Publications by authors named "Ronald W Takvorian"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Ibrutinib plus fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab as initial treatment for younger patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2019 Aug 14;6(8):e419-e428. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Medical Oncology, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR) can improve disease-free survival for younger (age ≤65 years) fit patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia with mutated IGHV. However, patients with unmutated IGHV rarely have durable responses. Ibrutinib is active for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia irrespective of IGHV mutation status but requires continuous treatment. We postulated that time-limited ibrutinib plus FCR would induce durable responses in younger fit patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

Methods: We did a multicentre, open-label, non-randomised, single-arm phase 2 trial at seven sites in the USA. We enrolled patients aged 65 years or younger with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Our initial cohort (original cohort) was not restricted by prognostic marker status and included patients who had del(17p) or TP53 aberrations. After a protocol amendment (on March 21, 2017), we enrolled an additional cohort (expansion cohort) that included patients without del(17p). Ibrutinib was given orally (420 mg/day) for 7 days, then up to six 28-day cycles were administered intravenously of fludarabine (25 mg/m, days 1-3), cyclophosphamide (250 mg/m, days 1-3), and rituximab (375 mg/m day 1 of cycle 1; 500 mg/m day 1 of cycles 2-6) with continuous oral ibrutinib (420 mg/day). Responders continued on ibrutinib maintenance for up to 2 years, and patients with undetectable minimal residual disease in bone marrow after 2 years were able to discontinue treatment. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved a complete response with undetectable minimal residual disease in bone marrow 2 months after the last cycle of ibrutinib plus FCR. Analyses were done per-protocol in all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02251548) and is ongoing.

Findings: Between Oct 23, 2014, and April 23, 2018, 85 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia were enrolled. del(17p) was detected in four (5%) of 83 patients and TP53 mutations were noted in three (4%) of 81 patients; two patients had both del(17p) and TP53 mutations. Median patients' age was 55 years (IQR 50-58). At data cutoff, median follow-up was 16·5 months (IQR 10·6-34·1). A complete response and undetectable minimal residual disease in bone marrow 2 months after the last cycle of ibrutinib plus FCR was achieved by 28 (33%, 95% CI 0·23-0·44) of 85 patients (p=0·0035 compared with a 20% historical value with FCR alone). A best response of undetectable minimal residual disease in bone marrow was achieved by 71 (84%) of 85 patients during the study. One patient had disease progression and one patient died (sudden cardiac death after 17 months of ibrutinib maintenance, assessed as possibly related to ibrutinib). The most common all-grade toxic effects were haematological, including thrombocytopenia in 63 (74%) patients, neutropenia in 53 (62%), and anaemia in 41 (49%). Grade 3 or 4 non-haematological serious adverse events included grade 3 atrial fibrillation in three (4%) patients and grade 3 Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in two (2%).

Interpretation: The proportion of patients who achieved undetectable minimal residual disease in bone marrow with ibrutinib plus FCR is, to our knowledge, the highest ever published in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia unrestricted by prognostic marker status. Ibrutinib plus FCR is promising as a time-limited combination regimen for frontline chronic lymphocytic leukaemia treatment in younger fit patients.

Funding: Pharmacyclics and the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(19)30104-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7036668PMC
August 2019

Brentuximab vedotin, doxorubicin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine for nonbulky limited-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

Blood 2019 08 11;134(7):606-613. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL.

Doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) with or without radiation is standard therapy for limited-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) but carries risks of bleomycin-induced lung injury and radiation toxicity. Brentuximab vedotin is highly active in relapsed HL and was recently approved with doxorubicin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (AVD) for previously untreated stage III/IV HL. We evaluated brentuximab-AVD for nonbulky stage I/II HL in a multicenter phase 2 study. Patients received a lead-in cycle of brentuximab vedotin monotherapy on days 1 and 15, followed by an exploratory positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan. Patients then received brentuximab-AVD for 4 to 6 cycles based on interim positron emission tomography/computed tomography scanning after cycle 2. Thirty-four patients were enrolled with a median age of 36 years (range, 20-75 years). Risk was early favorable in 62% and unfavorable in 38%. The best complete response rate was 100%. At a median follow-up of 38 months, the progression-free survival and overall survival were 94% and 97%, respectively. The most common adverse events were peripheral sensory neuropathy (79%), neutropenia (76%), fatigue (74%), and nausea (71%). The most common grade 3/4 toxicities were neutropenia (62%), febrile neutropenia (35%), and peripheral sensory neuropathy (24%). One elderly patient died of neutropenic sepsis in the first brentuximab-AVD cycle. Brentuximab dose reductions were required in 38% of patients, most for peripheral neuropathy. In conclusion, brentuximab-AVD without bleomycin or radiation produced a high complete response rate, with most patients requiring only 4 total cycles of therapy. Because toxicity was higher than would be expected from AVD alone, this method may not be appropriate for early-stage patients with a highly favorable prognosis. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01534078.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019001272DOI Listing
August 2019

Clinical presentation, management, and biomarkers of neurotoxicity after adoptive immunotherapy with CAR T cells.

Blood 2019 05 26;133(20):2212-2221. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Division of Neuro-Oncology, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have emerged as a promising class of cell-based immunotherapy in refractory malignancies. Neurotoxicity represents a common and potentially life-threatening adverse effect of CAR T cells, and clinical experience is limited. Here, we describe the clinical presentation and management of 25 adult patients who presented with neurotoxic syndromes after CAR T-cell therapy at the Massachusetts General Hospital. This cohort includes 24 patients treated with CD19-directed CAR T cells for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 23) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 1), and 1 patient treated with α-fetoprotein-directed CAR T cells for hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 1). Twelve of the 25 patients (48%) developed grade 1-2 neurotoxicity and 13 patients (52%) presented with grade 3-4 neurotoxicity. We found that lower platelet counts at time of CAR T-cell infusion were associated with more severe neurotoxicity ( = .030). Cytokine release syndrome occurred in 24 of 25 patients (96%). Serum levels of ferritin peaked with onset of neurologic symptoms, and higher ferritin levels were associated with higher neurotoxicity grade. Grade 3-4 neurotoxicity correlated negatively with overall survival (OS) ( = .013). Median OS of the entire cohort was 54.7 weeks. Eight patients (32%) with grade 3-4 neurotoxicity were deceased at database closure, whereas none died with neurotoxicity grade 1-2. High pretreatment lactate dehydrogenase was frequently encountered in lymphoma patients with grade 3-4 neurotoxicity and correlated negatively with progression-free survival ( = .048). We did not find evidence that steroid use ≥7 days altered the patient's outcome when compared with <7 days of steroids. Management of CAR T cell-mediated neurotoxicity warrants evaluation in prospective clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2018-12-893396DOI Listing
May 2019

Case 28-2018: A 39-Year-Old Man with Epistaxis, Pain and Erythema of the Forearm, and Pancytopenia.

N Engl J Med 2018 Sep;379(11):1072-1081

From the Departments of Medicine (C.A.I., R.W.T.), Radiology (F.J.S.), and Pathology (B.J.S.), Massachusetts General Hospital, and the Departments of Medicine (C.A.I., R.W.T.), Radiology (F.J.S.), and Pathology (B.J.S.), Harvard Medical School - both in Boston.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMcpc1807498DOI Listing
September 2018

Rare presentation of secondary cutaneous involvement by splenic marginal zone lymphoma: report of a case and review of the literature.

Am J Dermatopathol 2015 Jan;37(1):e1-4

*Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Departments of †Pathology, ‡Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, and §Dermatology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Cutaneous lymphomas encompass a broad spectrum of malignancies, including both primary and secondary cutaneous lymphomas. Determining the exact subtype of cutaneous lymphoma offers prognostic importance and directs therapeutic decisions. We describe the case of a 67-year-old woman with cutaneous involvement of splenic marginal zone lymphoma successfully treated with rituximab and bendamustine. We discuss the diagnostic work-up, including the histopathologic findings and treatment of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DAD.0000000000000055DOI Listing
January 2015

Treatment of primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone is associated with a high rate of primary refractory disease.

Leuk Lymphoma 2014 Mar 29;55(3):538-43. Epub 2013 Jul 29.

Center for Lymphoma, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center , Boston, MA , USA.

The optimal therapy for primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma is a subject of ongoing debate, with no accepted standard of care. We performed a retrospective analysis of 63 patients in the modern era treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP), with or without radiation. Median age was 37 years (range 20-82). Eighty percent had limited stage disease and 71% were bulky. By age-adjusted International Prognostic Index (IPI), 15% were low-risk, 52% low-intermediate, 27% high-intermediate and 6% high-risk. Some 77% of responding patients received consolidative radiotherapy. Overall and complete response rates were 79% and 71%. Primary induction failure occurred in 13 (21%) patients. Five-year PFS and OS were 68% and 79%, respectively. Adverse prognostic features included increased IPI, advanced stage, advanced age and multiple extranodal sites. These data demonstrate an unacceptably high rate of primary refractory disease on R-CHOP, particularly among patients with high-risk features. Novel treatment approaches are needed that reduce primary refractory disease and reliance on mediastinal radiation in young people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10428194.2013.810738DOI Listing
March 2014

Oral clofarabine for relapsed/refractory non-Hodgkin lymphomas: results of a phase 1 study.

Leuk Lymphoma 2013 Sep 30;54(9):1915-20. Epub 2013 Jan 30.

Center for Lymphoma, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

We conducted a phase 1 trial evaluating the oral nucleoside analog clofarabine in patients with relapsed/refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Patients were treated once daily on days 1 through 21 of a 28-day cycle for a maximum of six cycles. The study was conducted with a 3 + 3 design with 10 additional patients treated at the recommended phase 2 dose. Thirty patients were enrolled including indolent B-cell lymphomas (n = 21), mantle cell lymphoma (n = 6) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n = 3). The primary toxicities were hematologic including grade 3-4 neutropenia (53%) and thrombocytopenia (27%). Three milligrams was determined to be the recommended phase 2 dose. Tumor volume was reduced in 70% of patients, and the overall response rate was 47% including 27% complete remissions. Responses were seen in indolent B-cell lymphomas and mantle cell lymphoma. At a median follow-up of 17 months, 68% of responding patients remain in ongoing remission. Oral clofarabine was well tolerated with encouraging efficacy in indolent B-cell lymphomas and mantle cell lymphomas, warranting further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10428194.2013.763397DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4595907PMC
September 2013

Pathology quiz case 1. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the thyroid.

Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2011 Aug;137(8):829; author reply 832-3

Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archoto.2011.126-aDOI Listing
August 2011

Doxorubicin, vinblastine, and gemcitabine (CALGB 50203) for stage I/II nonbulky Hodgkin lymphoma: pretreatment prognostic factors and interim PET.

Blood 2011 May 25;117(20):5314-20. Epub 2011 Feb 25.

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA.

To reduce doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine toxicity, the Cancer and Leukemia Group B conducted a phase 2 trial of doxorubicin, vinblastine, and gemcitabine for newly diagnosed, nonbulky stages I and II Hodgkin lymphoma. Ninety-nine assessable patients received 6 cycles of doxorubicin 25 mg/m(2), vinblastine 6 mg/m(2), and gemcitabine 800 mg/m(2) (1000 mg/m(2) in first 6) on days 1 and 15 every 28 days. Computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) were performed before and after 2 and 6 cycles. Complete remission (CR)/CR unconfirmed was achieved in 72 of 99 patients (72.7%) and partial remission in 24 of 99 patients (24.2%). The CR rate was 81% when using PET criteria. Two patients have died of Hodgkin lymphoma progression. Median follow-up for nonprogressing patients is 3.3 years. The progression-free survival (PFS) at 3 years was 77% (95% confidence interval, 68%-84%). The relapse rate was less than 10% for patients with favorable prognostic factors. The 2-year PFS for cycle 2 PET-negative and -positive patients was 88% and 54%, respectively (P = .0009), compared with 89% and 27% for cycle 6 PET-negative and -positive patients (P = .0001). Although the CR rate and PFS were lower than anticipated, patients with favorable prognostic features had a low rate of relapse. Cycle 2 PET and cycle 6 PET were predictive of PFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2010-10-314260DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3109706PMC
May 2011

A phase 2 study of concurrent fludarabine and rituximab for the treatment of marginal zone lymphomas.

Br J Haematol 2009 Jun 30;145(6):741-8. Epub 2009 Mar 30.

Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

The marginal zone lymphomas (MZLs) are a recently defined group of related diseases that probably arise from a common cell of origin, the marginal zone B cell. Data on therapy for subtypes other than gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma has been largely limited to retrospective case series. This prospective phase 2 study of fludarabine and rituximab for the treatment of marginal zone lymphomas enrolled 26 patients, 14 with nodal MZL, eight with MALT lymphomas and four with splenic MZL; 81% were receiving initial systemic therapy. Only 58% [95% confidence interval (CI) 37-77%] of patients completed the planned six cycles, due to significant haematological, infectious and allergic toxicity. Four late toxic deaths occurred due to infections [15% (95% CI 4.3-35%)], two related to delayed bone marrow aplasia and two related to myelodysplastic syndrome. Nonetheless, the overall response rate was 85% (95% CI 65-96%), with 54% complete responses. The progression-free survival at 3.1 years of follow-up is 79.5% (95% CI 63-96%). We conclude that, although concurrent fludarabine and rituximab given at this dose and schedule is a highly effective regimen in the treatment of MZLs, the significant haematological and infectious toxicity observed both during and after therapy is prohibitive in this patient population, emphasizing the need to study MZLs as a separate entity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2009.07677.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2752822PMC
June 2009

Rare lymphoid malignancies of the breast: a report of two cases illustrating potential diagnostic pitfalls.

J Hematop 2009 Aug 20;2(4):237-44. Epub 2009 Aug 20.

Breast involvement by lymphoma is uncommon and poses challenges in diagnosis. Lymphomas may clinically, radiologically, and morphologically mimic both benign and neoplastic conditions. We describe two cases of lymphoid malignancies predominantly involving the breast, both presenting diagnostic dilemmas. The first case, ALK-negative anaplastic large-cell lymphoma involving a seroma associated with a breast implant, is an emerging clinicopathologic entity. Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma has been identified in association with breast implants and seroma formation relatively recently. The second case, hairy cell leukemia involving the breast and ipsilateral axillary sentinel lymph node, is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of hairy cell leukemia involving the breast at the time of diagnosis. While a localized bone lesion was present at time of diagnosis, bone marrow involvement was relatively mild in comparison to that seen in the breast and lymph node. In the first case, lymphoma occurred in a clinical setting where malignancy was unsuspected, highlighting the importance of careful morphologic evaluation of paucicellular samples, as well as awareness of rare clinicopathologic entities, in avoiding a misdiagnosis of a benign inflammatory infiltrate. In the second case, the lymphoid neoplasm exhibited classic morphologic and immunophenotypic features, but presented at an unusual site of involvement. Knowledge of the patient's concurrent diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia involving the bone marrow and bone helped avoid a misdiagnosis of carcinoma rather than lymphoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12308-009-0043-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2798933PMC
August 2009

Primary pulmonary lymphoma.

Ann Thorac Surg 2005 Oct;80(4):1248-53

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Primary pulmonary lymphoma is a rare disease. The clinical characteristics, methods of treatment, and outcomes are not well elucidated.

Methods: A retrospective review of primary pulmonary lymphoma cases at a single institution from 1990 to 2002 was performed.

Results: Eighteen patients were included, with a mean follow-up of 2.9 years. Fourteen patients had mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, 2 had large cell transformation of sheet cells in MALT lymphoma, and 1 each had Hodgkin's disease and follicular lymphoma. Computed tomography-guided biopsy was diagnostic in only two of eight attempts. Eleven patients had disease confined to the pulmonary parenchyma, and 7 had parenchymal disease as well as mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Treatment methods included observation only (n = 1), surgery only (n = 6), surgery plus chemotherapy (n = 8), surgery plus radiotherapy (n = 1), and surgery plus chemotherapy plus radiotherapy (n = 2). Kaplan-Meier estimate of median time to disease recurrence or death was 6 years. Only 1 patient died of disease-related causes. Patients who had bilateral disease were more likely to have recurrent disease or death (p = 0.03).

Conclusions: A wide range of treatments were used for patients with generally MALT lymphoma, resulting in good outcomes, and recurrent disease was well controlled.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2005.04.014DOI Listing
October 2005