Publications by authors named "Roni Tamari"

60 Publications

Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation with haploidentical donor and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide in patients with myelofibrosis: a multicenter study.

Leukemia 2021 Oct 18. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

We report the results from a multicenter retrospective study of 69 adult patients who underwent haploidentical blood or marrow transplantation (haplo-BMT) with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) for chronic phase myelofibrosis. The median age at BMT was 63 years (range, 41-74). Conditioning regimens were reduced intensity in 54% and nonmyeloablative in 39%. Peripheral blood grafts were used in 86%. The median follow-up was 23.1 months (range, 1.6-75.7). At 3 years, the overall survival, relapse-free survival (RFS), and graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD)-free-RFS were 72% (95% CI 59-81), 44% (95% CI 29-59), and 30% (95% CI 17-43). Cumulative incidences of non-relapse mortality and relapse were 23% (95% CI 14-34) and 31% (95% CI 17-47) at 3 years. Spleen size ≥22 cm or prior splenectomy (HR 6.37, 95% CI 2.02-20.1, P = 0.002), and bone marrow grafts (HR 4.92, 95% CI 1.68-14.4, P = 0.004) were associated with increased incidence of relapse. Cumulative incidence of acute GVHD grade 3-4 was 10% at 3 months and extensive chronic GVHD was 8%. Neutrophil engraftment was reported in 94% patients, at a median of 20 days (range, 14-70). In conclusion, haplo-BMT with PTCy is feasible in patients with myelofibrosis. Splenomegaly ≥22 cm and bone marrow grafts were associated with a higher incidence of relapse in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01449-1DOI Listing
October 2021

The Simplified Comorbidity Index (SCI) - a new tool for prediction of non-relapse mortality in allogeneic HCT.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United States.

Individual comorbidities have distinct contributions to non-relapse mortality (NRM) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). We studied the impact of comorbidities both individually and in combination in a single-center cohort of 573 adult patients who underwent CD34-selected allo-HCT following myeloablative conditioning. Pulmonary disease, moderate to severe hepatic comorbidity, cardiac disease of any type, and renal dysfunction were associated with increased NRM in multivariable Cox regression models. A Simplified Comorbidity Index (SCI) composed of the four comorbidities predictive of NRM, as well as age > 60 years, stratified patients into five groups with a stepwise increase in NRM. NRM rates ranged from 11.4% to 49.9% by stratum, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.84, 2.59, 3.57, and 5.38. The SCI was also applicable in an external cohort of 230 patients who underwent allo-HCT with unmanipulated grafts following intermediate-intensity conditioning. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the SCI for 1-year NRM was 70.3 and 72.0 over the development and external-validation cohorts, respectively; corresponding AUCs of the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-specific Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) were 61.7 and 65.7. In summary, a small set of comorbidities, aggregated into the Simplified Comorbidity Index, are highly predictive of NRM. The new index stratifies patients into distinct risk groups, was validated in an external cohort, and provides higher discrimination than the HCT-CI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004319DOI Listing
September 2021

Venetoclax-based combinations in AML and high-risk MDS prior to and following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 Sep 3:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Leukemia Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

The role of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) as consolidation after initial venetoclax therapy and the efficacy of venetoclax salvage therapy for relapse after allo-HCT in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are unclear. We conducted a retrospective study of patients with AML or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who received venetoclax either before or after allo-HCT at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Yale University from 11 August 2016 to 16 November 2020. Among 39 heavily pretreated patients who received venetoclax before allo-HCT, median OS from allo-HCT was not reached after a median follow up of 12.5 months resulting in a 12-month OS estimate of 79.0%. In 37 patients who had received venetoclax-based combinations as salvage therapy after allo-HCT, the overall response rate was 32% with a median OS of 4.7 months (12-month OS estimate: 43.4%). Four patients underwent a second allo-HCT following venetoclax-based salvage therapy suggesting it as a potential salvage treatment option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2021.1966788DOI Listing
September 2021

Human herpes virus 6 DNAemia is associated with worse survival after ex vivo T-cell depleted hematopoietic cell transplant.

J Infect Dis 2021 Aug 14. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Infectious Disease Service, Department of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Background: We examined the correlation between persistent HHV-6 DNAemia (p-HHV-6) and absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC), platelet counts (PLT) and all-cause mortality the 1-year after ex vivo T-cell depleted (TCD) hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT).

Methods: We analyzed a cohort of adult TCD HCT recipients 2012-2016 prospectively monitored for plasma HHV-6 by qPCR from day +14 post-HCT (D+14) through D+100. P-HHV-6 was defined as ≥2 consecutive values of ≥500 copies/mL by D+100. PLT and ALC were compared between patients with and without p-HHV-6 using mixed model analysis of variance. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify the impact of p-HHV-6 on 1-year mortality.

Results: Of 312 patients, 83 (27%) had p-HHV-6 by D+100. P-HHV-6 was associated with lower ALC and PLT in the first year post-HCT. In multivariable models, p-HHV-6 was associated with higher mortality by 1-year post-HCT (adjusted hazard ratio 2.97, 95% confidence intervals: 1.62-5.47, P=0.0005), after adjusting for age, antiviral treatment, and ALC at D+100.

Conclusions: P-HHV-6 was associated with lower ALC and PLT in the first year post-HCT. P-HHV-6 was an independent predictor of mortality in the first year after TCD HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiab412DOI Listing
August 2021

The post-transplant scoring system (PTSS) is associated with outcomes in patients with MDS after CD34+selected allogeneic stem cell transplant.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

The post-transplant scoring system (PTSS), developed by the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, is based on three independent post-transplant risk factors: grade of acute graft-versus-host disease, lack of platelet recovery before day 100, and relapse before day 100; discriminating low- (0), intermediate- (1-3), and high-risk (4-8) patients. We investigated the prognostic value of the PTSS in a cohort of patients with MDS who underwent myeloablative CD34-selected TCD transplants. From 2008 to 2018, 109 patients underwent a first TCD-HCT for MDS at our center. We used Cox proportional hazards models and different landmark analyses to evaluate the association of categorized PTSS score risk groups with overall survival (OS). Patients with an intermediate/ high risk PTSS score had decreased OS at day 180 (univariate HR 3.25 [95% CI 1.60, 6.60], p = 0.001) and at day 365 (univariate HR 5.42 [95% CI 2.21, 13.3], p < 0.001) compared to low risk PTSS scores. This association remained significant after adjusting for HCT-CI. PTSS score calculated at day 100 was not associated with OS, even after adjusting for HCT-CI subgroups. In summary, the PTSS predicted survival at day 180 and day 365 in recipients of T-cell-depleted allografts for myelodysplastic syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01392-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8273566PMC
July 2021

Fractionated Infusion of Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells Does Not Improve Neutrophil Recovery or Survival in Allograft Recipients.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 10 30;27(10):852.e1-852.e9. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Adult Blood and Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) offers a potentially curative therapy in patients with hematologic malignancies; however, nonrelapse mortality (NRM) remains a concern. Strategies to improve neutrophil recovery and immune reconstitution are needed to decrease NRM. Murine models of allogeneic HCT suggest that fractionated hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) infusion may improve engraftment through improved access of HPCs to a viable hematopoietic niche. The primary objective of the present study was to determine the impact of fractionated infusion versus unfractionated (bulk) infusion of HPCs on the time to achieve neutrophil engraftment. Secondary objectives included the effect of fractionated versus bulk infusion of HPCs on platelet engraftment, immune reconstitution, the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grade II-IV, NRM, and overall survival (OS). In this randomized phase 2 study, patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing allogeneic HCT were randomized to receive HPC infusion as a bulk (bulk arm) or in fractions (fractionated arm): 4 × 10 CD34 cells/kg recipient weight infused on day 0, with the remaining HPCs CD34 cell-selected then infused in equally distributed aliquots on days 2, 4, and 6 post-HCT. Randomization was stratified by type of transplant, unmodified (i.e. T cell-replete graft) versus CD34 cell-selected (T cell-depleted graft). Patients whose donor failed to collect at least 7 × 10 CD34 cells/kg of recipient weight received bulk HPC infusions regardless of randomization, for safety. These patients continued the HCT process on study but were replaced until each arm reached the prespecified accrual target. Per protocol, these patients were not included in this modified intention-to-treat analysis. A total of 116 patients were enrolled. Donors of 42 patients failed to mobilize the minimum CD34 cell dose (7 × 10 cells/kg recipient weight) and were excluded from the analysis. The 74 evaluable patients included 38 randomized to the bulk arm and 36 randomized to the fractionated arm. All patients engrafted. The median time to an absolute neutrophil count of ≥0.5 × 10/L was 11 days on both arms. The day +180 median CD4 cell count was 179 cells/µL in the bulk arm and 111 cells/µL in the fractionated arm (P = .779). The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD on post-transplant day +100 was 32% in the bulk arm and 17% in the fractionated arm (P = .131). Two patients in the bulk arm, but none in the fractionated arm, experienced grade III-IV GVHD. The 4-year OS was 60% in the bulk arm and 62% in the fractionated arm (P = .414), whereas the 4-year cumulative incidences of NRM and relapse were similar in the 2 arms. Fractionated infusion of HPCs in allogeneic HCT recipients did not impact neutrophil or CD4 cell recovery, NRM, relapse, or OS when compared with bulk HPC infusion. We also observed that with current mobilization techniques, it was unlikely that more than 60% of healthy donors would be able to collect >7 × 10 CD34 cells/kg recipient weight for adult recipients. © 2021 American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.06.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8478895PMC
October 2021

Toxicities of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation in older patients with lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2021 06;5(12):2608-2618

Adult Bone Marrow Transplantation Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

High-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation is an effective consolidation therapy in lymphoma; however, its use in elderly patients has been limited because of concerns for greater toxicity in this group. We investigated the toxicities of carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan (BEAM) and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) in 346 patients in 2 age groups: 279 patients aged 60 to 69 years and 67 patients aged ≥70 years. The majority developed severe toxicities; the most common were febrile neutropenia, gastrointestinal, infections, and cardiovascular. Older patients were at higher risk for grade ≥3 cardiovascular toxicities (hazard ratio [HR], 3.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.25-5.00; P < .001) and skin toxicities (HR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.08-5.54, P = .032). In the older group, nonrelapse mortality at 100 days and at 2 years was 2.99% (95% CI, 0.55-9.32) and 6.2% (95% CI, 1.97-13.95), respectively, vs 1.79% (95% CI, 0.68-3.92) and 2.91% (95% CI, 1.37-5.42), respectively, in the younger group. When adjusting for the number of grade ≥3 toxicities within the first 100 days, older patients had a 1.71-fold (95% CI, 1.08-2.71) increased risk for progression or death relative to younger patients. Although BEAM followed by AHCT is effective, it is associated with significant organ toxicities, especially in patients aged ≥70 years. Interventions to mitigate toxicities while maintaining efficacy are much needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020004167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8270665PMC
June 2021

Biologic Assignment Trial of Reduced-Intensity Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Based on Donor Availability in Patients 50-75 Years of Age With Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndrome.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Oct 9;39(30):3328-3339. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA.

Purpose: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the only potentially curative therapy for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), although it is infrequently offered to older patients. The relative benefits of HCT over non-HCT therapy in older patients with higher-risk MDS have not been defined.

Methods: We conducted a multicenter biologic assignment trial comparing reduced-intensity HCT to hypomethylating therapy or best supportive care in subjects 50-75 years of age with intermediate-2 or high-risk de novo MDS. The primary outcome was overall survival probability at 3 years. Between January 2014 and November 2018, we enrolled 384 subjects at 34 centers. Subjects were assigned to the Donor or No-Donor arms according to the availability of a matched donor within 90 days of study registration.

Results: The median follow-up time for surviving subjects was 34.2 months (range: 2.3-38 months) in the Donor arm and 26.9 months (range: 2.4-37.2 months) in the No-Donor arm. In an intention-to-treat analysis, the adjusted overall survival rate at 3 years in the Donor arm was 47.9% (95% CI, 41.3 to 54.1) compared with 26.6% (95% CI, 18.4 to 35.6) in the No-Donor arm ( = .0001) with an absolute difference of 21.3% (95% CI, 10.2 to 31.8). Leukemia-free survival at 3 years was greater in the Donor arm (35.8%; 95% CI, 29.8 to 41.8) compared with the No-Donor arm (20.6%; 95% CI, 13.3 to 29.1; = .003). The survival benefit was seen across all subgroups examined.

Conclusion: We observed a significant survival advantage in older subjects with higher-risk MDS who have a matched donor identified and underwent reduced-intensity HCT, when compared with those without a donor. HCT should be included as an integral part of MDS management plans in fit older adults with higher-risk MDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03380DOI Listing
October 2021

Outcomes of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Patients With Myelofibrosis-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 10 28;27(10):873.e1-873.e13. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Medical Oncology, Adult Leukemia Program, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) remains the only potentially curative therapeutic modality for patients with primary or secondary myelofibrosis (MF). However, many patients are considered ineligible for allo-HCT, and transplant-related mortality can be substantial. Data on the efficacy and safety of allo-HCT are mixed and largely derived from retrospective studies. We aimed to synthesize the available evidence on the safety and efficacy of allo-HCT in MF and to identify patient, disease, and transplant characteristics with prognostic impact on outcomes of patients with MF undergoing allo-HCT. For this systematic review and meta-analysis, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science Core Collection were searched from inception to October 11, 2020, for studies on allo-HCT in MF. Random-effects models were used to pool response rates for the co-primary outcomes of 1-year, 2-year, and 5-year overall survival (OS). Rates of non-relapse mortality and acute and chronic graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) were studied as secondary endpoints. Subgroup analyses on the effect of conditioning regimen intensity, baseline dynamic international prognostic scoring system (DIPSS) score, and patient age were performed. The study protocol has been registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020188706). Forty-three studies with 8739 patients were identified and included in this meta-analysis. Rates of 1-year, 2-year, and 5-year OS were 66.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 63.5%-69.8%), 64.4% (95% CI, 57.6%-70.6%), and 55.0% (95% CI, 51.8%-58.3%), respectively. Rates of 1-year, 2-year, and 5-year nonrelapse mortality were 25.9% (95% CI, 23.3%-28.7%), 29.7% (95% CI, 24.5%-35.4%), and 30.5% (95% CI, 25.9%-35.5%), respectively. The combined rate of graft failure was 10.6% (95% CI, 8.9%-12.5%) with primary and secondary graft failure occurring in 7.3% (95% CI, 5.7%-9.4%) and 5.9% (95% CI, 4.3%-8.0%) of patients, respectively. Rates of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease were 44.0% (95% CI, 39.6%-48.4%; grade III/IV: 15.2%) and 46.5% (95% CI, 42.2%-50.8%; extensive or moderate/severe: 26.1%), respectively. Subgroup analyses did not show any significant difference between conditioning regimen intensity (myeloablative versus reduced-intensity), median patient age, and proportion of DIPSS-intermediate-2/high patients. The quality of the evidence is limited by the absence of randomized clinical trials in the field and the heterogeneity of patient and transplant characteristics across included studies. Given the poor prognosis of patients not receiving transplants and in the absence of curative nontransplantation therapies, our results support consideration of allo-HCT for eligible patients with MF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.05.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8478722PMC
October 2021

Relapse after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation of Acute Myelogenous Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome and the Importance of Second Cellular Therapy.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 09 24;27(9):771.e1-771.e10. Epub 2021 May 24.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York; Cellular Therapeutics Center, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) generally have poor overall survival (OS). Interventions that result in improved OS after relapse are not well established. The efficacy of second cellular therapy and specific indications are matters of debate. This study was conducted to evaluate factors associated with postrelapse survival and the efficacy of a second course of cellular therapy. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive patients with AML and MDS who underwent a first allo-HCT between 2010 and 2017 at our center but subsequently relapsed. One hundred and four patients with AML and 44 patients with MDS were included (total n = 148). Bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood stem cell grafts were either unmodified or T cell-depleted (TCD) by CD34 selection ex vivo. Forty-five patients (30.4%) received a second cellular therapy after relapse, either a second allo-HCT (n = 28; 18.9%) or donor leukocyte infusion (DLI) (n = 17; 11.5%). The median age at transplantation was 60 years (range, 24 to 78 years). The median time to relapse (TTR) after transplantation was 6.5 months (range, 1 to 60.9 months), and the ensuing median OS was 6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.8 to 8.9 months). In univariable analysis, longer TTR, relapse type (measurable residual disease versus morphologic), relapse occurring in the most recent years, and receipt of cellular therapy after relapse were associated with better outcomes, whereas adverse cytogenetics and/or abnormality of TP53, as well as NPM1 mutation in patients with AML, were associated with adverse outcomes. Relapse type, year of relapse, and a variable resulting from the combination of TTR and receipt of second cellular therapy remained significantly associated with postrelapse survival in multivariable analysis. In a separate multivariable model, adjusted only for TTR, relapse type, and receipt of second cellular therapy, an adverse effect of NPM1 mutation on survival was confirmed. We could not show an effect of post-transplantation maintenance on survival after relapse. In both univariable and multivariable analysis, we found a positive association for second cellular therapy with survival after relapse in patients who relapsed early (<6 months) after allo-HCT and a similar trend in patients who relapsed late (>12 months) after transplantation. Two-year OS after a second cellular therapy was 44.9% (95% CI, 28.5% to 61.4%), and it was significantly better in patients with <5% BM blasts before cell infusion. We could not show different effects on survival after second cellular therapy for DLI versus second allo-HCT in univariable analysis. Survival after relapse is improving over time, but this remains a challenging event, especially for patients who relapse early after transplantation. We found that a second cellular therapy could offer a benefit even in these cases. Nonetheless, more research is needed to clarify the most appropriate treatment choices after relapse. These are probably driven by underlying genetic and immunologic conditions, which should be the focus of future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.05.011DOI Listing
September 2021

Cytomegalovirus Viral Load Kinetics Predict Cytomegalovirus End-Organ Disease and Mortality After Hematopoietic Cell Transplant.

J Infect Dis 2021 Aug;224(4):620-631

Infectious Disease Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.

Background: We investigatedthe association between time-averaged area under the curve (AAUC) of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viral load (VL) by day 100 and overall survival (OS) at 1-year after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT).

Methods: In a retrospective cohort study, including patients receiving HCT between June 2010 and December 2017 from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, AAUC was calculated for patients with detected VL. Patients were categorized into non-controllers (Q4) and controllers (Q1-Q3) using the highest AAUC quartile as cutoff. Cox models were used to estimate the association between AAUC and OS. Patients with non-detected CMV VL were categorized into elite-controllers (recipient+ [R+] or R-/donor+ [D+]) and R-/D-.

Results: The study (N = 952) included 282 controllers, 93 non-controllers, 275 elite-controllers, and 302 R-/D-. OS was 80.1% and 58.1% for controllers and non-controllers, respectively. In multivariable models, non-controllers had worse OS versus controllers (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 2.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71-4.12). In landmark analyses, controllers had similar OS as elite-controllers (HR = 1.26; 95% CI, .83-1.91) or R-/D- (HR = 0.98; 95% CI, .64-1.5).

Conclusions: Non-controllers had worse OS 1-year post-HCT. Controllers had similar OS as elite-controllers or R-/D-. Future studies are needed to validate our AAUC cutoff across different cohorts and CMV management strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiab212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8366442PMC
August 2021

Prospective KIR genotype evaluation of hematopoietic cell donors is feasible with potential to benefit patients with AML.

Blood Adv 2021 04;5(7):2003-2011

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Donor KIR and recipient HLA combinations that minimize inhibition and favor activation of the NK repertoire are associated with improved outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with myeloid neoplasia. We prospectively evaluated a weighted donor ranking algorithm designed to prioritize HLA-compatible unrelated donors (URDs) with weak inhibitory KIR3DL1/HLA-Bw4 interaction, followed by donors with nontolerized activating KIR2DS1, and finally those with KIR centromeric B haplotype. During donor evaluation, we performed KIR genotyping and ranked 2079 URDs for 527 subjects with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Among all patients, 394 (75%) had at least 1 KIR-advantageous donor, and 263 (50%) underwent HCT. In patients with AML, KIR3DL1 weak inhibition provided protection from relapse. Compared with KIR3DL1-Weak Inhibiting donors, KIR3DL1-Noninteracting donors were associated with increased risk of relapse (HR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.33-6.64; P = .008) and inferior event-free survival (EFS; HR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.16-3.95; P = .015). KIR3DL1-Strong Inhibiting donors were associated with HR, 1.65 (95% CI, 0.66-4.08; P = .25) for AML relapse and HR, 1.6 (95% CI, 0.81-3.17; P = .1) for EFS when compared with the use of KIR3DL1-weak inhibiting donors. Donor KIR2DS1/HLA-C1 status and centromeric KIR haplotype-B content were not associated with decreased risk of AML relapse. There was no benefit to KIR-based donor selection in patients with MDS. This study demonstrates that donor KIR typing is feasible, and prioritization of donors with certain KIR3DL1 genotypes may confer a protection from relapse after HCT in patients with AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002701DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8045509PMC
April 2021

Cellular Therapy During COVID-19: Lessons Learned and Preparing for Subsequent Waves.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 05 14;27(5):438.e1-438.e6. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

An evidence-based triage plan for cellular therapy distribution is critical in the face of emerging constraints on healthcare resources. We evaluated the impact of treatment delays related to COVID-19 on patients scheduled to undergo hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) or chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy at our center. Data were collected in real time between March 19 and May 11, 2020, for patients who were delayed to cellular therapy. We evaluated the proportion of delayed patients who ultimately received cellular therapy, reasons for not proceeding to cellular therapy, and changes in disease and health status during delay. A total of 85 patients were delayed, including 42 patients planned for autologous HCT, 36 patients planned for allogeneic HCT, and 7 patients planned for CAR-T therapy. Fifty-six of these patients (66%) since received planned therapy. Five patients died during the delay. The most common reason for not proceeding to autologous HCT was good disease control in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias (75%). The most common reason for not proceeding to allogeneic HCT was progression of disease (42%). All patients with acute leukemia who progressed had measurable residual disease (MRD) at the time of delay, whereas no patient without MRD at the time of delay progressed. Six patients (86%) ultimately received CAR-T therapy, including 3 patients who progressed during the delay. For patients with high-risk disease such as acute leukemia, and particularly those with MRD at the time of planned HCT, treatment delay can result in devastating outcomes and should be avoided if at all possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.02.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7952254PMC
May 2021

Development and validation of a disease risk stratification system for patients with haematological malignancies: a retrospective cohort study of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry.

Lancet Haematol 2021 Mar;8(3):e205-e215

Hematology Division, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Background: Diagnosis and remission status at the time of allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) are the principal determinants of overall survival following transplantation. We sought to develop a contemporary disease-risk stratification system (DRSS) that accounts for heterogeneous transplantation indications.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study we included 55 histology and remission status combinations across haematological malignancies, including acute leukaemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic disorders. A total of 47 265 adult patients (aged ≥18 years) who received an allogeneic HSCT between Jan 1, 2012, and Dec 31, 2016, and were reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry were included. We divided EBMT patients into derivation (n=25 534), tuning (n=18 365), and geographical validation (n=3366) cohorts. Disease combinations were ranked in a multivariable Cox regression for overall survival in the derivation cohort, cutoff for risk groups were evaluated for the tuning cohort, and the selected system was tested on the geographical validation cohort. An independent single-centre US cohort of 660 patients transplanted between Jan 1, 2010, and Dec 31, 2015 was used to externally validate the results.

Findings: The DRSS model stratified patients in the derivation cohort (median follow-up was 2·1 years [IQR 1·0-3·2]) into five risk groups with increasing mortality risk: low risk (reference group), intermediate-1 (hazard ratio for overall survival 1·26 [95% CI 1·17-1·36], p<0·0001), intermediate-2 (1·53 [1·42-1·66], p<0·0001), high (2·03 [1·86-2·22], p<0·0001), and very high (2·87 [2·63-3·13], p<0·0001). DRSS levels were also associated with a stepwise increase in risk across the tuning and geographical validation cohort. In the external validation cohort (median follow-up was 5·7 years [IQR 4·5-7·1]), the DRSS scheme separated patients into 4 risk groups associated with increasing risk of mortality: intermediate-2 risk (hazard ratio [HR] 1·34 [95% CI 1·04-1·74], p=0·025), high risk (HR 2·03 [95% CI 1·39-2·95], p=0·00023) and very-high risk (HR 2·26 [95% CI 1·62-3·15], p<0·0001) patients compared with the low risk and intermediate-1 risk group (reference group). Across all cohorts, between 64% and 65% of patients were categorised as having intermediate-risk disease by a previous prognostic system (ie, the disease-risk index [DRI]). The DRSS reclassified these intermediate-risk DRI patients, with 855 (6%) low risk, 7111 (51%) intermediate-1 risk, 5700 (41%) intermediate-2 risk, and 375 (3%) high risk or very high risk of 14 041 patients in a subanalysis combining the tuning and internal geographic validation cohorts. The DRI projected 2-year overall survival was 62·1% (95% CI 61·2-62·9) for these 14 041 patients, while the DRSS reclassified them into finer prognostic groups with overall survival ranging from 45·7% (37·4-54·0; very high risk patients) to 73·1% (70·1-76·2; low risk patients).

Interpretation: The DRSS is a novel risk stratification tool including disease features related to histology, genetic profile, and treatment response. The model should serve as a benchmark for future studies. This system facilitates the interpretation and analysis of studies with heterogeneous cohorts, promoting trial-design with more inclusive populations.

Funding: The Varda and Boaz Dotan Research Center for Hemato-Oncology Research, Tel Aviv University.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30394-XDOI Listing
March 2021

High progression-free survival after intermediate intensity double unit cord blood transplantation in adults.

Blood Adv 2020 12;4(23):6064-6076

Adult Bone Marrow Transplantation Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Cord blood transplantation (CBT) after high intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning has limitations. We investigated cyclosporine-A/mycophenolate mofetil-based intermediate intensity (cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg, fludarabine 150 mg/m2, thiotepa 10 mg/kg, total body irradiation 400 cGy) unmanipulated double-unit CBT (dCBT) with prioritization of unit quality and CD34+ cell dose in graft selection. Ninety adults (median age, 47 years [range, 21-63]; median hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index, 2 [range, 0-8]; 61 [68%] acute leukemia) received double-unit grafts (median CD34+ cell dose, 1.3 × 105/kg per unit [range, 0.2-8.3]; median donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA) match, 5/8 [range 3-7/8]). The cumulative incidences of sustained CB engraftment, day 180 grade III-IV acute, and 3-year chronic graft-versus-host disease were 99%, 24%, and 7%, respectively. Three-year transplant-related mortality (TRM) and relapse incidences were 15% and 9%, respectively. Three-year overall survival (OS) is 82%, and progression-free survival (PFS) is 76%. Younger age and higher engrafting unit CD34+ cell dose both improved TRM and OS, although neither impacted PFS. Engrafting unit-recipient HLA match was not associated with any outcome with a 3-year PFS of 79% in 39 patients engrafting with 3-4/8 HLA-matched units. In 52 remission acute leukemia patients, there was no association between minimal residual disease (MRD) and 3-year PFS: MRD negative of 88% vs MRD positive of 77% (P = .375). Intermediate intensity dCBT is associated with high PFS. Use of highly HLA mismatched and unmanipulated grafts permits wide application of this therapy, and the low relapse rates support robust graft-versus-leukemia effects even in patients with MRD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003371DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724901PMC
December 2020

Letermovir for Prevention of Cytomegalovirus Reactivation in Haploidentical and Mismatched Adult Donor Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide for Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 01 11;27(1):85.e1-85.e6. Epub 2020 Oct 11.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is serious viral infection in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) recipients. November 2017, the novel CMV DNA terminase complex inhibitor letermovir was approved for prophylaxis of CMV infection in CMV-seropositive allo-HCT recipients. Here we sought to determine the effectiveness of letermovir in preventing CMV infection in CMV-seropositive patients undergoing haploidentical or mismatched adult unrelated donor allo-HCT using post-transplantation cyclophosphamide-based graft-versus host-disease prophylaxis. Sixty-four patients underwent transplantation between 2014 and 2019, of whom 32 received letermovir and 32 did not receive letermovir. The day 180 cumulative incidence of CMV infection requiring therapy was 45.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 32.7% to 57.1%) in the entire cohort, 68.8% (95% CI, 48.9% to 82.2%) in the patients who did not receive letermovir, and 21.9% (95% CI, 9.5% to 37.6%; P < .001) in patients who received letermovir. Adjusting for regimen intensity, disease histology, and age, the hazard ratio for CMV infection was .19 (95% CI, .08 to .47; P < .001) in patients who received primary prophylaxis with letermovir. The 1-year cumulative incidence of treatment- related mortality was similar between patients with and without letermovir treatment (16.9% versus 18.9%), as was overall survival (64.0% versus 49.0%). Persistent CMV infection requiring >28 days of therapy was more common in patients who did not receive letermovir (31.2% versus 6.2%; P = .02). In summary, letermovir was effective in preventing CMV infection in this high-risk population of HLA-mismatched allo-HCT recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.10.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8441845PMC
January 2021

Favorable outcomes of COVID-19 in recipients of hematopoietic cell transplantation.

J Clin Invest 2020 12;130(12):6656-6667

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.

BACKGROUNDUnderstanding outcomes and immunologic characteristics of cellular therapy recipients with SARS-CoV-2 is critical to performing these potentially life-saving therapies in the COVID-19 era. In this study of recipients of allogeneic (Allo) and autologous (Auto) hematopoietic cell transplant and CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR T) therapy at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, we aimed to identify clinical variables associated with COVID-19 severity and assess lymphocyte populations.METHODSWe retrospectively investigated patients diagnosed between March 15, 2020, and May 7, 2020. In a subset of patients, lymphocyte immunophenotyping, quantitative real-time PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs, and SARS-CoV-2 antibody status were available.RESULTSWe identified 77 patients with SARS-CoV-2 who were recipients of cellular therapy (Allo, 35; Auto, 37; CAR T, 5; median time from cellular therapy, 782 days; IQR, 354-1611 days). Overall survival at 30 days was 78%. Clinical variables significantly associated with the composite endpoint of nonrebreather or higher oxygen requirement and death (n events = 25 of 77) included number of comorbidities (HR 5.41, P = 0.004), infiltrates (HR 3.08, P = 0.032), and neutropenia (HR 1.15, P = 0.04). Worsening graft-versus-host disease was not identified among Allo recipients. Immune profiling revealed reductions and rapid recovery in lymphocyte populations across lymphocyte subsets. Antibody responses were seen in a subset of patients.CONCLUSIONIn this series of Allo, Auto, and CAR T recipients, we report overall favorable clinical outcomes for patients with COVID-19 without active malignancy and provide preliminary insights into the lymphocyte populations that are key for the antiviral response and immune reconstitution.FUNDINGNIH grant P01 CA23766 and NIH/National Cancer Institute grant P30 CA008748.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI141777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685738PMC
December 2020

Germ cell tumors and associated hematologic malignancies evolve from a common shared precursor.

J Clin Invest 2020 12;130(12):6668-6676

Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.

Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are the most common cancer in men between the ages of 15 and 40. Although most patients are cured, those with disease arising in the mediastinum have distinctly poor outcomes. One in every 17 patients with primary mediastinal nonseminomatous GCTs develop an incurable hematologic malignancy and prior data intriguingly suggest a clonal relationship exists between hematologic malignancies and GCTs in these cases. To date, however, the precise clonal relationship between GCTs and the diverse additional somatic malignancies arising in such individuals have not been determined. Here, we traced the clonal evolution and characterized the genetic features of each neoplasm from a cohort of 15 patients with GCTs and associated hematologic malignancies. We discovered that GCTs and hematologic malignancies developing in such individuals evolved from a common shared precursor, nearly all of which harbored allelically imbalanced p53 and/or RAS pathway mutations. Hematologic malignancies arising in this setting genetically resembled mediastinal GCTs rather than de novo myeloid neoplasms. Our findings argue that this scenario represents a unique clinical syndrome, distinct from de novo GCTs or hematologic malignancies, initiated by an ancestral precursor that gives rise to the parallel evolution of GCTs and blood cancers in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI139682DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685753PMC
December 2020

The clinical implications of clonal hematopoiesis in hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Blood Rev 2021 03 24;46:100744. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Medicine, Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, USA; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, USA. Electronic address:

Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) describes somatic mutations in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells resulting in clonal expansion in individuals with no overt hematologic disease. Since CH increases in an age-related manner, understanding its role in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has become increasingly relevant to an aging transplant population. Multiple factors distinguish post-transplant hematopoiesis from unperturbed, steady-state hematopoiesis, including the influence of immunosuppressants, cytotoxic reagents, and marked proliferative stress, all of which may enhance or diminish the opportunity for clonal expansion. We reviewed the available clinical evidence on the consequences of CH at time of transplant in patients undergoing autologous HCT, and the impact of donor and recipient CH on allogeneic HCT outcomes. In the absence of evidence-based guidelines, we share our suggestions for managing donors and recipients found to have CH. Large-scale studies are needed to guide an evidence-based, uniform approach for the management of CH in the setting of HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.blre.2020.100744DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8278242PMC
March 2021

Engraftment kinetics after transplantation of double unit cord blood grafts combined with haplo-identical CD34+ cells without antithymocyte globulin.

Leukemia 2021 03 18;35(3):850-862. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplantation Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Double unit cord blood (dCB) transplantation (dCBT) is associated with high engraftment rates but delayed myeloid recovery. We investigated adding haplo-identical CD34+ cells to dCB grafts to facilitate early haplo-identical donor-derived neutrophil recovery (optimal bridging) prior to CB engraftment. Seventy-eight adults underwent myeloablation with cyclosporine-A/mycophenolate mofetil immunoprophylaxis (no antithymocyte globulin, ATG). CB units (median CD34+ dose 1.1 × 10/kg/unit) had a median 5/8 unit-recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-match. Haplo-identical grafts had a median CD34+ dose of 5.2 × 10/kg. Of 77 evaluable patients, 75 had sustained CB engraftment that was mediated by a dominant unit and heralded by dominant unit-derived T cells. Optimal haplo-identical donor-derived myeloid bridging was observed in 34/77 (44%) patients (median recovery 12 days). Other engrafting patients had transient bridging with second nadir preceding CB engraftment (20/77 (26%), median first recovery 12 and second 26.5 days) or no bridge (21/77 (27%), median recovery 25 days). The 2 (3%) remaining patients had graft failure. Higher haplo-CD34+ dose and better dominant unit-haplo-CD34+ HLA-match significantly improved the likelihood of optimal bridging. Optimally bridged patients were discharged earlier (median 28 versus 36 days). ATG-free haplo-dCBT can speed neutrophil recovery but successful bridging is not guaranteed due to rapid haplo-identical graft rejection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-0922-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7746597PMC
March 2021

Survival following allogeneic transplant in patients with myelofibrosis.

Blood Adv 2020 05;4(9):1965-1973

Department of Hematologic Oncology and Blood Disorders, Levine Cancer Institute, Atrium Health, Carolinas HealthCare System, Charlotte, NC.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the only curative therapy for myelofibrosis (MF). In this large multicenter retrospective study, overall survival (OS) in MF patients treated with allogeneic HCT (551 patients) and without HCT (non-HCT) (1377 patients) was analyzed with Cox proportional hazards model. Survival analysis stratified by the Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System (DIPSS) revealed that the first year of treatment arm assignment, due to upfront risk of transplant-related mortality (TRM), HCT was associated with inferior OS compared with non-HCT (non-HCT vs HCT: DIPSS intermediate 1 [Int-1]: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.26, P < .0001; DIPSS-Int-2 and higher: HR, 0.39, P < .0001). Similarly, in the DIPSS low-risk MF group, due to upfront TRM risk, OS was superior with non-HCT therapies compared with HCT in the first-year post treatment arm assignment (HR, 0.16, P = .006). However, after 1 year, OS was not significantly different (HR, 1.38, P = .451). Beyond 1 year of treatment arm assignment, an OS advantage with HCT therapy in Int-1 and higher DIPSS score patients was observed (non-HCT vs HCT: DIPSS-Int-1: HR, 2.64, P < .0001; DIPSS-Int-2 and higher: HR, 2.55, P < .0001). In conclusion, long-term OS advantage with HCT was observed for patients with Int-1 or higher risk MF, but at the cost of early TRM. The magnitude of OS benefit with HCT increased as DIPSS risk score increased and became apparent with longer follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019001084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218417PMC
May 2020

Adenovirus Viral Kinetics and Mortality in Ex Vivo T Cell-Depleted Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients With Adenovirus Infection From a Single Center.

J Infect Dis 2020 09;222(7):1180-1187

Infectious Diseases Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.

Background: We report on predictors of adenovirus (ADV) viremia and correlation of ADV viral kinetics with mortality in ex vivo T-cell depleted (TCD) hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT).

Methods: T cell-depleted HCT recipients from January 1, 2012 through September 30, 2018 were prospectively monitored for ADV in the plasma through Day (D) +100 posttransplant or for 16 weeks after the onset of ADV viremia. Adenovirus viremia was defined as ≥2 consecutive viral loads (VLs) ≥1000 copies/mL through D +100. Time-averaged area under the curve (AAUC) or peak ADV VL through 16 weeks after onset of ADV viremia were explored as predictors of mortality in Cox models.

Results: Of 586 patients (adult 81.7%), 51 (8.7%) developed ADV viremia by D +100. Age <18 years, recipient cytomegalovirus seropositivity, absolute lymphocyte count <300 cells/µL at D +30, and acute graft-versus-host disease were predictors of ADV viremia in multivariate models. Fifteen (29%) patients with ADV viremia died by D +180; 8 of 15 (53%) died from ADV. Peak ADV VL (hazard ratio [HR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52-3.33) and increasing AAUC (HR, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.83-4.75) correlated with mortality at D +180.

Conclusions: In TCD HCT, peak ADV VL and ADV AAUC correlated with mortality at D +180. Our data support the potential utility of ADV viral kinetics as endpoints in clinical trials of ADV therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7459134PMC
September 2020

Characteristics and Impact of Post-Transplant Interdisciplinary Palliative Care Consultation in Older Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients.

J Palliat Med 2020 12 27;23(12):1653-1657. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Supportive Care Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.

The myriad of benefits of early palliative care (PC) integration in oncology are well established, and emerging evidence suggests that PC improves symptom burden, mood, and quality of life for hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. Specific impact of PC consultation on outcomes of older allogeneic HCT (allo-HCT) recipients, a historically high-risk population vulnerable to transplant-related complications and mortality, has not been explored. In this single institution, retrospective analysis of 527 first allo-HCT recipients aged ≥60 years, we characterized 75 patients who had received post-HCT PC consultation and its association with geriatric vulnerabilities identified by pre-HCT geriatric assessment. We also examined end-of-life care outcomes among patients who died within one-year of allo-hematopoietic cell transplantation. In multivariate analysis, higher disease risk, female gender, and, importantly, pre-HCT functional limitation (hazard ratio 2.35, 95% confidence interval, 1.35-4.09,  = 0.003) were associated with post-HCT PC utilization. Within one-year of hematopoietic cell transplantation, 127 patients died; among those, recipients of early PC consultation had significantly higher rates of hospice enrollment (25% vs. 9%,  = 0.019) and lower rates of hospital death (71% vs. 90%,  = 0.013), intensive care unit admission (44% vs. 75%,  = 0.001), and high-intensity medical care in last 30 days of life (46% vs. 77%,  = 0.001). Our results highlight important pre-HCT risk factors associated with increased PC needs posthematopoietic cell transplantation and benefits of PC involvement for older allo-HCT recipients at the end of life. Prospective studies should examine the optimal timing of PC consultation and its multidimensional benefits for older allo-HCT patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2019.0611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7698973PMC
December 2020

A Single-Center, Open-Label Trial of Isavuconazole Prophylaxis against Invasive Fungal Infection in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 06 20;26(6):1195-1202. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Infectious Disease Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Isavuconazole is a broad-spectrum triazole approved for treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFIs). In this open-label, single-arm study, we evaluated isavuconazole for antifungal prophylaxis after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Adult patients admitted for first HCT received micafungin 150 mg i.v. daily from admission through day +7 (D+7) post-transplantation (±2 days) followed by isavuconazole prophylaxis (i.v./p.o. 372 mg every 8 hours for 6 doses and then 372 mg daily) through maximum D+98 post-HCT. Patients were followed through D+182. The primary endpoint was prophylaxis failure, defined as discontinuation of prophylaxis for proven/probable IFI; systemic antifungal therapy for >14 days for suspected IFI; toxicity leading to discontinuation; or an adverse event. Between June 2017 and October 2018, 99 patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 95 were included in our analysis. The median patient age was 57 years (interquartile range [IQR], 50 to 66 years). Sixty-four (67%) patients received peripheral blood, 17(18%) received bone marrow, and 14 (15%) received a cord blood allograft for acute leukemia (55%), lymphoma (17%), myelodysplastic syndrome (16%), or another hematologic disease (14%). One-third (n = 31; 33%) of patients underwent CD34-selected HCT. Isavuconazole prophylaxis was given for a median of 90 days (IQR, 87 to 91 days). Ten patients (10.7%) met the primary endpoint. Candidemia occurred in 3 patients (3.1%), 1 of whom had grade III skin acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Toxicity leading to discontinuation occurred in 7 patients (7.4%). The most common toxicity was liver function abnormalities in 5 patients, including grade 1 transaminitis in 2 patients and grade 3 hyperbilirubinemia in 3 patients. Four patients (4.2%) had early discontinuation of isavuconazole for reasons not meeting the primary study endpoint. Six patients died during the study period, including 3 during prophylaxis and 3 during follow-up. No deaths were attributed to isavuconazole. The majority (85%) of allogeneic HCT recipients completed isavuconazole prophylaxis according to protocol. The rate of breakthrough candidemia was 3.1%, and there were no invasive mold infections. Our data support the utility of isavuconazole for antifungal prophylaxis after HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.02.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8210627PMC
June 2020

Ex Vivo T Cell-Depleted Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Adult Patients with Acute Myelogenous Leukemia in First and Second Remission: Long-Term Disease-Free Survival with a Significantly Reduced Risk of Graft-versus-Host Disease.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 02 13;26(2):323-332. Epub 2019 Oct 13.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Large series of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) after ex vivo T cell-depleted (TCD) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) have not been reported previously. We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of 266 patients (median age, 54 years) with AML who received CD34-selected TCD allo-HSCTs while in first (75%) or second (25%) complete remission (CR1/CR2) at a single institution. The conditioning regimens were all myeloablative, and no additional graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was given. The cumulative incidences of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute GVHD at 180 days were 14% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10% to 18%) and 3% (95% CI, 1% to 5%), respectively. The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD at 3 years was 3% (95% CI, 1% to 6%). The 3-year cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality was 21% (95% CI, 16% to 26%) and that of relapse was 21% (95% CI, 17% to 27%). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 1, 3, and 5 years were 75%, 61%, and 56% and 68%, 57%, and 53%, respectively. There were no significant differences in OS, DFS, and relapse rates for patients who underwent transplantation in CR1 and those who did so in CR2. However, patients with high-risk cytogenetics at diagnosis had significantly poorer outcomes. The OS and DFS rates compare favorably with those for unmodified allo-HSCT, but with considerably lower rates of GVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.10.003DOI Listing
February 2020

Impact of geriatric vulnerabilities on allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation outcomes in older patients with hematologic malignancies.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 01 30;55(1):157-164. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Adult BMT Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Older patients are at increased risk for complications and death following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Traditional transplant-specific prognostic indices such as hematopoietic cell transplant comorbidity index (HCT-CI) may not capture all underlying geriatric vulnerabilities, and in-depth evaluation by a geriatrician prior to transplant may not always be available. We hypothesize that routine pretransplant interdisciplinary clinical assessment may uncover prognostically important geriatric deficits. Using an institutional database of 457 adults aged 60 years and older who underwent first allo-HCT for hematological malignancies from 2010 to 2017, we examined the prognostic impact of pretransplant deficits in geriatric domains of function, mobility, mood, medication, nutrition, and relevant biochemical markers. We found that impairment in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was associated with reduced survival through increased nonrelapse mortality (NRM, HR = 1.82; 95% CI, 1.04-3.19). The combination of IADL impairment with either HCT-CI/age index or disease risk index readily stratified NRM and overall survival, respectively. In addition, we found that even mild renal dysfunction adversely impacted survival in older transplant patients. Our findings establish important geriatric vulnerabilities in older patients prior to allo-HCT and may provide an entry point for prospective, interventional trials to improve their outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0654-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6940509PMC
January 2020
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