Publications by authors named "Rosa Alduina"

47 Publications

Biogenic Selenium Nanoparticles: A Fine Characterization to Unveil Their Thermodynamic Stability.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 May 1;11(5). Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Biological, Chemical, and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (STEBICEF), University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze Ed. 16, 90128 Palermo, Italy.

Among the plethora of available metal(loid) nanomaterials (NMs), those containing selenium are interesting from an applicative perspective, due to their high biocompatibility. Microorganisms capable of coping with toxic Se-oxyanions generate mostly Se nanoparticles (SeNPs), representing an ideal and green alternative over the chemogenic synthesis to obtain thermodynamically stable NMs. However, their structural characterization, in terms of biomolecules and interactions stabilizing the biogenic colloidal solution, is still a black hole that impairs the exploitation of biogenic SeNP full potential. Here, spherical and thermodynamically stable SeNPs were produced by a metal(loid) tolerant sp. Structural characterization obtained by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed that these SeNPs were surrounded by an organic material that contributed the most to their electrosteric stabilization, as indicated by Zeta (ζ) potential measurements. Proteins were strongly adsorbed on the SeNP surface, while lipids, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids more loosely interacted with SeNMs as highlighted by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and overall supported by multivariate statistical analysis. Nevertheless, all these contributors were fundamental to maintain SeNPs stable, as, upon washing, the NM-containing extract showed the arising of aggregated SeNPs alongside Se nanorods (SeNRs). Besides, Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculation unveiled how thiol-containing molecules appeared to play a role in SeO bioreduction, stress oxidative response, and SeNP stabilization.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11051195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8147324PMC
May 2021

New Neuroprotective Effect of Lemon IntegroPectin on Neuronal Cellular Model.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Apr 25;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Dipartimento di Biomedicina, Neuroscienze e Diagnostica Avanzata, Università di Palermo, Corso Tukory 129, 90134 Palermo, Italy.

Lemon IntegroPectin obtained via hydrodynamic cavitation of organic lemon processing waste in water shows significant neuroprotective activity in vitro, as first reported in this study investigating the effects of both lemon IntegroPectin and commercial citrus pectin on cell viability, cell morphology, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mitochondria perturbation induced by treatment of neuronal SH-SY5Y human cells with HO. Mediated by ROS, including HO and its derivatives, oxidative stress alters numerous cellular processes, such as mitochondrial regulation and cell signaling, propagating cellular injury that leads to incurable neurodegenerative diseases. These results, and the absence of toxicity of this new pectic substance rich in adsorbed flavonoids and terpenes, suggest further studies to investigate its activity in preventing, retarding, or even curing neurological diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10050669DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8145755PMC
April 2021

Occurrence and Antimicrobial Resistance of spp. Recovered from Aquatic Environments.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Mar 10;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Food Microbiology Section, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia A. Mirri, Via G. Marinuzzi 3, 90129 Palermo, Italy.

spp. are emerging waterborne and foodborne zoonotic pathogens responsible for gastroenteritis in humans. In this work, we evaluated the occurrence and the antimicrobial resistance profile of isolates recovered from different aquatic sources. Besides, we searched for spp. in seaweeds and the corresponding seawater samples. Bacteriological and molecular methods applied to 100 samples led to the isolation of 28 isolates from 27 samples. The highest prevalence was detected in rivers followed by artificial ponds, streams, well waters, and spring waters. Seaweeds contained a higher percentage of than the corresponding seawater samples. The isolates were identified as (96.4%) and (3.6%). All the isolates showed a multi-drug resistance profile, being resistant to at least three different classes of antibiotics. Molecular analysis of genetic determinants responsible for tetracycline resistance in nine randomly chosen isolates revealed the presence of and/or This work confirms the occurrence and the continuous emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains in environmental samples; also, the presence of quinolone-resistant spp. in aquatic sources used for water supply and irrigation represents a potential risk for human health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10030288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998538PMC
March 2021

A Comparative Analysis of Aquatic and Polyethylene-Associated Antibiotic-Resistant Microbiota in the Mediterranean Sea.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Mar 6;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Biological, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (STEBICEF), University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Bd. 16, 90128 Palermo, Italy.

In this study, we evaluated the microbiome and the resistome profile of water and fragments of polyethylene (PE) waste collected at the same time from a stream and the seawater in a coastal area of Northwestern Sicily. Although a core microbiome was determined by sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S rDNA gene, quantitative differences were found among the microbial communities on PE waste and the corresponding water samples. Our findings indicated that PE waste contains a more abundant and increased core microbiome diversity than the corresponding water samples. Moreover, PCR analysis of specific antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) showed that PE waste harbors more ARGs than the water samples. Thus, PE waste could act as a carrier of antibiotic-resistant microbiota, representing an increased danger for the marine environment and living organisms, as well.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology10030200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001005PMC
March 2021

Volatile Compounds of Lemon and Grapefruit IntegroPectin.

Molecules 2020 Dec 24;26(1). Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati, CNR, Via U. La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo, Italy.

An HS-SPME GC-MS analysis of the volatile compounds adsorbed at the outer surface of lemon and grapefruit pectins obtained via the hydrodynamic cavitation of industrial waste streams of lemon and grapefruit peels in water suggests important new findings to understanding the powerful and broad biological activity of these new pectic materials. In agreement with the ultralow degree of esterification of these pectins, the high amount of highly bioactive α-terpineol and terpinen-4-ol points to limonene (and linalool) decomposition catalyzed by residual citric acid in the citrus waste peel residue of the juice industrial production.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7795228PMC
December 2020

Seroprevalence of in Stray Dogs from Southern Italy.

Microorganisms 2020 Oct 30;8(11). Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia "A. Mirri", via G. Marinuzzi 3, 90129 Palermo, Italy.

is a bacterial pathogen transmitted by ticks and is responsible for Lyme disease in both humans and dogs. The aim of this work was to evaluate diffusion among stray dogs in Palermo (Sicily, Italy) by serological methods in order to study the risk factors associated with the infection. Serum and blood samples of 316 dogs were collected from a shelter in Palermo, and were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and of the gene by real-time PCR, respectively. Seventeen sera (5.4%) were positive for the antibodies via IFA and one blood (0.3%) for via real time PCR. On the basis of serological results, the evaluation of the potential risk factors (sex, age, breed and coat color) was carried out. The multivariate analysis indicated that male sex is a factor significantly associated with seropositivity. This study confirms that male dogs have a higher risk of developing the disease than females, and represents the first investigation on the spread of among stray dogs in Sicily.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8111688DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7692072PMC
October 2020

A combined physical-chemical and microbiological approach to unveil the fabrication, provenance, and state of conservation of the Kinkarakawa-gami art.

Sci Rep 2020 10 2;10(1):16072. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

National Interuniversity Consortium of Materials Science and Technology (INSTM), UdR of Palermo, 50121, Florence, Italy.

Kinkarakawa-gami wallpapers are unique works of art produced in Japan between 1870 and 1905 and exported in European countries, although only few examples are nowadays present in Europe. So far, neither the wallpapers nor the composing materials have been characterised, limiting the effective conservation-restoration of these artefacts accounting also for the potential deteriogen effects of microorganisms populating them. In the present study, four Kinkarakawa-gami wallpapers were analysed combining physical-chemical and microbiological approaches to obtain information regarding the artefacts' manufacture, composition, dating, and their microbial community. The validity of these methodologies was verified through a fine in blind statistical analysis, which allowed to identify trends and similarities within these important artefacts. The evidence gathered indicated that these wallpapers were generated between 1885 and 1889, during the so-called industrial production period. A wide range of organic (proteinaceous binders, natural waxes, pigments, and vegetable lacquers) and inorganic (tin foil and pigments) substances were used for the artefacts' manufacture, contributing to their overall complexity, which also reflects on the identification of a heterogeneous microbiota, often found in Eastern environmental matrices. Nevertheless, whether microorganisms inhabiting these wallpapers determined a detrimental or protective effect is not fully elucidated yet, thus constituting an aspect worth to be explored to deepen the knowledge needed for the conservation of Kinkarakawa-gami over time.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73226-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7532529PMC
October 2020

Mononuclear Perfluoroalkyl-Heterocyclic Complexes of Pd(II): Synthesis, Structural Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity.

Molecules 2020 Sep 30;25(19). Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Biological, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (STEBICEF), University of Palermo, Parco d'Orleans II, Viale delle Scienze-Bd. 16-17, 90128 Palermo, Italy.

Two mononuclear Pd(II) complexes [PdCl(pfptp)] () and [PdCl(pfhtp)] (), with ligands 2-(3-perfluoropropyl-1-methyl-1,2,4-triazole-5yl)-pyridine () and 2-(3-perfluoroheptyl-1-methyl-1,2,4-triazole-5yl)-pyridine (), were synthesized and structurally characterized. The two complexes showed a bidentate coordination of the ligand occurring through N atom of pyridine ring and N4 atom of 1,2,4-triazole. Both complexes showed antimicrobial activity when tested against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25194487DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7582383PMC
September 2020

Formulation of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Controlled Release of Antimicrobials for Stone Preventive Conservation.

Front Chem 2020 21;8:699. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Biological, Chemical, and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology (STEBICEF), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

The biotic deterioration of artifacts of archaeological and artistic interest mostly relies on the action of microorganisms capable of thriving under the most disparate environmental conditions. Thus, to attenuate biodeterioration phenomena, biocides can be used by the restorers to prevent or slow down the microbial growth. However, several factors such as biocide half-life, its wash-out because of environmental conditions, and its limited time of action make necessary its application repeatedly, leading to negative economic implications. Sound and successful treatments are represented by controlled release systems (CRSs) based on porous materials. Here, we report on the design and development of a CRS system based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), as a carrier, and loaded with a biocide. MSNs, with a diameter of 55 nm and cylindrical pores of ca. 3-8 nm arranged as parallel arrays concerning the NP diameter, and with 422 m/g of specific surface area were synthesized by the sol-gel method assisted by oil in water emulsion. Biocide loading and release were carried out in water and monitored by UV-Vis Spectroscopy; in addition, microbiological assay was performed using as control the MCM-41 mesoporous silica loaded with the same biocide. The role of specific supramolecular interaction in regulating the release is discussed. Further, we demonstrated that this innovative formulation was useful in inhibiting the growth of , an environmental Gram-positive bacterial strain. Besides, the CRS here prepared reduced the bacterial biomass contaminating a real case study (i.e., stone derived from the Santa Margherita cave located in Sicily, Italy), after several months of treatment thus opening for innovative treatments of deteriorated stone artifacts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2020.00699DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7471835PMC
August 2020

A New Water-Soluble Bactericidal Agent for the Treatment of Infections Caused by Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacterial Strains.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2020 Sep 8;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati, CNR, via U. La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo, Italy.

Grapefruit and lemon pectin obtained from the respective waste citrus peels via hydrodynamic cavitation in water only are powerful, broad-scope antimicrobials against Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. Dubbed IntegroPectin, these pectic polymers functionalized with citrus flavonoids and terpenes show superior antimicrobial activity when compared to commercial citrus pectin. Similar to commercial pectin, lemon IntegroPectin determined ca. 3-log reduction in cells, while an enhanced activity of commercial citrus pectin was detected in the case of cells with a minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 15 mg mL. Although grapefruit and lemon IntegroPectin share equal MBC in the case of cells, grapefruit IntegroPectin shows boosted activity upon exposure of cells with a 40 mg mL biopolymer concentration affording complete killing of the bacterial cells. Insights into the mechanism of action of these biocompatible antimicrobials and their effect on bacterial cells, at the morphological level, were obtained indirectly through Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and directly through scanning electron microscopy. In the era of antimicrobial resistance, these results are of great societal and sanitary relevance since citrus IntegroPectin biomaterials are also devoid of cytotoxic activity, as already shown for lemon IntegroPectin, opening the route to the development of new medical treatments of polymicrobial infections unlikely to develop drug resistance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9090586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7558503PMC
September 2020

Pectin: A Long-Neglected Broad-Spectrum Antibacterial.

ChemMedChem 2020 Dec 28;15(23):2228-2235. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati, CNR, via U. La Malfa 153, 90146, Palermo, Italy.

First reported in the late 1930s and partly explained in 1970, the antibacterial activity of pectin remained almost ignored until the late 1990s. The concomitant emergence of research on natural antibacterials and new usages of pectin polysaccharides, including those in medicine widely researched in Russia, has led to a renaissance of research into the physiological properties of this uniquely versatile polysaccharide ubiquitous in plants and fruits. By collecting scattered information, this study provides an updated overview of the subtle factors affecting the behaviour of pectin as an antimicrobial. Less-degraded pectin extracted by acid-free routes, we argue in the conclusions, will soon find applications from new treatments for polymicrobial infections to use as an implantable biomaterial in tissue and bone engineering.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cmdc.202000518DOI Listing
December 2020

Superior Antibacterial Activity of Integral Lemon Pectin Extracted via Hydrodynamic Cavitation.

ChemistryOpen 2020 05 28;9(5):628-630. Epub 2020 May 28.

Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati, CNR via U. La Malfa 153 90146 Palermo Italy.

Pectin extracted via hydrodynamic cavitation in water only from waste lemon peel and further isolated via freeze drying displays significant antibacterial activity against , a Gram positive pathogen which easily contaminates food. The antibacterial effect of the new IntegroPectin is largely superior to that of commercial citrus pectin, opening the way to advanced applications of a new bioproduct now obtainable in large amounts and at low cost from citrus juice industry's waste.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/open.202000076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7254935PMC
May 2020

New Synthetic Nitro-Pyrrolomycins as Promising Antibacterial and Anticancer Agents.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2020 May 30;9(6). Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Biological, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (STEBICEF), University of Palermo, viale delle Scienze, Building 16, 90128 Palermo, Italy.

Pyrrolomycins (PMs) are polyhalogenated antibiotics known as powerful biologically active compounds, yet featuring high cytotoxicity. The present study reports the antibacterial and antitumoral properties of new chemically synthesized PMs, where the three positions of the pyrrolic nucleus were replaced by nitro groups, aiming to reduce their cytotoxicity while maintaining or even enhancing the biological activity. Indeed, the presence of the nitro substituent in diverse positions of the pyrrole determined an improvement of the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Gram-positive (i.e., ) or -negative (i.e., ) pathogen strains as compared to the natural PM-C. Moreover, some new nitro-PMs were as active as or more than PM-C in inhibiting the proliferation of colon (HCT116) and breast (MCF 7) cancer cell lines and were less toxic towards normal epithelial (hTERT RPE-1) cells. Altogether, our findings contribute to increase the knowledge of the mode of action of these promising molecules and provide a basis for their rationale chemical or biological manipulation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9060292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7345095PMC
May 2020

Antibacterial PEGylated Solid Lipid Microparticles for Cosmeceutical Purpose: Formulation, Characterization, and Efficacy Evaluation.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Apr 30;13(9). Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche Chimiche e Farmaceutiche (STEBICEF) Università degli Studi di Palermo, 90128 Palermo, Italy.

The development of efficacious means of delivering antioxidant polyphenols from natural sources for the treatment of skin diseases is of great interest for many cosmetic and pharmaceutical companies. Resveratrol (RSV) and Limonene (LIM) have been shown to possess good anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties against infections responsible for many skin disorders, such as acne vulgaris. In this study, solid lipid microparticles are designed as composite vehicles capable of encapsulating a high amount of trans-RSV and enhancing its absorption through the stratum corneum. A microparticulate system based on mixture of PEGylate lipids, long-chain alcohols and LIM is able to entrap RSV in an amorphous state, increasing its half-life and avoiding inactivation due to isomerization phenomena, which represents the main drawback in topical formulations. Particles have been characterized in term of shape, size distribution and drug loading. Antimicrobial tests against have highlighted that empty microspheres possess per se antimicrobial activity, which is enhanced by the presence of LIM, demonstrating that they can represent an interesting bactericide vehicle for RSV administration on the skin.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13092073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7254386PMC
April 2020

Graphene Oxide Carboxymethylcellulose Nanocomposite for Dressing Materials.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Apr 23;13(8). Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Carbonmed Spółka z Ograniczoną Odpowiedzialnością, ul. Okólna 2, 50-422 Wrocław, Poland.

Sore, infected wounds are a major clinical issue, and there is thus an urgent need for novel biomaterials as multifunctional constituents for dressings. A set of biocomposites was prepared by solvent casting using different concentrations of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and exfoliated graphene oxide (-GO) as a filler. -GO was first obtained by the strong oxidation and exfoliation of graphite. The structural, morphological and mechanical properties of the composites (CMCx/-GO) were evaluated, and the obtained composites were homogenous, transparent and brownish in color. The results confirmed that -GO may be homogeneously dispersed in CMC. It was found that the composite has an inhibitory activity against the Gram-positive , but not against Gram-negative . At the same time, it does not exhibit any cytotoxic effect on normal fibroblasts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13081980DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216044PMC
April 2020

Antibiotics and Environment.

Authors:
Rosa Alduina

Antibiotics (Basel) 2020 Apr 23;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Biological, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (STEBICEF), University of Palermo, 90028 Palermo, Italy.

Since the discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming in 1928, the use of antibiotics has become the golden standard in the treatment of bacterial infections of all kinds [...].
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9040202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235880PMC
April 2020

A Two-Component regulatory system with opposite effects on glycopeptide antibiotic biosynthesis and resistance.

Sci Rep 2020 04 10;10(1):6200. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Naicons Srl, Via Ortles 22/4, 20139, Milan, Italy.

The glycopeptide A40926, produced by the actinomycete Nonomuraea gerenzanensis, is the precursor of dalbavancin, a second-generation glycopeptide antibiotic approved for clinical use in the USA and Europe in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The final product of the biosynthetic pathway is an O-acetylated form of A40926 (acA40926). Glycopeptide biosynthesis in N. gerenzanensis is dependent upon the dbv gene cluster that encodes, in addition to the two essential positive regulators Dbv3 and Dbv4, the putative members of a two-component signal transduction system, specifically the response regulator Dbv6 and the sensor kinase Dbv22. The aim of this work was to assign a role to these two genes. Our results demonstrate that deletion of dbv22 leads to an increased antibiotic production with a concomitant reduction in glycopeptide resistance. Deletion of dbv6 results in a similar phenotype, although the effects are not as strong as in the Δdbv22 mutant. Consistently, quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that Dbv6 and Dbv22 negatively regulate the regulatory genes (dbv3 and dbv4), as well as some dbv biosynthetic genes (dbv23 and dbv24), whereas Dbv6 and Dbv22 positively regulate transcription of the single, cluster-associated resistance gene. Finally, we demonstrate that exogenously added acA40926 and its precursor A40926 can modulate transcription of dbv genes but with an opposite extent: A40926 strongly stimulates transcription of the Dbv6/Dbv22 target genes while acA40926 has a neutral or negative effect on transcription of those genes. We propose a model in which glycopeptide biosynthesis in N. gerenzanensis is modulated through a positive feedback by the biosynthetic precursor A40926 and a negative feedback by the final product acA40926. In addition to previously reported control systems, this sophisticated control loop might help the producing strain cope with the toxicity of its own product. This work, besides leading to improved glycopeptide producing strains, enlarges our knowledge on the regulation of glycopeptide biosynthesis in actinomycetes, setting N. gerenzanensis and its two-component system Dbv6-Dbv22 apart from other glycopeptide producers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63257-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7148328PMC
April 2020

Antibiotic Resistance of Gram-Negative Bacteria from Wild Captured Loggerhead Sea Turtles.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2020 Apr 6;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Biological, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (STEBICEF), University of Palermo, 90028 Palermo, Italy.

Sea turtles have been proposed as health indicators of marine habitats and carriers of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, for their longevity and migratory lifestyle. Up to now, a few studies evaluated the antibacterial resistant flora of Mediterranean loggerhead sea turtles () and most of them were carried out on stranded or recovered animals. In this study, the isolation and the antibiotic resistance profile of 90 Gram negative bacteria from cloacal swabs of 33 Mediterranean wild captured loggerhead sea turtles are described. Among sea turtles found in their foraging sites, 23 were in good health and 10 needed recovery for different health problems (hereafter named weak). Isolated cloacal bacteria belonged mainly to Enterobacteriaceae (59%), Shewanellaceae (31%) and Vibrionaceae families (5%). Although slight differences in the bacterial composition, healthy and weak sea turtles shared antibiotic-resistant strains. In total, 74 strains were endowed with one or multi resistance (up to five different drugs) phenotypes, mainly towards ampicillin (~70%) or sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (more than 30%). Hence, our results confirmed the presence of antibiotic-resistant strains also in healthy marine animals and the role of the loggerhead sea turtles in spreading antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9040162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235709PMC
April 2020

Is a Carrier of Antibiotic Resistance in the Mediterranean Sea?

Antibiotics (Basel) 2020 Mar 10;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Department of Biological, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (STEBICEF), University of Palermo, 90028 Palermo, Italy.

Sea turtles can be considered a sentinel species for monitoring the health of marine ecosystems, acting, at the same time, as a carrier of microorganisms. Indeed, sea turtles can acquire the microbiota from their reproductive sites and feeding, contributing to the diffusion of antibiotic-resistant strains to uncontaminated environments. This study aims to unveil the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in (i) loggerhead sea turtles stranded along the coast of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea), (ii) unhatched and/or hatched eggs, (iii) sand from the turtles' nest and (iv) seawater. Forty-four bacterial strains were isolated and identified by conventional biochemical tests and 16S rDNA sequencing. The Gram-negative and species were mainly found in sea turtles and seawater samples, respectively. Conversely, the Gram-positive , , and strains were mostly isolated from eggs and sand The antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolates revealed that these strains were resistant to cefazolin (95.5%), streptomycin (43.2%), colistin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (34.1%). Moreover, metagenome analysis unveiled the presence of both antibiotic and heavy metal resistance genes, as well as the mobile element class 1 integron at an alarming percentage rate. Our results suggest that could be considered a carrier of antibiotic-resistant genes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9030116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7148500PMC
March 2020

New insights into the gut microbiome in loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta stranded on the Mediterranean coast.

PLoS One 2019 14;14(8):e0220329. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Department of Biological, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (STEBICEF), Università degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

Caretta caretta is the most common sea turtle species in the Mediterranean Sea. The species is threatened by anthropomorphic activity that causes thousands of deaths and hundreds of strandings along the Mediterranean coast. Stranded turtles are often cared for in rehabilitation centres until they recover or die. The objective of this study was to characterize the gut microbiome of nine sea turtles stranded along the Sicilian coast of the Mediterranean Sea using high-throughput sequencing analysis targeting V3-V4 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Stool samples were collected from eight specimens hosted in the recovery centre after a few days of hospitalization (under 7) and from one hosted for many weeks (78 days). To better explore the role of bacterial communities in loggerhead sea turtles, we compared our data with published fecal microbiomes from specimens stranded along the Tuscan and Ligurian coast. Our results highlight that, despite the different origin, size and health conditions of the animals, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria constitute the main components of the microbiota. This study widens our knowledge on the gut microbiome of sea turtles and could be helpful for the set up of rehabilitation therapies of stranded animals after recovery in specialized centres.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0220329PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6693768PMC
March 2020

Essential Oil Composition of and in Vitro Biological Activity on Two Drug-Resistant Models.

Molecules 2019 Aug 7;24(16). Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Department of Biological, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Science and Technology (STEBICEF), University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo, Italy.

Drug resistance is a major obstacle in antibiotic and antitumor chemotherapy. In response to the necessity to find new therapeutic strategies, plant secondary metabolites including essential oils (EOs) may represent one of the best sources. EOs in plants act as constitutive defenses against biotic and abiotic stress, and they play an important role in the pharmacology for their low toxicity, good pharmacokinetic and multitarget activity. In this context, natural products such as EOs are one of the most important sources of drugs used in pharmaceutical therapeutics. The aim of this paper was to identify the chemical composition of the essential oil of leaves obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and to verify its biological activities on acute myeloid leukemia cancer cell HL60 and its multidrugresistant variant HL60R and the Gram-positive exhibiting multi-antibiotic resistance. We speculate that cytotoxic and antibiotic effects observed in the tested resistant models may be due to the coordinate activities of forty compounds detected or to the C macrocyclic lactones which are the major ones (30%). Our data confirm the possibility of using EOs as therapeutic strategies in resistant models is due to the heterogeneous composition of the oils themselves.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24162871DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6720003PMC
August 2019

Comparison of Antibiotic Resistance Profile and Biofilm Production of Isolates Derived from Human Specimens and Animal-Derived Samples.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2019 Jul 19;8(3). Epub 2019 Jul 19.

Dipartimento Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche, Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Viale delle Scienze, University of Palermo, 90128 Palermo, Italy.

Background: The diffusion of antimicrobial resistance is a significant concern for public health worldwide. represents a paradigm microorganism for antibiotic resistance in that resistant strains appear within a decade after the introduction of new antibiotics.

Methods: Fourteen isolates from human specimens and twenty-one from samples of animal origin, were compared for their antimicrobial resistance and biofilm capability. In addition, they were characterized at the molecular level to detect the antimicrobial resistance gene and genes related with enterotoxin, toxin, and biofilm production.

Results: Both phenotypic and molecular analysis showed main differences among human- and animal-derived isolates. Among the human-derived isolates, more multidrug-resistant isolates were detected and gene, enterotoxin, and toxin genes were more prevalent. Different genes involved in biofilm production were detected with present only in animal-derived isolates and present in both isolates, however, with a higher prevalence in the human-derived isolates. Biofilm capability was higher in human-derived isolates mainly associated to the gene.

Conclusions: The overall results indicate that human isolates are more virulent and resistant than the isolates of animal origin randomly selected with no infection anamnesis. This study confirms that selection for more virulent and resistant strains is related to the clinical practice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8030097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6783831PMC
July 2019

Deinococcus radiodurans' SRA-HNH domain containing protein Shp (Dr1533) is involved in faithful genome inheritance maintenance following DNA damage.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj 2019 01 9;1863(1):118-129. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, Via Manara 7, Busto Arsizio, VA, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Deinococcus radiodurans R1 (DR) survives conditions of extreme desiccation, irradiation and exposure to genotoxic chemicals, due to efficient DNA breaks repair, also through Mn protection of DNA repair enzymes.

Methods: Possible annotated domains of the DR1533 locus protein (Shp) were searched by bioinformatic analysis. The gene was cloned and expressed as fusion protein. Band-shift assays of Shp or the SRA and HNH domains were performed on oligonucleotides, genomic DNA from E. coli and DR. shp knock-out mutant was generated by homologous recombination with a kanamycin resistance cassette.

Results: DR1533 contains an N-terminal SRA domain and a C-terminal HNH motif (SRA-HNH Protein, Shp). Through its SRA domain, Shp binds double-strand oligonucleotides containing 5mC and 5hmC, but also unmethylated and mismatched cytosines in presence of Mn. Shp also binds to Escherichia coli dcm genomic DNA, and to cytosine unmethylated DR and E. coli dcm genomic DNAs, but only in presence of Mn. Under these binding conditions, Shp displays DNAse activity through its HNH domain. Shp KO enhanced >100 fold the number of spontaneous mutants, whilst the treatment with DNA double strand break inducing agents enhanced up to 3-log the number of survivors.

Conclusions: The SRA-HNH containing protein Shp binds to and cuts 5mC DNA, and unmethylated DNA in a Mn dependent manner, and might be involved in faithful genome inheritance maintenance following DNA damage.

General Significance: Our results provide evidence for a potential role of DR Shp protein for genome integrity maintenance, following DNA double strand breaks induced by genotoxic agents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2018.09.020DOI Listing
January 2019

The SCO1731 methyltransferase modulates actinorhodin production and morphological differentiation of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

Sci Rep 2018 09 12;8(1):13686. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Biological, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (STEBICEF), Università degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze Bd.16, 90128, Palermo, Italy.

Streptomyces coelicolor is a Gram-positive microorganism often used as a model of physiological and morphological differentiation in streptomycetes, prolific producers of secondary metabolites with important biological activities. In the present study, we analysed Streptomyces coelicolor growth and differentiation in the presence of the hypo-methylating agent 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) in order to investigate whether cytosine methylation has a role in differentiation. We found that cytosine demethylation caused a delay in spore germination, aerial mycelium development, sporulation, as well as a massive impairment of actinorhodin production. Thus, we searched for putative DNA methyltransferase genes in the genome and constructed a mutant of the SCO1731 gene. The analysis of the SCO1731::Tn5062 mutant strain demonstrated that inactivation of SCO1731 leads to a strong decrease of cytosine methylation and almost to the same phenotype obtained after 5-aza-dC treatment. Altogether, our data demonstrate that cytosine methylation influences morphological differentiation and actinorhodin production in S. coelicolor and expand our knowledge on this model bacterial system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-32027-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6135851PMC
September 2018

Complex Regulatory Networks Governing Production of the Glycopeptide A40926.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2018 Apr 5;7(2). Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Via Ortles 22/4, Naicons Srl, 20139 Milano, Italy.

Glycopeptides (GPAs) are an important class of antibiotics, with vancomycin and teicoplanin being used in the last 40 years as drugs of last resort to treat infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant . A few new GPAs have since reached the market. One of them is dalbavancin, a derivative of A40926 produced by the actinomycete sp. ATCC 39727, recently classified as . This review summarizes what we currently know on the multilevel regulatory processes governing production of the glycopeptide A40926 and the different approaches used to increase antibiotic yields. Some nutrients, e.g., valine, l-glutamine and maltodextrin, and some endogenous proteins, e.g., Dbv3, Dbv4 and RpoB, have a positive role on A40926 biosynthesis, while other factors, e.g., phosphate, ammonium and Dbv23, have a negative effect. Overall, the results available so far point to a complex regulatory network controlling A40926 in the native producing strain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7020030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6022936PMC
April 2018

Binding abilities of polyaminocyclodextrins: polarimetric investigations and biological assays.

Beilstein J Org Chem 2017 18;13:2751-2763. Epub 2017 Dec 18.

Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche, Chimiche e Farmaceutiche (STEBICEF), University of Palermo, V.le delle Scienze ed. 17, 90128 Palermo, Italy.

Three polyaminocyclodextrin materials, obtained by direct reaction between heptakis(6-deoxy-6-iodo)-β-cyclodextrin and the proper linear polyamines, were investigated for their binding properties, in order to assess their potential applications in biological systems, such as vectors for simultaneous drug and gene cellular uptake or alternatively for the protection of macromolecules. In particular, we exploited polarimetry to test their interaction with some model -nitroaniline derivatives, chosen as probe guests. The data obtained indicate that binding inside the host cavity is mainly affected by interplay between Coulomb interactions and conformational restraints. Moreover, simultaneous interaction of the cationic polyamine pendant bush at the primary rim was positively assessed. Insights on quantitative aspects of the interaction between our materials and polyanions were investigated by studying the binding with sodium alginate. Finally, the complexation abilities of the same materials towards polynucleotides were assessed by studying their interaction with the model plasmid pUC19. Our results positively highlight the ability of our materials to exploit both the cavity and the polycationic branches, thus functioning as bimodal ligands.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3762/bjoc.13.271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5753052PMC
December 2017

Anticancer activity of biogenerated silver nanoparticles: an integrated proteomic investigation.

Oncotarget 2018 Feb 23;9(11):9685-9705. Epub 2017 Dec 23.

Department of Biological Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (STEBICEF), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), embedded into a specific polysaccharide (EPS), were biogenerated by DSM 29614 under aerobic (AgNPs-EPS) and anaerobic conditions (AgNPs-EPS). Both AgNPs-EPS matrices were tested by MTT assay for cytotoxic activity against human breast (SKBR3 and 8701-BC) and colon (HT-29, HCT 116 and Caco-2) cancer cell lines, revealing AgNPs-EPS as the most active, in terms of IC50, with a more pronounced efficacy against breast cancer cell lines. Therefore, colony forming capability, morphological changes, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), induction of apoptosis and autophagy, inhibition of migratory and invasive capabilities and proteomic changes were investigated using SKBR3 breast cancer cells with the aim to elucidate AgNPs-EPS mode of action. In particular, AgNPs-EPS induced a significant decrease of cell motility and MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity and a significant increase of ROS generation, which, in turn, supported cell death mainly through autophagy and in a minor extend through apoptosis. Consistently, TEM micrographs and the determination of total silver in subcellular fractions indicated that the Ag accumulated preferentially in mitochondria and in smaller concentrations in nucleus, where interact with DNA. Interestingly, these evidences were confirmed by a differential proteomic analysis that highlighted important pathways involved in AgNPs-EPS toxicity, including endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment triggering cell death trough apoptosis and/or autophagy activation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.23859DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5839394PMC
February 2018

Synthesis and antibacterial activity of iron-hexacyanocobaltate nanoparticles.

J Biol Inorg Chem 2018 05 24;23(3):385-398. Epub 2018 Feb 24.

Department of Industrial Chemistry "Toso Montanari", University of Bologna, UOS Campus di Rimini, Via dei Mille 39, 47921, Rimini, Italy.

This paper deals with the synthesis and characterization of iron-hexacyanocobaltate (FeHCC) and its antibacterial properties. The nanoparticles were prepared by a facile co-precipitation technique. Crystal structure, particle morphology, and elemental composition were determined using X-ray Powder Diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Infrared Spectroscopy (IR). The antibacterial activity of the FeHCC nanoparticles was tested against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as models for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively, by bacterial counting method and microscopic visualization (TEM, FEG-SEM, and fluorescence microscopy). The results showed that the FeHCC nanoparticles bind to the bacterial cells, inhibit bacterial growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner, inducing a loss of the membrane potential, the production of reactive oxygen species and the release of macromolecules (nucleic acids and proteins) in the extracellular environment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the antimicrobial effects of metal-hexacyanometallates suggesting practical uses of these materials in different areas, such as self-cleaning surfaces or food packaging.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00775-018-1544-xDOI Listing
May 2018

Antibiotic Resistance Profiling, Analysis of Virulence Aspects and Molecular Genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated in Sicily, Italy.

Foodborne Pathog Dis 2018 03 20;15(3):177-185. Epub 2017 Dec 20.

2 Dipartimento Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche, Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Viale delle Scienze, University of Palermo , Palermo, Italy .

Staphylococcus aureus is the major cause of foodborne diseases worldwide. In this retrospective study, 84 S. aureus strains were characterized. The collection comprises 78 strains isolated during 1998 and 2014 from dairy products and tissue samples from livestock bred for dairy production in Sicily. One isolate was obtained from a pet (dog), one from an exotic animal (a circus elephant), and four human isolates were obtained during a severe food poisoning outbreak that occurred in Sicily in 2015. All the strains were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), for antibiotic resistance and presence of toxin genes. PFGE results showed 10 different pulsotypes, with three relatively frequent and three unique. The antibiotic resistance profiling showed that penicillin G (35.7%) and tetracycline (20.2%) resistance is largely spread. Most isolates contained at least one toxin gene making them a potential threat for public health. Enterotoxin sec gene was observed in 28.6% and seg in 23.8% of the strains, respectively; the human isolates were the only ones to concurrently harbor both seg and sei genes. In addition, 24 isolates were randomly selected and analyzed by multilocus sequence typing. Interestingly, the analysis showed the presence of 12 sequence types (STs), of which 6 were novel. One of them, ST700, was detected in 29% of the isolates and was found to be spread throughout Sicily. ST700 has been present in the island for almost 16 years (1998-2014) and it shows no host preference since it was isolated from different ruminant species. Four human isolates shared both the pulsotype (PT10) and the sequence type (ST9), as well as the virulence genes (seg-sei); this observation suggests that the isolates originated from a single clone, although they were obtained from two different individuals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2017.2338DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5865246PMC
March 2018

Synthesis, properties, antitumor and antibacterial activity of new Pt(II) and Pd(II) complexes with 2,2'-dithiobis(benzothiazole) ligand.

Bioorg Med Chem 2017 04 9;25(8):2378-2386. Epub 2017 Mar 9.

Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche, Chimiche e Farmaceutiche (STEBICEF), Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze pad. 16, Parco d'Orleans, 90128 Palermo, Italy.

Mono- and binuclear Pt(II) and Pd(II) complexes with 2,2'-dithiobis(benzothiazole) (DTBTA) ligand are reported. [Pt(DTBTA)(DMSO)Cl]Cl∙CHCl (1) and [Pd(µ-Cl)(DTBTA)]Cl (2) have been synthesized and structurally characterized by elemental analysis, IR, H and C NMR spectroscopy, MS spectrometry and the content of platinum and palladium was determined using a flame atomic spectrometer. Two different coordination modes of 1 and 2 complexes were found; in both complexes, the coordination of Pt(II) and Pd(II) ions involves the N(3) atoms of the ligand but the binuclear complex 2, is a cis-chloro-bridged palladium complex. Evaluation of their in vitro antitumor activity against two human tumor cell lines human breast cancer (MCF-7) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2); and their antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Kokuria rhizophila was performed. Only complex 1 showed a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic activity against the two tumor cell lines, associated to apoptosis and accumulation of treated cells in G0/G1 phase of cell cycle, while both 1 and 2 exhibited antimicrobial activity with complex 1 much more potent. The study on intracellular uptake in both MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines revealed that only platinum of complex 1 is present inside the cells, suggesting a different mode of action of the two compounds. This was also in agreement with the results obtained for the antitumor and antibacterial activity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2017.02.067DOI Listing
April 2017