Publications by authors named "Rong Guo"

521 Publications

High Frequency 0.36BiScO3-0.64PbTiO3 Ultrasonic Transducer for High Temperature Imaging Application.

IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 2021 Oct 27;PP. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

(1-x)BiScO3-xPbTiO3 (BS-PT) ceramics have excellent piezoelectricity and high Curie temperature at its morphotropic phase boundary (x=0.64), so it is a promising piezoelectric material for fabricating high temperature ultrasonic transducer (HTUT). Electric properties of 0.36BS-0.64PT ceramics were characterized at different temperature, and a HTUT with the center frequency of about 15 MHz was designed by PiezoCAD based on the measuring results. The prepared HTUT was tested in a silicone oil bath at different temperature systematically. The test results show that the HTUT can maintain a stable electrical resonance until 290 °C, and get a clear echo response until 250 °C with slight changes of the center frequency. Then a stepped metal block submerged in silicone oil was imaged by the HTUT until 250 °C. Velocity of silicone oil and axial resolution of the HTUT at different temperature were calculated. The results verify the capability of 0.36BS-0.64PT based HTUT for high temperature ultrasonic imaging applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TUFFC.2021.3123331DOI Listing
October 2021

MKRN3 regulates the epigenetic switch of mammalian puberty via ubiquitination of MBD3.

Natl Sci Rev 2020 Mar 14;7(3):671-685. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China; State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China.

Central precocious puberty (CPP) refers to a human syndrome of early puberty initiation with characteristic increase in hypothalamic production and release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Previously, loss-of-function mutations in human , encoding a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase, were found to contribute to about 30% of cases of familial CPP. MKRN3 was thereby suggested to serve as a 'brake' of mammalian puberty onset, but the underlying mechanisms remain as yet unknown. Here, we report that genetic ablation of did accelerate mouse puberty onset with increased production of hypothalamic GnRH1. MKRN3 interacts with and ubiquitinates MBD3, which epigenetically silences through disrupting the MBD3 binding to the promoter and recruitment of DNA demethylase TET2. Our findings have thus delineated a molecular mechanism through which the MKRN3-MBD3 axis controls the epigenetic switch in the onset of mammalian puberty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nsr/nwaa023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8288866PMC
March 2020

Study on the impact of comprehensive urbanization on urban civil building CO emissions in China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Oct 21. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Key Laboratory of Ocean Energy Utilization and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024, China.

With the rapid development of China, urbanization has become an important research topic of China's CO emissions. To fill the gap in considering the spatial correlation of the comprehensive urbanization that includes multi-dimensional factors on CO emissions from urban civil buildings (UBEC), this study constructs a comprehensive evaluation indicator of urbanization from four aspects including population, economy, society, and land urbanization by using the entropy method. The spatial spillover effect of UBEC and the impact of comprehensive urbanization on UBEC are also studied by using the spatial panel model in this paper. This study finds out that UBEC has obvious spatial spillover effects. During the early years of the study period, the eastern coastal areas had greater carbon emissions, while in recent years, they have gradually transitioned to the northwestern regions. Comprehensive urbanization has a significant promotion effect on it. And foreign direct investment and per capita energy consumption also have positive impact on UBEC. This study provides a reference for measuring the effects of urbanization on sector-specific CO emissions and may be useful for energy efficiency and emission abatement efforts in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16595-3DOI Listing
October 2021

Recurrent atrial fibrillation after initial cryoballoon ablation: New perspectives for intensive ablation in right superior pulmonary vein ostium for atrial fibrillation.

Cryobiology 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Tenth Clinical Medical School of Nanjing Medical University; Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, 301 Yanchang Road, Shanghai City, China. Electronic address:

A significant proportion of patients with recurrent atrial fibrillation (AF) require repeat radiofrequency (RF) ablation after cryoballoon (CB) ablation. However, little is known about the pulmonary vein (PV) potential reconnection to left atrium and localization of gaps in the initial lesion sets following cryoablation in patients with recurrent AF. The data of 29 consecutive patients with repeat RF ablation for recurrent AF were analyzed. During the second ablation procedures, PV foci of AF were explored in 116 PVs by the CARTO system. All patients had complete PV isolation from initial cryoablation procedure. The fluoroscopy duration, mean cryoablation time and mean cryoablation frequency were lowest for the right superior pulmonary vein (RSPV) (58.69 ± 9.18 s, 185.10 ± 49.25 s and 1.07 ± 0.26; p = 0.024, p = 0.042 and p = 0.032). A significantly higher incidence of conduction gaps per patient was found for the RSPVs compared to the other PVs (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). For RSPVs, it seemed that gaps were predominantly located at the anterior segment (22 gaps) and inferior segment (22 gaps). RSPV reconnection was independently related to a lower risk of major adverse events after the second ablation during follow up in the study patients (HR 0.275, 95%CI 0.078-0.967, p = 0.044). AF recurrence in patients after cryoablation is significantly associated with conduction gaps in the anterior and inferior segments of RSPVs. Various ablation strategies of close touch of CB on anterior and inferior segments of RSPV ostium, more freezing time and frequency for RSPV may help achieving durable PV isolation during follow up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cryobiol.2021.09.011DOI Listing
October 2021

[The Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of the Patients with POEMS Syndrome].

Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2021 Oct;29(5):1645-1648

Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, Henan Province, China E-mail:

Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with POEMS syndrome and explore its effective treatment strategies.

Methods: The clinical data of 75 patients with POEMS syndrome treated in The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from June 2012 to June 2018 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. The clinical characteristics, treatment regimes and outcomes of the patients were summarized.

Results: The median age of 75 diagnosed patients was 50 (30-81) years old and 100% (75/75) of the patients were accompanied with peripheral neuropathy, 77.3% (58/75) with organ enlargement, 82.7% (62/75) with endocrine abnormality, 93.3% (70/75) with monoclonal plasma cell diseases and 64.0% (48/75) with skin changes. Among the 75 patients, 5 cases gave up treatment, while the others showed varying degrees of improvement after treatment. The hematological complete remission (CR) rate of the 70 patients was 28.6% and the rate of neurological remission (R) was 85.7%. BD and RD regimens showed better efficacy in CR and R than old schemes, such as VAD and COP (P<0.05). Two patients underwent sequential autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) after BD chemotherapy and achieved ideal therapeutic effects, including the significant improvement of peripheral neurological symptoms and the M protein turned negative. The median follow-up time of the 70 patients was 42 (4-103) months, while the 2-year overall survival rate (OS) was 86.7%, and the 5-year OS was 81.0%.

Conclusion: The clinical manifestations of POEMS syndrome are complex and diverse, the clinicians therefore should be vigilant to reduce the misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis. Bortezomib or Lenalidomide can be recommended as the first-line medicines and autologous HSCT should be considered for appropriate patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19746/j.cnki.issn.1009-2137.2021.05.043DOI Listing
October 2021

[The Expression and Significance of Serum Protein ROCK2 in Patients with Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease].

Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2021 Oct;29(5):1606-1609

Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, Henan Province, China,E-mail:

Objective: To investigate the expression and clinical significance of serum protein ROCK2 in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT).

Methods: The patients were divided into cGVHD group and control group (without cGVHD). The expression levels of serum protein ROCK2 were detected by ELISA in patients with or without cGVHD after allo-HSCT.

Results: The expression level of ROCK2 in serum of cGVHD patients was significantly higher than those in control group, moreover, the expression level of ROCK2 in severe cGVHD group was significant higher than that in moderate and mild cGVHD group (P<0.001). The expression level of ROCK2 was significantly decreased in the serum of cGVHD patients after treatment(P<0.01); the expression level of ROCK2 was significantly higher in the serum of cGVHD patients with lung as the target organ(P<0.01). The median survival time of patients with severe cGVHD were significantly shorter than that of patients with mild and moderate cGVHD(P<0.05).

Conclusion: ROCK2 shows certain reference value in the evaluation of severity and prognosis of cGVHD, and may be a new target for the treatment of cGVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19746/j.cnki.issn.1009-2137.2021.05.037DOI Listing
October 2021

Mental health care integration and primary care patient experience in the Veterans Health Administration.

Healthc (Amst) 2021 Sep 30;9(4):100587. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Center for the Study of Healthcare Innovation, Implementation, & Policy, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Mental health specialists and care managers facilitate comprehensive care provision within medical homes. Despite implementation challenges, mental health integration is thought to improve patient-centered primary care.

Objectives: To examine the relationship between primary care patient experience and mental health integration.

Research Design: Cross-sectional surveys from 168 primary care clinicians (PCPs) (n = 226) matched with assigned patients' surveys (n = 1734) in one Veterans Health Administration (VA) region, fiscal years 2012-2013. Multilevel regression models examined patient experience and mental health integration, adjusting for patient and PCP characteristics.

Measures: Patient experience outcomes were (1) experience with PCP and (2) receipt of comprehensive care, such as talked about "stress". Independent variables represented mental health integration- (1) PCP-rated communication with mental health and (2) proportion of clinic patients who saw integrated specialists.

Results: 50% and 43% of patients rated their PCPs 10/10 and reported receiving comprehensive care, respectively. Neither patient experience or receipt of comprehensive care was significantly associated with PCP's ratings of communication with mental health, nor with proportion of clinic patients who saw integrated specialists. Among a subsample of patients who rated their mental health as poor/fair, however, we detected an association between proportion of clinic patients who saw integrated specialists and patient experience (odds ratio = 1.05, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.09, p = .01).

Conclusions: No association was observed between mental health integration and primary care patients' reported care experiences, but a significant association existed among patients who reported poor/fair mental health. More research is needed to understand patient experiences with regard to care model implementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hjdsi.2021.100587DOI Listing
September 2021

Polydopamine-based nanoplatform for photothermal ablation with long-term immune activation against melanoma and its recurrence.

Acta Biomater 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Key Laboratory of Drug-Targeting and Drug Delivery System of the Education Ministry and Sichuan Province, Sichuan Engineering Laboratory for Plant-Sourced Drug and Sichuan Research Center for Drug Precision Industrial Technology, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

The high risk of tumor recurrence presents a big challenge in melanoma therapy. Photothermal therapy (PTT) has merged as a powerful weapon against tumor in recent years, which produces tumor-associated antigens (TAA) and recruits dendritic cells (DCs) to tumor sites through immunogenic cell death (ICD) for immune activation. However, due to the lack of activation signals of DCs, the immune effect induced by PTT is not sufficient to inhibit the recurrence and proliferation of tumor. To efficiently cooperate PTT and immunotherapy to circumvent tumor recurrence, here we constructed a polydopamine (PDA) based core-shell nanoplatform loading CpG ODNs to elicit robust photothermal ablation and antitumor immune responses. Cationized polydopamine coated with hyaluronic acid (HA) shell was proven an efficient photothermal agent that increased the surface temperature of tumor by 16 °C and induced ICD. CpG ODNs effectively induced maturation of DCs by elevating the expression of co-stimulating markers. PTT combined with CpG ODNs achieved a remarkable synergistic treatment effect in the maturation of DCs and activation of T cells in melanoma-bearing mice model compared with PTT or CpG ODNs alone. Furthermore, in a tumor recurrence model, photothermal-immune combination therapy increased the infiltration of CTLs in distant tumor compared with PTT or CpG ODNs alone. The combination therapy overcame insufficient immunity at distant tumor caused by PTT alone and relieved immunosuppression microenvironment of the tumor. Hence, the PDA based core-shell nanoplatform presents a potent photo-immunotherapy against proliferation and recurrence of melanoma. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: In order to solve the insufficient immunity induced by photothermal therapy (PTT), CpG ODNs were utilized to enhance the weak immune response mediated by PTT through inducing DCs maturation. Hence, we designed a polydopamine (PDA) based core-shell nanoplatform loading CpG ODNs followed by hyaluronic acid named PPP/CpG/HA to elicit robust photothermal ablation and antitumor immune responses. CpG ODNs were delivered to the tumor site through the targeting effect of the HA shell. The core-shell nanoplatform achieved a remarkable synergistic treatment effect in the maturation of DCs and activation of T cells, thereby overcoming insufficient immunity at distant tumor caused by PTT alone. The core-shell nanoplatform presents a potent photo-immunotherapy against proliferation and recurrence of melanoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2021.09.014DOI Listing
September 2021

Co-delivery of autophagy inhibitor and gemcitabine using a pH-activatable core-shell nanobomb inhibits pancreatic cancer progression and metastasis.

Theranostics 2021 4;11(18):8692-8705. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Key Laboratory of Drug-Targeting and Drug Delivery System of the Education Ministry and Sichuan Province, Sichuan Engineering Laboratory for Plant-Sourced Drug and Sichuan Research Center for Drug Precision Industrial Technology, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, People's Republic of China.

Metastasis is one of the main reasons for the high mortality associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and autophagy regulates the metastatic migration of tumor cells, their invasion of tissues, and their formation of focal adhesions. Inhibiting autophagy may suppress tumor growth and metastasis, but the abundant extracellular matrix hinders the deep penetration of therapeutic agents. To enhance the penetration of drugs that can inhibit metastasis of pancreatic cancer, a pH-responsive drug delivery system was formulated. Gemcitabine (GEM), a first-line chemotherapeutic drug against PDAC, was loaded in 6PA-modified DGL (PDGL) nanoparticles to afford PDGL-GEM. Then PDGL-GEM was co-precipitated with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine phosphate (CQ) and calcium phosphate to formulate [email protected]/CQ. The size and morphology of the resulting "nanobomb" [email protected]/CQ were characterized, and their uptake into cells, cytotoxicity and ability to inhibit autophagy were analyzed at pH 6.5 and 7.4. The anti-tumor and anti-metastasis effects of the nanobomb were explored on mice carrying Pan 02 pancreatic tumor xenografts or orthotopic tumors. The pH-induced dissolution of calcium phosphate facilitated the release of CQ from the nanobomb and deep penetration of PDGL-GEM. The internalization of PDGL-GEM and subsequent intracellular release of GEM inhibited tumor growth, while CQ downregulated autophagy in tumor cells and fibroblasts. In fact, inhibition of xenograft and orthotopic tumor growth was greater with the complete [email protected]/CQ than with subassemblies lacking GEM or CQ. More importantly, mechanistic studies and suggested that the nanobomb inhibits metastasis by downregulating MMP-2 and paxillin, as well as reducing fibrosis. The pH-sensitive [email protected]/CQ shows potential for inhibiting proliferation and metastasis of pancreatic cancer through an autophagy-dependent pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.60437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8419034PMC
August 2021

Step-by-step dual stimuli-responsive nanoparticles for efficient bacterial biofilm eradication.

Biomater Sci 2021 Oct 12;9(20):6889-6902. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

School of Pharmacy, Shandong New Drug Loading & Release Technology and Preparation Engineering Laboratory, Binzhou Medical University, 346 Guanhai Road, Yantai, 264003, P. R. China.

Biofilm-related bacterial infections are extremely resistant to antibiotics, mainly due to the impermeability of the intensive matrices, which allow the bacteria to survive antibiotic treatment. Herein, step-by-step dual stimuli-responsive azithromycin-loaded nanoparticles (CM/[email protected]) was constructed for efficient biofilm eradication. CM/[email protected] was prepared by the self-assembly of poly(ε-caprolactone)-polyethylene glycol-polyethylenimine (PCL-PEG-PEI) into cationic micelles and simultaneously encapsulated AZM into the hydrophobic core, which is further bound with -aconityl-D-tyrosine (CA-Tyr) through electrostatic interaction. Upon initial penetration, CM/[email protected] could show step-by-step dual-response to the microenvironment of biofilms. Firstly, the CA-Tyr shell rapidly responded to the acidic microenvironment and released D-Tyr to disassemble the biofilm mass. Then, the exposed cationic CM/AZM micelles could bind firmly to the negatively-charged bacteria cell membrane. With the enzymolysis of the PCL core, the rapidly releasing AZM could kill the bacteria over the depth of biofilms. Massive accumulation was observed in the infected lungs of biofilms-associated lung infection mice after the i.v. injection of CM/[email protected] under the 3D mode of the Imaging System. Reduced bacterial burden and alleviated fibrosis in the infected lungs were also obtained after treatment with CM/[email protected] mainly due to its intensive penetration in the biofilm and the orderly release of the biofilm dispersant and antimicrobial agents. In summary, this research developed an effective strategy for the treatment of blood-accessible biofilm-induced infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1bm01038gDOI Listing
October 2021

The molecular mechanism of RIG-I activation and signaling.

Immunol Rev 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.

RIG-I is our first line of defense against RNA viruses, serving as a pattern recognition receptor that identifies molecular features common among dsRNA and ssRNA viral pathogens. RIG-I is maintained in an inactive conformation as it samples the cellular space for pathogenic RNAs. Upon encounter with the triphosphorylated terminus of blunt-ended viral RNA duplexes, the receptor changes conformation and releases a pair of signaling domains (CARDs) that are selectively modified and interact with an adapter protein (MAVS), thereby triggering a signaling cascade that stimulates transcription of interferons. Here, we describe the structural determinants for specific RIG-I activation by viral RNA, and we describe the strategies by which RIG-I remains inactivated in the presence of host RNAs. From the initial RNA triggering event to the final stages of interferon expression, we describe the experimental evidence underpinning our working knowledge of RIG-I signaling. We draw parallels with behavior of related proteins MDA5 and LGP2, describing evolutionary implications of their collective surveillance of the cell. We conclude by describing the cell biology and immunological investigations that will be needed to accurately describe the role of RIG-I in innate immunity and to provide the necessary foundation for pharmacological manipulation of this important receptor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.13022DOI Listing
September 2021

Maintenance Treatment With Low-Dose Decitabine After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Patients With Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Front Oncol 2021 16;11:710545. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Background: Post-transplant relapse remains a principal leading cause of failure after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in patients with adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of low-dose decitabine on the prevention of adult ALL relapse after allo-HSCT.

Methods: In this prospective study, we enrolled 34 patients with ALL who underwent allo-HSCT from August 2016 to April 2020 and received low-dose decitabine maintenance treatment after transplantation. The primary objectives were cumulative incidence of relapse rate (CIR), overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS). The secondary objectives were graft--host disease (GVHD) and safety.

Results: Among the enrolled 34 patients, 6 patients relapsed and 6 patients died. The 2-year CIR, OS, and DFS were 20.2, 77.5, and 73.6%, respectively. Subgroup analysis revealed the 2-year CIR, OS, and DFS rates of 12 patients with T-ALL/lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) were 8.3, 90, and 81.5%, respectively. None of the seven patients with T-ALL relapsed. During maintenance treatment, only one patient (2.9%) developed grade IV acute GVHD and four (11.8%) patients had severe chronic GVHD. Thirty-two patients (94.1%) developed only grade I to II myelosuppression, and two patients (5.8%) developed grade III to IV granulocytopenia.

Conclusions: Maintenance treatment with low-dose decitabine after allo-HSCT may be used as a therapeutic option to reduce relapse in patients with adult ALL, especially in patients with T-ALL. Our findings require confirmation in larger-scale controlled trials.

Clinical Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trials Registry, identifier ChiCTR1800014888.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.710545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8415411PMC
August 2021

Comprehensively enhanced delivery cascade by transformable beaded nanofibrils for pancreatic cancer therapy.

Nanoscale 2021 Aug 27;13(31):13328-13343. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Key Laboratory of Drug Targeting and Novel Drug Delivery System Ministry of Education, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, People's Republic of China.

Facing the barriers in each step of the in vivo delivery cascade, the low drug delivery efficiency remains problematic in tumor therapy. Although recently the nanofibril drug delivery systems have shown improved circulation and accumulation compared with nanoparticles, the poor deep penetration and cellular internalization hinder their application, especially for pancreatic cancer with dense stroma. To comprehensively address the hurdles in the delivery cascade, a matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) responsive transformable beaded nanofibril, which integrates the merits of nanofibril and small-sized nanoparticles, is established. The beaded nanofibril ([email protected]) is prepared by conjugating gemcitabine-loaded small-sized nanoparticles (GD) with fibrous PEG-PCL (PPF) via GPLGVRG, a substrate peptide of MMP-2. [email protected] escapes the clearance of the reticuloendothelial system (RES), prolongs the circulation time, and increases the selective accumulation in the tumor as fibrous micelles. Once accumulated in the tumor, small positively-charged GD is released from the beaded nanofibrils in response to MMP-2 overexpression in the stroma of pancreatic cancer, enabling permeation in the dense tumor matrix and cellular internalization, which makes up for the shortcomings of fibrous micelles. Furthermore, the remaining fibrous PPF surround the tumor tightly to impede the efflux of drugs, leading to improved retention. [email protected] is biocompatible and exhibits excellent antitumor effect in Pan 02 subcutaneous tumor models. Therefore, the MMP-2 responsive transformable beaded nanofibril, which enhances the delivery efficiency in multiple stage of the delivery cascade, presents a promising strategy for pancreatic cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr02017jDOI Listing
August 2021

Adjustable acoustic field controlled by "ultrasonic projector" on ultrasound application.

IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 2021 Sep 1;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

The controlling of acoustic field has great potential in many applications such as medical treatment, neuro-modulation, and bio-imaging. Recently, acoustic lenses and phased arrays have become common ways of controlling acoustic fields. However, the shortcomings of the two ways are obvious. Acoustic lenses are lack of flexibility after design, phased arrays have complicated structures and need to adjust the parameters of each array element. In this work, we propose an alternative for sound field control by using a flexible and adjustable "acoustic projector", two symmetric mirrors are used to change the direction of propagation of an acoustic wave produced by a piezoelectric element and realize acoustic focusing in the target region. The 2D "acoustic projector" model was built in finite element simulation, and the feasibility was verified with an actual prototype. The sound intensity produced by the piezoelectric element at different horizontal and vertical positions along the target area can be accurately controlled by two adjustable mirrors. When the angle of the mirror ranging from 30° to 40°, the focal depth can change from 39 mm to 140 mm. Furthermore, the focus can be controlled in a sector with an angle of 60°. The "acoustic projector" demonstrates simple but precise control of acoustic fields and may broaden their applicability. In order to show its imaging ability, the three groups of target balls at different positions were imaged and given their position information by scanning the mirrors in simulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TUFFC.2021.3106712DOI Listing
September 2021

Selenium Deficiency Induces Autophagy in Chicken Bursa of Fabricius Through ChTLR4/MyD88/NF-κB Pathway.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, People's Republic of China.

To explore the role of ChTLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway on autophagy induced by selenium (Se) deficiency in the chicken bursa of Fabricius, autophagosome formation in the bursa of Fabricius was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot were used to detect the expression of ChTLR4 and its signaling pathway molecules (MyD88, TRIF, and NF-κB), inflammatory factors (IL-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α), and autophagy-related factors (ATG5, Beclin1, and LC3-II) in the Se-deficient chicken bursa of Fabricius at different ages. The results showed that ChTLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway was activated in the chicken bursa of Fabricius and autophagy was induced at the same time by Se deficiency. In order to verify the relationship between the autophagy and ChTLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway, HD11 cells were used to establish the normal C group, low Se group, and low Se + TLR4 inhibitor (TAK242) group. The results demonstrated that autophagy could be hindered when the TLR4 signaling pathway was inhibited under Se deficiency. Furthermore, autophagy double-labeled adenovirus was utilized to verify the integrity of autophagy flow induced by Se deficiency in HD11 cells. The results showed that it appeared to form a complete autophagy flow under the condition of Se deficiency and could be blocked by TAK242. In summary, we found that Se deficiency was involved in the chicken bursa of Fabricius autophagy occurring by activating the ChTLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-021-02904-xDOI Listing
September 2021

Feasibility and Safety of Left Bundle Branch Pacing for Advance Aged Patients: A Multicenter Comparative Study.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 27;8:661885. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Left bundle branch pacing (LBBP) has been shown to be a safe and effective means to achieve physiological pacing. However, elderly patients have increased risks from invasive procedures and the risk of LBBP in elderly patients is not known. We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of LBBP in elderly patients >80 years of age. From December 2017 to June 2019, 346 consecutive patients with symptomatic bradycardia, 184 patients under 80 years of age and 162 over 80 years, were included and underwent LBBP. The safety and prognosis of LBBP were comparatively evaluated by measured pacing parameters, periprocedural complications, and follow-up clinical events. Compared with the younger, the elderly group had worse baseline cardiac and renal function. LBBP was achieved successfully in both groups with comparable fluoroscopic time and paced QRS duration (110.0 [102.0, 118.0] ms for the young vs. 110.0 [100.0, 120.0] ms for the elderly, = 0.874). Through a follow-up of 20.0 ± 6.1 months, pacing parameters were stable while higher threshold and impedance were observed in the elderly group. In the evaluation of safety, overall procedure-related complication rates were comparable (4.4 vs. 3.8%, young vs. elderly). For prognosis, similar rates of major adverse cardiocerebrovascular events (7.1 vs. 11.9%, young vs. elderly) were observed. Compared to younger patients, LBBP could achieve physiological pacing in patients over 80 with comparable midterm safety and prognosis. Long-term safety and benefits of LBBP, however, necessitate further evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.661885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8353088PMC
July 2021

Dietary multivalent anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin Y significantly increase the H. pylori eradication and improve the clinical symptoms in patients.

Helicobacter 2021 Oct 11;26(5):e12843. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Biological Engineering, Sichuan University of Science & Engineering, Zigong, China.

Background: The oral chicken immunoglobulin Y (IgY) as a novel model of immunotherapy to control Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, Hp) infection has gained much interest in recent years. However, none of the current IgY therapies showed a total eradication of H. pylori on patients.

Methods: In this report, the recombinant antigens of H. pylori, including UreB (1710 bp), BabA2 (1269 bp), and FlaA (399 bp), were, respectively, expressed and purified, and then mixed and subjected to immunize laying hens for the preparation of multivalent anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin Y (anti-Hp mIgY). Next, the biological activities of anti-Hp mIgY, including the recognition to antigens and the inhibition on H. pylori growth, were tested. Moreover, to perform a clinical trial, 94 Hp-infected patients, according to the values of C urea breath test and the characteristics of gastroscopy of volunteers, were enrolled to evaluate the effects of dietary anti-Hp mIgY against H. pylori infection. After continuous dietary of anti-Hp mIgY for 2 weeks, the oral administration was terminated. The clinical symptoms of the patients were followed up at 2nd, 4th, and 6th week, respectively, and the C urea breath test were re-examined at 6th week.

Results: The anti-Hp mIgY could bind to recombinant antigens very well, and the titers of anti-Hp mIgY to UreB, Baba2, and FlaA, are 62.5, 125, and 250 μg/ml, respectively. The in vitro antibacterial test showed that the 2 mg/ml of anti-Hp mIgY could completely inhibit the H. pylori growth for 36 h. After a 2-week dietary of anti-Hp mIgY, the value of C urea breath test was significantly decreased by 56.0% (25.9 ± 14.1 vs 11.4 ± 9.78, p < 0.001), the total improvement rate of clinical symptoms in volunteers was 87.3%, and the H. pylori eradication rate was 30.6%.

Conclusion: Two-week dietary of anti-Hp mIgY greatly improved the clinical symptoms and the quality of life of Hp-infected patients, and the H. pylori eradication rate reached up to 30.6%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hel.12843DOI Listing
October 2021

Elaboration on the architecture of pH-sensitive surface charge-adaptive micelles with enhanced penetration and bactericidal activity in biofilms.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Aug 6;19(1):232. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

School of Pharmacy, Shandong New Drug Loading and Release Technology and Preparation Engineering Laboratory, Binzhou Medical University, 346 Guanhai Road, Yantai, 264003, People's Republic of China.

Background: Biofilm formation is one of the main reasons for persistent bacterial infections. Recently, pH-sensitive copolymers have fascinated incredible attention to tackle biofilm-related infections. However, the proper incorporation of pH-sensitive segments in the polymer chains, which could significantly affect the biofilms targeting ability, has not been particularly investigated. Herein, we synthesized three types of pH-sensitive copolymers based on poly (β-amino ester) (PAE), poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG), PAE-PLA-mPEG (A-L-E), PLA-PAE-mPEG (L-A-E) and PLA-PEG-PAE (L-E-A) to address this issue.

Results: The three copolymers could self-assemble into micelles (M, M and M) in aqueous medium. Compared with M and M, placing the PAE at the distal PEG end of PLA-PEG to yield PLA-PEG-PAE (M) was characterized with proper triggering pH, fully biofilm penetration, and high cell membrane binding affinity. Further loaded with Triclosan (TCS), M/TCS could efficiently kill the bacteria either in planktonic or biofilm mode. We reasoned that PAE segments would be preferentially placed near the surface and distant from the hydrophobic PLA segments. This would increase the magnitude of surface charge-switching capability, as the cationic PAE would easily disassociate from the inner core without conquering the additional hydrophobic force arising from covalent linkage with PLA segments, and rapidly rise to the outermost layer of the micellar surface due to the relative hydrophilicity. This was significant in that it could enable the micelles immediately change its surface charge where localized acidity occurred, and efficiently bind themselves to the bacterial surface where they became hydrolyzed by bacterial lipases to stimulate release of encapsulated TCS even a relatively short residence time to prevent rapid wash-out. In vivo therapeutic performance of M/TCS was evaluated on a classical biofilm infection model, implant-related biofilm infection. The result suggested that M/TCS was effective for the treatment of implant-related biofilm infection, which was proved by the efficient clearance of biofilm-contaminated catheters and the recovery of surrounding infected tissues.

Conclusions: In summary, elaboration on the architecture of pH-sensitive copolymers was the first step to target biofilm. The M structure may represent an interesting future direction in the treatment of biofilm-relevant infections associated with acidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-021-00980-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8344171PMC
August 2021

Fermitin family homolog 2 (Kindlin-2) affects vascularization during the wound healing process by regulating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in vascular endothelial cells.

Bioengineered 2021 12;12(1):4654-4665

Department of Plastic Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Kindlin-2 is a member of the FERM-containing cytoskeletal protein family that regulates cell-matrix interactions. Previous studies have shown that Kindlin-2 recruits focal adhesion proteins and regulates integration by binding to the focal adhesion region of the integrin β-segment. Although Kindlin-2 has been reported to be involved in various skin diseases and many kinds of tumors, its role in the skin wound healing process remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of Kindlin-2 in the regulation of wound healing. The effects of Kindlin-2 on wound healing were studied by a wound healing model, kindlin-2 (±) mice. The effects of Kindlin-2 on cell migration, cellular tube formation, and cell adhesion and spreading were evaluated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with downregulated Kindlin-2 expression. We found that the expression of kindlin-2 was elevated in wound healing tissues and that interfering with the expression of Kindlin-2 delayed the wound healing process and reduced neovascularization. We found that the wound healing of kindlin-2 (±) mice was delayed, with a decreased number of new blood vessels. Furthermore, depletion of Kindlin-2 impaired HUVEC spreading, migration and tube formation. Intriguingly, we found that kindlin-2 binds to β-catenin in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and cooperates with β-catenin to enter the nucleus from the cytoplasm, activating the downstream Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Taken together, these results help to elucidate the mechanism of Kindlin-2 in the regulation of the wound healing process and provide a theoretical basis for further study of wound healing and abnormal healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2021.1957526DOI Listing
December 2021

Uptake and translocation of nano/microplastics by rice seedlings: Evidence from a hydroponic experiment.

J Hazard Mater 2022 01 21;421:126700. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

College of Environment and Safety Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266042, PR China. Electronic address:

Microplastics (MPs) are emerging contaminants in terrestrial systems that cause diverse impacts on plants. However, little is known about whether MPs especially micro-sized MPs can be accumulated and translocated in plants particularly food crops. Hereby, a hydroponic experiment was conducted to verify whether nano-sized (80 nm) and micro-sized (1 µm) fluorescently labeled polystyrene (PS) microspheres can enter rice roots and translocate to aerial parts. Plant samples were taken for detection of PS after 14 days and 40 days exposure, respectively. Both nano- and micro-sized PS microspheres were detected in roots, stems, and leaves of rice seedlings by using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Both 80 nm and 1 µm PS microspheres accumulated in the vascular systems of plant tissues, especially root stele, stem vascular bundles and leaf veins, and mostly aggregated on cell walls and in the intercellular regions. These findings imply that both nano- and micro-sized MPs could be absorbed by rice roots and subsequently translocated to aerial parts, and apoplastic transport may be the main pathway. In conclusion, rice seedlings can accumulate nano/microplastics in their roots and translocate them to aboveground tissues, thereby possibly transferring the accumulated nano/microplastics to higher trophic levels through the food chain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126700DOI Listing
January 2022

Machine Learning-Enabled High-Resolution Dynamic Deuterium MR Spectroscopic Imaging.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2021 Jul 28;PP. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Deuterium magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (DMRSI) has recently been recognized as a potentially powerful tool for noninvasive imaging of brain energy metabolism and tumor. However, the low sensitivity of DMRSI has significantly limited its utility for both research and clinical applications. This work presents a novel machine learning-based method to address this limitation. The proposed method synergistically integrates physics-based subspace modeling and data-driven deep learning for effective denoising, making high-resolution dynamic DMRSI possible. Specifically, a novel subspace model was used to represent the dynamic DMRSI signals; deep neural networks were trained to capture the low-dimensional manifolds of the spectral and temporal distributions of practical dynamic DMRSI data. The learned subspace and manifold structures were integrated via a regularization formulation to remove measurement noise. Theoretical analysis, computer simulations, and in vivo experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the denoising efficacy of the proposed method which enabled high-resolution imaging capability. The translational potential was demonstrated in tumor-bearing rats, where the Warburg effect associated with cancer metabolism and tumor heterogeneity were successfully captured. The new method may not only provide an effective tool to enhance the sensitivity of DMRSI for basic research and clinical applications but also provide a framework for denoising other spatiospectral data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2021.3101149DOI Listing
July 2021

Chiral Supramolecular Polymers Assembled by Amphiphilic Oligopeptide-Perylene Diimides and High Electrochemical Sensing.

Langmuir 2021 08 26;37(30):9232-9243. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China.

Various secondary structures, for example, β-sheet hydrogen bonds formed by oligopeptides exhibiting high directionality and selectivity provide a new avenue to regulate optoelectronic performances of supramolecular assemblies constructed by π-conjugated chromophores. In this work, oligopeptide-perylene diimides (AUPDIs) are synthesized to generate β-sheet strands which guide the formation of chiral supramolecular polymers with a diversity of morphologies in combination with the π-π stacking even in aqueous media. Complex morphology transitions are successfully controlled by simply adjusting the water volume fraction in the binary solvent of water and tetrahydrofuran from spherical hollow aggregates to long helical nanowires and to short nanofibers. The mechanism of the assembly changes from cooperative to the isodesmic model relying on AUPDI concentrations. This originates from the transformation in the β-sheet that regulates profoundly the arrangement of the AUPDI molecules. Prominently efficient and positive electronic sensing to triethylamine for highly helical nanowires engenders due to the highly ordered helical arrangement within the nanowires, fourfold of the short nanofibers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c01430DOI Listing
August 2021

Predicting Adverse Outcomes in Monochorionic-Diamniotic Twins: The Role of Intertwin Discrepancy in Middle Cerebral Artery Doppler Measurements and the Cerebroplacental Ratio.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.

Objective:  This study was aimed to evaluate the role of intertwin discrepancy in middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) and cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) for the prediction of adverse outcomes in monochorionic-diamniotic (MCDA) twin pregnancies.

Study Design:  A retrospective cohort study of MCDA pregnancies that underwent ultrasound surveillance at a perinatal referral center from 2007 to 2017. Intertwin MCA-PSV discrepancy (MCA-Δ) was defined as the absolute difference of MCA-PSV multiple of the median (MoM) for gestational age between twins. Intertwin CPR discrepancy (CPR-Δ) was defined as the absolute difference of CPR between twins. The maximum MCA-Δ and CPR-Δ before and after 26 weeks of gestation were assessed as predictors of pregnancy and neonatal outcomes through simple logistic regression models and Pearson's correlation coefficients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the predictive value of maximum MCA-Δ and CPR-Δ.

Results:  A total of 143 MCDA pregnancies met inclusion criteria. There was a significant association between MCA-Δ at <26 weeks and the development of twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS;  = 0.007), intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD;  = 0.009), and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission ( < 0.05). MCA-Δ at ≥26 weeks was associated with the development of TAPS ( < 0.001). CPR-Δ at <26 weeks was associated with the development of twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS;  = 0.03) and NICU admission ( = 0.02). MCA-Δ at ≥26 weeks was highly predictive of TAPS (area under curve [AUC] = 0.92). A cut-off of 0.44 would identify TAPS with 100% sensitivity and 73% specificity.

Conclusion:  In MCDA pregnancies, intertwin MCA and CPR discrepancies are associated with adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes, including TAPS, TTTS, IUFD, and NICU admission. Evaluation of intertwin MCA and CPR differences demonstrated the potential for clinical predictive utility in the surveillance of MCDA twin pregnancies.

Key Points: · Intertwin discrepancy of MCA-PSV and CPR is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.. · Intertwin differences in Doppler ultrasound may occur prior to meeting diagnostic criteria for TTTS or TAPS.. · There is potential clinical predictive utility in MCA and CPR surveillance of MCDA twin pregnancies..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1732456DOI Listing
July 2021

Higher FT4 level within the normal range predicts the outcome of cryoballoon ablation in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation patients without structural heart disease.

Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 2021 Jul 11:e12874. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Accumulated evidence has indicated that a high-normal FT4 level is an independent risk factor for the clinical progression of AF. However, the association between elevated FT4 concentration within the normal range and AF recurrence after cryoballoon ablation in China is unknown.

Methods: This retrospective and observational study included 453 AF patients who underwent cryoballoon ablation from January 2016 to August 2018. Patients were classified into quartiles based on preprocedural serum FT4 concentration. The clinical characteristics of the patients and the long-term rate of AF recurrence after ablation were assessed.

Results: After a mean follow-up period of 17.4 ± 9.0 months, 91 (20.1%) patients suffered from AF recurrence. The AF recurrence rate by FT4 quartile was 17.7%, 19.0%, 21.4%, and 22.3% for participants with FT4 in quartile 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively (p < .001). On multivariate Cox regression, FT4 concentration (HR: 1.187, 95% CI: 1.093-1.290, p < .001) and left atrial diameter (HR: 1.052, 95% CI: 1.014-1.092, p = .007) were significant predictors of AF recurrence. When stratifying for AF type, the rate of postoperative recurrence was independently increased as FT4 concentration increased in paroxysmal AF, but not in persistent AF (p < .001 in paroxysmal AF and p = .977 in persistent AF).

Conclusion: Higher FT4 level within the normal range predicted the outcome of cryoballoon ablation in Chinese paroxysmal AF patients without structural heart disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/anec.12874DOI Listing
July 2021

Improved estimation of myelin water fractions with learned parameter distributions.

Magn Reson Med 2021 11 3;86(5):2795-2809. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA.

Purpose: To improve estimation of myelin water fraction (MWF) in the brain from multi-echo gradient-echo imaging data.

Methods: A systematic sensitivity analysis was first conducted to characterize the conventional exponential models used for MWF estimation. A new estimation method was then proposed for improved estimation of MWF from practical gradient-echo imaging data. The proposed method uses an extended signal model that includes a finite impulse response filter to compensate for practical signal variations. This new model also enables the use of prelearned parameter distributions as well as low-rank signal structures to improve parameter estimation. The resulting parameter estimation problem was solved optimally in the Bayesian sense.

Results: Our sensitivity analysis results showed that the conventional exponential models were very sensitive to measurement noise and modeling errors. Our simulation and experimental results showed that our proposed method provided a substantial improvement in reliability, reproducibility, and robustness of MWF estimates over the conventional methods. Clinical results obtained from stroke patients indicated that the proposed method, with its improved capability, could reveal the loss of myelin in lesions, demonstrating its translational potentials.

Conclusion: This paper addressed the problem of robust MWF estimation from gradient-echo imaging data. A new method was proposed to provide improved MWF estimation in the presence of significant noise and modeling errors. The performance of the proposed method has been evaluated using both simulated and experimental data, showing significantly improved robustness over the existing methods. The proposed method may prove useful for quantitative myelin imaging in clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.28889DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8530830PMC
November 2021

Dissecting human trophoblast cell transcriptional heterogeneity in preeclampsia using single-cell RNA sequencing.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2021 Aug 2;9(8):e1730. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Objective: PE is a pregnancy-specific syndrome that affects 3%-5% of pregnant women. It often presents as new-onset hypertension and proteinuria during the third trimester. PE progresses rapidly and may lead to serious complications, including the death of both mother and fetus. In low-income countries, PE is one of the main causes of maternal and child mortality. While the cause of PE is still debated, clinical and pathological studies suggest that the placenta plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PE.

Materials And Methods: In this single-cell RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) study, the placenta was taken from the designated position after cesarean section. We compared placental cell subsets and their transcriptional heterogeneity between preeclampsia and healthy pregnancies using the single-cell RNA-seq technology. A developmental trajectory of human trophoblasts was shown.

Results: Gene expression in endoplasmic reticulum signaling pathways in syncytiotrophoblast was upregulated in the PE group. The villi cytotrophoblasts (VCT) and extravillous trophoblasts were mainly involved in immune responses.

Conclusion: The placental immune function of patients with PE was altered. Proteasomes, spliceosomes, ribosomes, and mitochondria were abnormally active in the new VCT cell type.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.1730DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8404237PMC
August 2021

Fe, P, N- and FeP, N-doped carbon hollow nanospheres: A comparison study toward oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalysts.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Nov 6;602:376-383. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002, Jiangsu, PR China.

In recent years, carbon materials co-doped with transition metals and heteroatoms have been widely used in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as an alternative to platinum/carbon catalysts because of their high efficiency, low price, and appropriate sustainability. Herein, we report the synthesis of FeP, N-doped carbon (FeP, N-Carbon) hollow nanospheres (HNSs) and Fe, P, N-doped carbon (Fe, P, N-Carbon) HNSs. The FeP, N-Carbon was obtained via the pyrolysis of poly(o-phenylenediamine) (PoPD) HNSs in the presence of Fe(NO) and phytic acid (PA), whereas Fe, P, N-Carbon was obtained by first pyrolyzing PoPD HNSs with Fe(NO), followed by another cycle of pyrolysis with PA. Fe, P, N-Carbon exhibited a better ORR performance than FeP, N-Carbon, with an onset potential of 1.03 V, a half-wave potential of 0.89 V and a limiting current density of 5.75 mA cm. The findings will provide insights into the controlled synthesis of transition-metal-heteroatom-codoped carbon nanomaterials for the development of advanced ORR electrocatalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.06.021DOI Listing
November 2021

Ginsenoside Rb Enhances Plaque Stability and Inhibits Adventitial Vasa Vasorum via the Modulation of miR-33 and PEDF.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 28;8:654670. Epub 2021 May 28.

The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education, Chinese National Health Commission and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, The State and Shandong Province Joint Key Laboratory of Translational Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Atherosclerosis is closely associated with proliferation of the adventitial vasa vasorum, leading to the atherosclerotic plaque progression and vulnerability. In this report, we investigated the role of Ginsenoside Rb (Rb) on atherosclerotic plaque stabilization and adventitial vasa vasorum (VV) along with the mechanisms involved. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE) mice were fed with a high-fat diet for 20 weeks, and then Ginsenoside Rb (50 mg/kg/d, intraperitoneal) was given for 4 weeks. Rb treatment significantly inhibited adventitial VV proliferation, alleviated inflammation, decreased plaque burden, and stabilized atherosclerotic plaques in apoE mice. However, the beneficial effects of Rb on atherosclerotic lesion was attenuated by overexpression of miR-33. The analysis from atherosclerotic plaque revealed that Rb treatment could result in an induction of Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) expression and reduction of the miR-33 generation. Overexpression of miR-33 significantly reverted the Rb-mediated elevation of PEDF and anti-angiogenic effect. Ginsenoside Rb attenuates plaque growth and enhances plaque stability partially through inhibiting adventitial vasa vasorum proliferation and inflammation in apoE mice. The anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammation effects of Rb are exerted via the modulation of miR-33 and its target gene PEDF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.654670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192703PMC
May 2021

Fanconi anemia proteins participate in a break-induced-replication-like pathway to counter replication stress.

Nat Struct Mol Biol 2021 06 10;28(6):487-500. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

State Key Laboratory of Protein and Plant Gene Research, School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a devastating hereditary disease characterized by bone marrow failure (BMF) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). As FA-deficient cells are hypersensitive to DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs), ICLs are widely assumed to be the lesions responsible for FA symptoms. Here, we show that FA-mutated cells are hypersensitive to persistent replication stress and that FA proteins play a role in the break-induced-replication (BIR)-like pathway for fork restart. Both the BIR-like pathway and ICL repair share almost identical molecular mechanisms of 53BP1-BRCA1-controlled signaling response, SLX4- and FAN1-mediated fork cleavage and POLD3-dependent DNA synthesis, suggesting that the FA pathway is intrinsically one of the BIR-like pathways. Replication stress not only triggers BMF in FA-deficient mice, but also specifically induces monosomy 7, which is associated with progression to AML in patients with FA, in FA-deficient cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41594-021-00602-9DOI Listing
June 2021

CHOP Regulates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated Hepatoxicity Induced by Monocrotaline.

Front Pharmacol 2021 24;12:685895. Epub 2021 May 24.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

Monocrotaline (MCT), a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, is the major toxin in , which causes cell apoptosis in humans and animals. It has been reported that the liver is a vulnerable target of MCT. However, the exact molecular mechanism of the interaction between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and liver injury induced by MCT is still unclear. In this study, the cytotoxicity of MCT on primary rat hepatocytes was analyzed by a CCK-8 assay and Annexin V-FITC/PI assay. Protein expression was detected by western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. As a result, MCT significantly decreased the cell viability and mediated the apoptosis of primary rat hepatocytes. Meanwhile, MCT could also induce ER stress in hepatocytes, indicated by the expression of ER stress-related proteins, including GRP78, p-IRE1α, ATF6, p-eIF2α, ATF4, and CHOP. Pretreatment with 4-PBA, an inhibitor of ER stress, or knockdown of CHOP by siRNA could partly enhance cell viability and relieve the apoptosis. Our findings indicate that ER stress is involved in the hepatotoxicity induced by MCT, and CHOP plays an important role in this process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.685895DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8181757PMC
May 2021
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