often correlated with change in muscle taurine concentration and consequently with an enhanced therapeutic activity of this amino acid. We discuss both in vivo and in vitro evidence that taurine, through its ability to control sarcolemmal excitability and muscle contractility, can prove beneficial effects in many muscle dysfunctions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/b:nere.0000010442.89826.9cDOI Listing
January 2004