Publications by authors named "Ronald Pisoni"

225 Publications

Routinely measured cardiac troponin I and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide as predictors of mortality in haemodialysis patients.

ESC Heart Fail 2022 Jan 13. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Fukuoka Renal Clinic, Fukuoka, Japan.

Aims: Cardiac troponin (cTn) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) are elevated in haemodialysis (HD) patients, and this elevation is associated with HD-induced myocardial stunning/myocardial strain. However, studies using data from the international Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) have shown that these cardiac biomarkers are measured in <2% of HD patients in real-world practice. This study aimed to examine whether routinely measured N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP) and cTnI (contemporary assay) are more appropriate than clinical models for reclassifying the risk of HD patients who have the highest risk of death.

Methods And Results: Pre-dialysis levels of cTnI and NT-proBNP at study enrolment were measured in 1152 HD patients (Japan DOPPS Phase 5). The patients were prospectively followed for 3 years. Cox regression was used to test the associations of cardiac biomarkers with all-cause mortality, adjusting for potential confounders. Subgroup analyses were performed to assess potential effect modification of clinical characteristics, such as age, systolic blood pressure, HD vintage, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and a history of congestive heart failure. At baseline, 337 (29%) patients had elevated cTnI (99th percentile of a healthy population: >0.04 ng/mL) with a median (inter-quartile range) level of 0.020 (0.005-0.041) ng/mL, and 1140 (99%) patients had elevated NT-proBNP (cut-off for heart failure: >125 pg/mL) with a median level of 3658 (1689-9356) pg/mL. There were 167 deaths during a median follow-up of 2.8 (2.2-2.8) years. Higher levels of both cardiac biomarkers were incrementally associated with mortality after adjustment for potential confounders. Even after adjustment for alternative cardiac biomarkers, the overall P value for the association was <0.01 for both biomarkers. However, the prognostic significance of NT-proBNP was moderately diminished when cTnI was added to the model. The hazard ratios of mortality for cTnI > 0.04 ng/mL (vs. cTnI < 0.006 ng/mL) and NT-proBNP > 8000 pg/mL (vs. NT-proBNP < 2000 pg/mL) were 2.56 (95% confidence interval: 1.37-4.81) and 1.90 (95% confidence interval: 0.95-3.79), respectively. Subgroup analyses showed that the associations of both cardiac biomarkers with mortality were generally consistent between stratified groups.

Conclusions: Routinely measured NT-proBNP and cTnI levels are strongly associated with mortality among prevalent HD patients. These associations remain robust, even after adjustment for alternative biomarkers, suggesting that cTnI and NT-proBNP have identical prognostic significance and may reflect different pathological aspects of cardiac abnormalities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13784DOI Listing
January 2022

The global impact of the Coronavirus 2019 pandemic on in-centre haemodialysis services: an International Society of Nephrology -Dialysis Outcomes Practice Patterns Study survey.

Kidney Int Rep 2021 Dec 13. Epub 2021 Dec 13.

Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, United Kingdom.

Introduction: To assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic impact on haemodialysis centres, The Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study and International Society of Nephrology (ISN) collaborated on a web-survey of centres.

Methods: A combined approach of random sampling and open invitation was used between March 2020 and March 2021. Responses were obtained from 412 centres in 78 countries and all 10 ISN regions.

Results: In 8 regions, rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection were <20% in most centres, but in North East Asia and Newly Independent States and Russia rates were ≥20% and ≥30%, respectively. Mortality was ≥10% in most centres in 8 regions, though lower in North America and Caribbean and North East Asia. Diagnostic testing was not available in 33%, 37%, and 61% of centres in Latin America, Africa, and East and Central Europe, respectively. Surgical masks were widely available, but severe shortages of particulate-air filter masks were reported in Latin America (18%) and Africa (30%). Rates of infection in staff ranged from 0% in 90% of centres in North East Asia to ≥50% in 63% of centres in the Middle East and 68% of centres in Newly Independent States and Russia. In most centres <10% of staff died, but in Africa and South Asia 2% and 6% of centres reported ≥50% mortality, respectively.

Conclusion: There has been wide global variation in SARS-CoV-2 infection rates amongst haemodialysis patients and staff, PPE availability, and testing, and the ways in which services have been redesigned in response to the pandemic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2021.12.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8684834PMC
December 2021

Changes in practice patterns in Japan from before to after JSDT 2013 guidelines on hemodialysis prescriptions: results from the JDOPPS.

BMC Nephrol 2021 Oct 14;22(1):339. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Arbor Research Collaborative for Health, Ann Arbor, USA.

Background: The Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy (JSDT) published in 2013 inaugural hemodialysis (HD) guidelines. Specific targets include 1.4 for single-pool Kt/V (spKt/V) with a minimum dose of 1.2, minimum dialysis session length of 4 hours, minimum blood flow rate (BFR) of 200 mL/min, fluid removal rate no more than 15 mL/kg/hr, and hemodiafiltration (HDF) therapy for certain identified symptoms. We evaluated the effect of these guidelines on actual practice in the years spanning 2005 - 2018.

Methods: Analyses were carried out to describe trends in the above HD prescription practices from December 2005 to April 2013 (before guideline publication) to August 2018 based on prevalent patient cross-sections from approximately 60 randomly selected HD facilities participating in the Japan Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study.

Results: From April 2006 to August 2017 continual rises occurred in mean spKt/V (from 1.35 to 1.49), and percent of patients having spKt/V>1.2 (71% to 85%). Mean BFR increased with time from 198.3 mL/min (April 2006) to 218.4 mL/min (August 2017) , along with percent of patients with BFR >200 ml/min (65% to 85%). HDF use increased slightly from 6% (April 2006 and August 2009) to 8% by April 2013, but increased greatly thereafter to 23% by August 2017. In contrast, mean HD treatment time showed little change from 2006-2017, whereas mean UFR declined from 11.3 in 2006 to 8.4 mL/Kg/hour in 2017.

Conclusions: From 2006 - 2018 Japanese HD patients experienced marked improvement in reaching the spKt/V target specified by the 2013 JSDT guidelines. This may have been due to moderate increase in mean BFR even though mean HD session length did not change much. In addition, HDF use increased dramatically in this time period. Other HD delivery changes during this time, such as increased use of super high flux dialyzers, also merit study. While we cannot definitively conclude a causal relationship between the publication of the guidelines and the subsequent practice changes in Japan, those changes moved practice closer to the recommendations of the guidelines.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-021-02543-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8518149PMC
October 2021

International peritoneal dialysis training practices and the risk of peritonitis.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Nephrology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Australia.

Background: The effects of training practices on outcomes of patients receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD) are poorly understood and there is a lack of evidence informing best training practices. This prospective cohort study aims to describe and compare international PD training practices and their association with peritonitis.

Methods: Adult patients on PD < 3 months participating in the Peritoneal Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (PDOPPS) were included. Training characteristics (including duration, location, nurse affiliation, modality, training of family members, use of individual/group training, and use of written/oral competency assessments) were reported at patient and facility levels. Hazard ratio for time to first peritonitis was estimated using Cox models, adjusted for selected patient and facility case-mix variables.

Results: 1376 PD patients from 120 facilities across 7 countries were included. Training was most commonly performed at the facility (81%), by facility-affiliated nurses (87%) in a 1:1 setting (79%). In the UK, being trained by both facility and third-party nurses was associated with reduced peritonitis risk (aHR 0.31, 95% CI 0.15-0.62, vs facility nurses only). However, this training practice was utilized in only 5 of 14 UK facilities. No other training characteristics were convincingly associated with peritonitis risk.

Conclusions: There was no evidence to support that peritonitis risk was associated with when, where, how, or how long PD patients are trained.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfab298DOI Listing
October 2021

European hemodialysis patient satisfaction with phosphate binders is associated with serum phosphorus levels: the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study.

Clin Kidney J 2021 Aug 11;14(8):1886-1893. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Arbor Research Collaborative for Health, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Background: Hemodialysis (HD) patients are commonly prescribed phosphate binders (PBs) to manage serum phosphorus levels, as hyperphosphatemia is strongly associated with poorer survival. Nonadherence with the PB prescription is associated with elevated serum phosphorus levels. We studied associations between patient satisfaction with their PB and serum phosphorus levels and mortality rates.

Methods: Adult HD patients in Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study were administered a survey instrument in late 2017. Patients were asked about their satisfaction with their PBs, as measured through three questions (difficulty, inconvenience and dissatisfaction) on a 5-point Likert scale, with each dichotomized into average worst versus good responses. These were used as predictors in linear regression models of continuous serum phosphorus levels and in Cox proportional hazards models of mortality, with adjustments for demographics, comorbidities and laboratory values.

Results: Patients having greater difficulty, inconvenience and dissatisfaction with their PB had higher serum phosphorus levels in adjusted models {+0.21 mg/dL [95% confidence interval (CI) ±0.23], +0.30 (±0.21) and 0.36 (±0.22), respectively}, and higher odds of having serum phosphorus levels ≥6.0 mg/dL. Measures of dissatisfaction were also associated with an elevated risk of mortality, with adjusted hazard ratios of 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.6), 1.6 (1.0-2.6) and 1.7 (1.1-2.7), respectively; this association was not strongly affected by adjustment for baseline serum phosphorous level.

Conclusions: Self-reported difficulty, inconvenience and dissatisfaction in taking one's prescribed PBs were associated with elevated serum phosphorus levels and serum phosphorus levels above clinically meaningful thresholds. While the mechanism for the association with mortality is unclear, patient-reported satisfaction should be considered when attempting to manage patient serum phosphorus levels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfab098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8323136PMC
August 2021

Etelcalcetide Utilization, Dosing Titration, and Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disease (CKD-MBD) Marker Responses in US Hemodialysis Patients.

Am J Kidney Dis 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Arbor Research Collaborative for Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Rationale & Objective: Clinical trial data have demonstrated the efficacy of etelcalcetide for reducing parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in hemodialysis (HD) patients. We provide a real-world summary of etelcalcetide utilization, dosing, effectiveness, and discontinuation since its US introduction in April 2017.

Study Design: New-user design within prospective cohort.

Setting & Participants: 2,596 new users of etelcalcetide from April 2017 through August 2019 in a national sample of adult maintenance HD patients in the US Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS).

Predictors: Baseline PTH, prior cinacalcet use, initial etelcalcetide dose.

Outcome: Trajectories of etelcalcetide dose, chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disease (CKD-MBD) medications, and levels of PTH, serum calcium, and phosphorus in the 12 months after etelcalcetide initiation.

Analytical Approach: Cumulative incidence methods for etelcalcetide discontinuation and linear generalized estimating equations for trajectory analyses.

Results: By August 2019, etelcalcetide prescriptions increased to 6% of HD patients from their first use in April 2017. Starting etelcalcetide dose was 15 mg/wk in 70% of patients and 7.5 mg/wk in 27% of patients; 49% of new users were prescribed cinacalcet in the prior 3 months. Etelcalcetide discontinuation was 9%, 17%, and 27% by 3, 6, and 12 months after initiation. One year after etelcalcetide initiation, mean PTH levels declined by 40%, from 948 to 566 pg/mL, and the proportion of patients with PTH within target (150-599 pg/mL) increased from 33% to 64% overall, from 0 to 60% among patients with baseline PTH ≥ 600 pg/mL, and from 30% to 63% among patients with prior cinacalcet use. The proportion of patients with serum phosphorus > 5.5 mg/dL decreased from 55% to 45%, while the prevalence of albumin-corrected serum calcium < 7.5 mg/dL remained at 1%-2%. There were increases in use of active vitamin D (from 77% to 87%) and calcium-based phosphate binders (from 41% to 50%) in the 12 months after etelcalcetide initiation.

Limitations: Data are unavailable for provider dosing protocols, dose holds, or reasons for discontinuation.

Conclusions: In the 12 months after etelcalcetide initiation, patients had large and sustained reductions in PTH levels. These results support the utility of etelcalcetide as an effective therapy to achieve the KDIGO-recommended guidelines for CKD-MBD markers in HD patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2021.05.020DOI Listing
July 2021

Serum Biomarkers of Iron Stores Are Associated with Increased Risk of All-Cause Mortality and Cardiovascular Events in Nondialysis CKD Patients, with or without Anemia.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 08 8;32(8):2020-2030. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Arbor Research Collaborative for Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Background: Approximately 30%-45% of patients with nondialysis CKD have iron deficiency. Iron therapy in CKD has focused primarily on supporting erythropoiesis. In patients with or without anemia, there has not been a comprehensive approach to estimating the association between serum biomarkers of iron stores, and mortality and cardiovascular event risks.

Methods: The study included 5145 patients from Brazil, France, the United States, and Germany enrolled in the Chronic Kidney Disease Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study, with first available transferrin saturation (TSAT) and ferritin levels as exposure variables. We used Cox models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), with progressive adjustment for potentially confounding variables. We also used linear spline models to further evaluate functional forms of the exposure-outcome associations.

Results: Compared with patients with a TSAT of 26%-35%, those with a TSAT ≤15% had the highest adjusted risks for all-cause mortality and MACE. Spline analysis found the lowest risk at TSAT 40% for all-cause mortality and MACE. Risk of all-cause mortality, but not MACE, was also elevated at TSAT ≥46%. Effect estimates were similar after adjustment for hemoglobin. For ferritin, no directional associations were apparent, except for elevated all-cause mortality at ferritin ≥300 ng/ml.

Conclusions: Iron deficiency, as captured by TSAT, is associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality and MACE in patients with nondialysis CKD, with or without anemia. Interventional studies evaluating the effect on clinical outcomes of iron supplementation and therapies for alternative targets are needed to better inform strategies for administering exogenous iron.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2020101531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8455257PMC
August 2021

Variation in Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis Outcomes in the Peritoneal Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (PDOPPS).

Am J Kidney Dis 2022 Jan 28;79(1):45-55.e1. Epub 2021 May 28.

Division of Nephrology, St. Michael's Hospital and the Keenan Research Center in the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Rationale & Objective: Peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis is a significant PD-related complication. We describe the likelihood of cure after a peritonitis episode, exploring its association with various patient, peritonitis, and treatment characteristics.

Study Design: Observational prospective cohort study.

Setting & Participants: 1,631 peritonitis episodes (1,190 patients, 126 facilities) in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Japan, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Exposure: Patient characteristics (demographics, patient history, laboratory values), peritonitis characteristics (organism category, concomitant exit-site infection), dialysis center characteristics (use of icodextrin and low glucose degradation product solutions, policies regarding antibiotic self-administration), and peritonitis treatment characteristics (antibiotic used).

Outcome: Cure, defined as absence of death, transfer to hemodialysis (HD), PD catheter removal, relapse, or recurrent peritonitis within 50 days of a peritonitis episode.

Analytical Approach: Mixed-effects logistic models.

Results: Overall, 65% of episodes resulted in a cure. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for cure were similar across countries (range, 54%-68%), by age, sex, dialysis vintage, and diabetes status. Compared with Gram-positive peritonitis, the odds of cure were lower for Gram-negative (AOR, 0.41 [95% CI, 0.30-0.57]), polymicrobial (AOR, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.20-0.47]), and fungal (AOR, 0.01 [95% CI, 0.00-0.07]) peritonitis. Odds of cure were higher with automated PD versus continuous ambulatory PD (AOR, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.02-1.82]), facility icodextrin use (AOR per 10% greater icodextrin use, 1.06 [95% CI, 1.01-1.12]), empirical aminoglycoside use (AOR, 3.95 [95% CI, 1.23-12.68]), and ciprofloxacin use versus ceftazidime use for Gram-negative peritonitis (AOR, 5.73 [95% CI, 1.07-30.61]). Prior peritonitis episodes (AOR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.74-0.99]) and concomitant exit-site infection (AOR, 0.41 [95% CI, 0.26-0.64]) were associated with a lower odds of cure.

Limitations: Sample selection may be biased and generalizability may be limited. Residual confounding and confounding by indication limit inferences. Use of facility-level treatment variables may not capture patient-level treatments.

Conclusions: Outcomes after peritonitis vary by patient characteristics, peritonitis characteristics, and modifiable peritonitis treatment practices. Differences in the odds of cure across infecting organisms and antibiotic regimens suggest that organism-specific treatment considerations warrant further investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2021.03.022DOI Listing
January 2022

Worldwide Early Impact of COVID-19 on Dialysis Patients and Staff and Lessons Learned: A DOPPS Roundtable Discussion.

Kidney Med 2021 Jul-Aug;3(4):619-634. Epub 2021 May 14.

Arbor Research Collaborative for Health, Ann Arbor, MI.

As the worst global pandemic of the past century, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a disproportionate effect on maintenance dialysis patients and their health care providers. At a virtual roundtable on June 12, 2020, Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) investigators from 15 countries in Asia, Europe, and the Americas described and compared the effects of COVID-19 on dialysis care, with recent updates added. Most striking is the huge difference in risk to dialysis patients and staff across the world. Per-population cases and deaths among dialysis patients vary more than 100-fold across participating countries, mirroring burden in the general population. International data indicate that the case-fatality ratio remains at 10% to 30% among dialysis patients, confirming the gravity of infection, and that cases are much more common among in-center than home dialysis patients. This latter finding merits urgent study because in-center patients often have greater community exposure, and in-center transmission may be uncommon under optimal protocols. Greater telemedicine use is a welcome change here to stay, and our community needs to improve emergency planning and protect dialysis staff from the next pandemic. Finally, the pandemic's challenges have prompted widespread partnering and innovation in kidney care and research that must be sustained after this global health crisis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xkme.2021.03.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120787PMC
May 2021

Mortality, hospitalization and transfer to haemodialysis and hybrid therapy, in Japanese peritoneal dialysis patients.

Perit Dial Int 2021 May 18:8968608211016127. Epub 2021 May 18.

Kawashima Hospital, Tokushima, Japan.

Background And Objectives: Survival of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients in Japan is high, but few reports exist on cause-specific mortality, transfer to haemodialysis (HD) or hybrid dialysis and hospitalisation risks. We aimed to identify reasons for transfer to HD, hybrid dialysis and hospitalisation in the Japan Peritoneal Dialysis and Outcomes Practice Patterns Study.

Methods: This observational study included 808 adult PD patients across 31 facilities in Japan in 2014-2017. Information on all-cause and cause-specific mortality and hospitalisation and permanent transfer to HD and PD/HD hybrid therapy were prospectively collected and rates calculated.

Results: Median follow-up time was 1.66 years where 162 patients transferred to HD, 79 transferred to hybrid dialysis and 74 patients died. All-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality rates were 5.1 and 1.7 deaths/100 patient-years, respectively. Rates of transfer to HD and hybrid therapy were 11.2 and 5.5 transfers/100 patient-years, respectively. Among HD transfers, 40% were due to infection (including peritonitis), while 20% were due to inadequate solute/water clearance. Eighty-one percent of hybrid dialysis transfers were due to inadequate solute/water clearance. All--cause, peritonitis-related and CVD-related hospitalisation rates were 120.4, 21.1 and 15.6/100 patient-years, respectively. Median hospital length of stay was 19 days.

Conclusions: Mortality, hospitalisation and transfer to HD/hybrid dialysis rates are relatively low in Japan compared to many other countries with hybrid transfers, accounting for one-third of dialysis transfers from PD. Further study is needed to explain the high inter-facility variation in hospitalisation rates and how to further reduce hospitalisation rates for Japanese PD patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/08968608211016127DOI Listing
May 2021

Association between Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Prescription and Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent Hyporesponsiveness in Hemodialysis Patients with Diabetes Mellitus.

Kidney Blood Press Res 2021 22;46(3):352-361. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Division of Nephrology and Endocrinology, The University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Introduction: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) has been hypothesized to improve responsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA). We aimed to describe the trend in DPP-4 inhibitor prescription patterns and assess the association between DPP-4 inhibitor prescription and ESA hyporesponsiveness (eHypo) in Japanese hemodialysis (HD) patients with diabetes mellitus (DM).

Methods: We analyzed data from the Japan Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study phase 4-6 (2009-2017) on patients with DM who underwent HD thrice per week for at least 4 months. The primary exposure of interest was having a DPP-4 inhibitor prescription. The primary analysis outcomes were a binary indicator of eHypo (mean hemoglobin <10 and mean ESA dose >6,000 units/week over 4 months) and the natural log-transformed ESA resistance index (ERI). We used conditional logistic regression to compare within-patient changes in eHypo before and after initial DPP-4 inhibitor prescription. We used linear generalized estimating equation models to compare continuous ERI outcomes while accounting for within-patient repeated measurements with an exchangeable correlation structure.

Results: There was a monotonic increase in DPP-4 inhibitor prescription according to study year up to 20% in 2017. Moreover, 12.8% of patients with a DPP-4 inhibitor prescription were ESA hyporesponsive before the initial DPP-4 inhibitor prescription. After DPP-4 inhibitor prescription, the odds of eHypo and mean log-ERI remained unchanged in the whole cohort of our study. The interaction analysis of DPP-4 inhibitor and sideropenia showed that DPP-4 inhibitors attenuated eHypo in the patients without iron deficiency.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate a recent increase in DPP-4 inhibitor prescription among Japanese HD patients with DM. DPP-4 inhibitors could improve ERI in patients undergoing HD without iron deficiency.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000515704DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparison of annual eGFR decline among primary kidney diseases in patients with CKD G3b-5: results from a REACH-J CKD cohort study.

Clin Exp Nephrol 2021 Aug 21;25(8):902-910. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8575, Japan.

Background: Disease-specific trajectories of renal function in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are not well defined. Here, we compared these trajectories in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by CKD stages.

Methods: Patients with multiple eGFR measurements during the 5-year preregistration period of the REACH-J study were enrolled. Mean annual eGFR declines were calculated from linear mixed effect models with the adjustment variables of baseline CKD stage, age, sex and the current CKD stage and the level of proteinuria (CKDA1-3).

Results: Among 1,969 eligible patients with CKDG3b-5, the adjusted eGFR decline (ml/min/1.73 m/year) was significantly faster in diabetic kidney disease (DKD) patients and polycystic kidney disease (PKD) patients than in patients with other kidney diseases (DKD, - 2.96 ± 0.13; PKD, - 2.82 ± 0.17; and others, - 1.95 ± 0.05, p < 0.01). The declines were faster with higher CKD stages. In DKD patients, the eGFR decline was significantly faster in CKDG5 than CKDG4 (- 4.10 ± 0.18 vs - 2.76 ± 0.20, p < 0.01), while these declines in PKD patients were similar. The eGFR declines in PKD patients were significantly faster than DKD patients in CKDG4 (- 2.92 ± 0.23 vs - 2.76 ± 0.20, p < 0.01) and in CKDA2 (- 3.36 ± 0.35 vs - 1.40 ± 0.26, p < 0.01).

Conclusion: Our study revealed the disease-specific annual eGFR declines by CKD stages and the level of proteinuria. Comparing to the other kidney diseases, the declines in PKD patients were getting faster from early stages of CKD. These results suggest the importance of CKD managements in PKD patients from the early stages.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10157-021-02059-yDOI Listing
August 2021

Burden of Kidney Disease, Health-Related Quality of Life, and Employment Among Patients Receiving Peritoneal Dialysis and In-Center Hemodialysis: Findings From the DOPPS Program.

Am J Kidney Dis 2021 10 16;78(4):489-500.e1. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Rationale & Objective: Individuals faced with decisions regarding kidney replacement therapy options need information on how dialysis treatments might affect daily activities and quality of life, and what factors might influence the evolution over time of the impact of dialysis on daily activities and quality of life.

Study Design: Observational cohort study.

Setting & Participants: 7,771 hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) participants from 6 countries participating in the Peritoneal and Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Studies (PDOPPS/DOPPS).

Predictors: Patient-reported functional status (based on daily living activities), country, demographic and clinical characteristics, and comorbidities.

Outcome: Employment status and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) including Kidney Disease Quality of Life (KDQOL) instrument physical and mental component summary scores (PCS, MCS), kidney disease burden score, and depression symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] score > 10).

Analytical Approach: Linear regression (PCS, MCS, kidney disease burden score), logistic regression (depression symptoms), adjusted for predictors plus 12 additional comorbidities.

Results: In both dialysis modalities, patients in Japan had the highest PCS and employment (55% for HD and 68% for PD), whereas those in the United States had the highest MCS score, lowest kidney disease burden, and lowest employment (20% in HD and 42% in PD). After covariate adjustment, the association of age, sex, dialysis vintage, diabetes, and functional status with PROs was similar in both modalities, with women having lower PCS and kidney disease burden scores. Lower functional status (score <11) was strongly associated with lower PCS and MCS scores, a much greater burden of kidney disease, and greater likelihood of depression symptoms (CES-D, >10). The median change in KDQOL-based PROs was negligible over 1 year in participants who completed at least 2 annual questionnaires.

Limitations: Selection bias due to incomplete survey responses. Generalizability was limited to the dialysis populations of the included countries.

Conclusions: Variation exists in quality of life, burden of kidney disease, and depression across countries but did not appreciably change over time. Functional status remained one of the strongest predictors of all PROs. Routine assessment of functional status may provide valuable insights for patients and providers in anticipating outcomes and support needs for patients receiving either PD or HD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2021.02.327DOI Listing
October 2021

Arteriovenous Vascular Access-Related Procedural Burden Among Incident Hemodialysis Patients in the United States.

Am J Kidney Dis 2021 09 20;78(3):369-379.e1. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Arbor Research Collaborative for Health, Ann Arbor, MI.

Rationale & Objective: As the proportion of arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) compared with arteriovenous grafts (AVGs) in the United States has increased, there has been a concurrent increase in interventions. We explored AVF and AVG maturation and maintenance procedural burden in the first year of hemodialysis.

Study Design: Observational cohort study.

Setting & Participants: Patients initiating hemodialysis from July 1, 2012, to December 31, 2014, and having a first-time AVF or AVG placement between dialysis initiation and 1 year (N = 73,027), identified using the US Renal Data System (USRDS).

Predictors: Patient characteristics.

Outcome: Successful AVF/AVG use and intervention procedure burden.

Analytical Approach: For each group, we analyzed interventional procedure rates during maturation maintenance phases using Poisson regression. We used proportional rate modeling for covariate-adjusted analysis of interventional procedure rates during the maintenance phase.

Results: During the maturation phase, 13,989 of 57,275 patients (24.4%) in the AVF group required intervention, with therapeutic interventional requirements of 0.36 per person. In the AVG group 2,904 of 15,572 patients (18.4%) required intervention during maturation, with therapeutic interventional requirements of 0.28 per person. During the maintenance phase, in the AVF group 12,732 of 32,115 patients (39.6%) required intervention, with a therapeutic intervention rate of 0.93 per person-year. During maintenance phase, in the AVG group 5,928 of 10,271 patients (57.7%) required intervention, with a therapeutic intervention rate of 1.87 per person-year. For both phases, the intervention rates for AVF tended to be higher on the East Coast while those for AVG were more uniform geographically.

Limitations: This study relies on administrative data, with monthly recording of access use.

Conclusions: During maturation, interventions for both AVFs and AVGs were relatively common. Once successfully matured, AVFs had lower maintenance interventional requirements. During the maturation and maintenance phases, there were geographic variations in AVF intervention rates that warrant additional study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2021.01.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8384666PMC
September 2021

Serum total indoxyl sulfate and clinical outcomes in hemodialysis patients: results from the Japan Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study.

Clin Kidney J 2021 Apr 31;14(4):1236-1243. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Division of Nephrology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Japan.

Background: Uremic toxins are associated with various chronic kidney disease-related comorbidities. Indoxyl sulfate (IS), a protein-bound uremic toxin, reacts with vasculature, accelerating atherosclerosis and/or vascular calcification in animal models. Few studies have examined the relationship of IS with clinical outcomes in a large cohort of hemodialysis (HD) patients.

Methods: We included 1170 HD patients from the Japan Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study Phase 5 (2012-15). We evaluated the associations of serum total IS (tIS) levels with all-cause mortality and clinical outcomes including cardiovascular (CV)-, infectious- and malignancy-caused events using Cox regressions.

Results: The median (interquartile range) serum tIS level at baseline was 31.6 μg/mL (22.6-42.0). Serum tIS level was positively associated with dialysis vintage. Median follow-up was 2.8 years (range: 0.01-2.9). We observed 174 deaths (14.9%; crude rate, 0.06/year). Serum tIS level was positively associated with all-cause mortality [adjusted hazard ratio per 10 μg/mL higher, 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.28]. Association with cause-specific death or hospitalization events, per 10 μg/mL higher serum tIS level, was 1.18 (95% CI 1.04-1.34) for infectious events, 1.08 (95% CI 0.97-1.20) for CV events and 1.02 (95% CI 0.87-1.21) for malignancy events after adjusting for covariates including several nutritional markers.

Conclusions: In a large cohort study of HD patients, serum tIS level was positively associated with all-cause mortality and infectious events.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfaa121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8023193PMC
April 2021

Medical Director Practice of Advising Increased Dietary Protein Intake in Hemodialysis Patients With Hyperphosphatemia: Associations With Mortality in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study.

J Ren Nutr 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Division of Nephrology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Japan.

Objectives: Patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) may have poor nutritional status and hyperphosphatemia. Nephrologists sometimes manage hyperphosphatemia by prescribing phosphate binders and/or recommending restriction of dietary phosphate including protein-rich foods; the later may, however, adversely affect nutritional status.

Design And Methods: The analysis includes 8805 HD patients on dialysis ≥ 120 days in 12 countries in Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) phase 4 (2009-2011), from 248 facilities. The primary exposure variable was response to the following question: "For patients with serum albumin 3.0 g/dL and phosphate 6.0 mg/dL, do you recommend to (A) increase or (B) decrease/no change in dietary protein intake (DPI)?". The association between medical director's practice of recommending an increase in DPI and all-cause mortality was analyzed with Cox regression adjusted for potential confounders. Linear and logistic regressions were used to model the cross-sectional associations between DPI advice practice and intermediate markers of patient nutrition.

Results: Median follow-up was 1.6 years. In the case scenario, 91% of medical directors in North America had a practice of recommending DPI increase compared to 58% in Europe (range = 36%-83% across 7 countries) and 56% in Japan. The practice of advising DPI increase was weakly associated with lower mortality [HR (95% CI): 0.88 (0.76-1.02)]. The association tended to be stronger in patients with age 70+ years [HR (95% CI): 0.82 (0.69-0.97), P = .12 for interaction]. The practice of advising DPI increase was associated with 0.276 mg/dL higher serum creatinine levels (95% CI: 0.033-0.520) after adjustment for case mix.

Conclusions: Medical director's practice of recommending an increase in DPI for HD patients with low albumin and high phosphate levels was associated with higher serum creatinine levels and potentially lower all-cause mortality. To recommend protein intake liberalization in parallel with phosphate management by physicians may be a critical practice for better nutritional status and outcomes in HD patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jrn.2021.02.007DOI Listing
April 2021

Serum biomarkers of iron stores are associated with worse physical health-related quality of life in nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease patients with or without anemia.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2021 08;36(9):1694-1703

Arbor Research Collaborative for Health, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Background: Iron deficiency (ID) is a common condition in nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) patients that is associated with poorer clinical outcomes. However, the effect of ID on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in this population is unknown. We analyzed data from a multinational cohort of NDD-CKD Stages 3-5 patients to test the association between transferrin saturation (TSAT) index and ferritin with HRQoL.

Methods: Patients from Brazil (n = 205), France (n = 2015) and the USA (n = 293) in the Chronic Kidney Disease Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (CKDopps, 2013-2019) were included. We evaluated the association of TSAT and ferritin (and functional and absolute ID, defined as TSAT ≤20% and ferritin ≥300 or <50 ng/mL) on pre-specified HRQoL measures, including the 36-item Kidney Disease Quality of Life physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) as the primary outcomes. Models were adjusted for confounders including hemoglobin (Hb).

Results: TSAT ≤15% and ferritin <50 ng/mL and ≥300 ng/mL were associated with worse PCS scores, but not with MCS. Patients with composite TSAT ≤20% and ferritin <50 or ≥300 ng/mL had lower functional status and worse PCS scores than those with a TSAT of 20-30% and ferritin 50-299 ng/mL. Patients with a lower TSAT were less likely to perform intense physical activity. Adjustment for Hb only slightly attenuated the observed effects.

Conclusions: Low TSAT levels, as well as both low TSAT with low ferritin and low TSAT with high ferritin, are associated with worse physical HRQoL in NDD-CKD patients, even after accounting for Hb level. Interventional studies of iron therapy on HRQoL among NDD-CKD individuals are needed to confirm these findings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfab050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8396397PMC
August 2021

Adherence to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes CKD Guideline in Nephrology Practice Across Countries.

Kidney Int Rep 2021 Feb 17;6(2):437-448. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Arbor Research Collaborative for Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Introduction: The uptake of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2012 chronic kidney disease (CKD) Guideline is not fully described in real-world nephrology practice across the world.

Methods: We used baseline data from the CKD Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (2013-2017), a 4-country cohort of patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min per 1.73 m recruited from national samples of nephrology clinics, to describe adherence to measures for monitoring and delaying CKD progression. Data were collected as in clinical practice, except laboratory measures per protocol in France.

Results: The mean age ranged from 65 years in Brazil to 72 years in Germany. Albuminuria (mostly proteinuria) was measured routinely in 36% to 43% of patients in Brazil, Germany, and the United States. Blood pressure control (≤140/90 mm Hg) ranged from 49% in France to 76% in Brazil; <40% of patients had blood pressure ≤130/80 mm Hg everywhere but Brazil (52%). More than 40% of nephrologists in Brazil reported a systolic blood pressure target ≤130 mm Hg for nondiabetic patients without proteinuria, but only 19% to 24% elsewhere. Prescription of renin-angiotensin aldosterone system inhibitors ranged from 52% in the United States to 81% in Germany. Dietary advice was more frequent for salt than protein intake; dietitian visits were uncommon. In nondiabetic patients, achievement of all 3 targets including blood pressure ≤130/80 mm Hg, renin-angiotensin aldosterone system inhibition, and dietary advice, ranged from 10% in the United States to 32% in Brazil; in treated diabetic patients, this ranged from 6% to 11% after including hemoglobin A1c target.

Conclusion: Adherence to recommendations to slow CKD progression is low in typical practice settings, and substantial variation among countries for some indicates opportunities for improvement.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2020.11.039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7879121PMC
February 2021

Low Serum Potassium Levels and Clinical Outcomes in Peritoneal Dialysis-International Results from PDOPPS.

Kidney Int Rep 2021 Feb 22;6(2):313-324. Epub 2020 Nov 22.

St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Hypokalemia, including normal range values <4 mEq/l, has been associated with increased peritonitis and mortality in patients with peritoneal dialysis. This study sought to describe international variation in hypokalemia, potential modifiable hypokalemia risk factors, and the covariate-adjusted relationship of hypokalemia with peritonitis and mortality.

Methods: Baseline serum potassium was determined in 7421 patients from 7 countries in the Peritoneal Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (2014-2017). Association of baseline patient and treatment factors with subsequent serum potassium <4 mEq/l was evaluated by logistic regression, whereas baseline serum potassium levels (4-month average and fraction of 4 months having hypokalemia) on clinical outcomes was assessed by Cox regression.

Results: Hypokalemia was more prevalent in Thailand and among black patients in the United States. Characteristics/treatments associated with potassium <4 mEq/l included protein-energy wasting indicators, lower urine volume, lower blood pressure, higher dialysis dose, greater diuretic use, and not being prescribed a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor. Persistent hypokalemia (all 4 months vs. 0 months over the 4-month exposure period) was associated with 80% higher subsequent peritonitis rates (at K <3.5 mEq/l) and 40% higher mortality (at K <4.0 mEq/l) after extensive case mix/potential confounding adjustments. Furthermore, adjusted peritonitis rates were higher if having mean serum K over 4 months <3.5 mEq/l versus 4.0-4.4 mEq/l (hazard ratio, 1.15 [95% confidence interval, 0.96-1.37]), largely because of Gram-positive/culture-negative infections.

Conclusions: Persistent hypokalemia is associated with higher mortality and peritonitis even after extensive adjustment for patient factors. Further studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms of these poorer outcomes and modifiable risk factors for persistent hypokalemia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2020.11.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7879114PMC
February 2021

Self-reported Pruritus and Clinical, Dialysis-Related, and Patient-Reported Outcomes in Hemodialysis Patients.

Kidney Med 2021 Jan-Feb;3(1):42-53.e1. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Arbor Research Collaborative for Health, Ann Arbor, MI.

Rationale & Objective: Chronic kidney disease (CKD)-associated pruritus, generalized itching related to CKD, affects many aspects of hemodialysis patients' lives. However, information regarding the relationship between pruritus and several key outcomes in hemodialysis patients remains limited.

Study Design: Prospective cohort.

Setting & Participants: 23,264 hemodialysis patients from 21 countries in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) phases 4 to 6 (2009-2018).

Exposure: Pruritus severity, based on self-reported degree to which patients were bothered by itchy skin (5-category ordinal scale from "not at all" to "extremely").

Outcomes: Clinical, dialysis-related, and patient-reported outcomes.

Analytical Approach: Cox regression for time-to-event outcomes and modified Poisson regression for binary outcomes, adjusted for potential confounders.

Results: The proportion of patients at least moderately bothered by pruritus was 37%, and 7% were extremely bothered. Compared with the reference group ("not at all"), the adjusted mortality HR for patients extremely bothered by pruritus was 1.24 (95% CI, 1.08-1.41). Rates of cardiovascular and infection-related deaths and hospitalizations were also higher for patients extremely versus not at all bothered by pruritus (HR range, 1.17-1.44). Patients extremely bothered by pruritus were also more likely to withdraw from dialysis and miss hemodialysis sessions and were less likely to be employed. Strong monotonic associations were observed between pruritus severity and longer recovery time from a hemodialysis session, lower physical and mental quality of life, increased depressive symptoms, and poorer sleep quality.

Limitations: Residual confounding, recall bias, nonresponse bias.

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate how diverse and far-reaching poor outcomes are for patients who experience CKD-associated pruritus, specifically those with more severe pruritus. There is need for change in practice patterns internationally to effectively identify and treat patients with pruritus to reduce symptom burden and improve quality of life and possibly even survival.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xkme.2020.08.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7873756PMC
November 2020

A real-world longitudinal study of anemia management in non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease patients: a multinational analysis of CKDopps.

Sci Rep 2021 01 19;11(1):1784. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Arbor Research Collaborative for Health, 3700 Earhart Road, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105, USA.

Previously lacking in the literature, we describe longitudinal patterns of anemia prescriptions for non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) patients under nephrologist care. We analyzed data from 2818 Stage 3-5 NDD-CKD patients from Brazil, Germany, and the US, naïve to anemia medications (oral iron, intravenous [IV] iron, or erythropoiesis stimulating agent [ESA]) at enrollment in the CKDopps. We report the cumulative incidence function (CIF) of medication initiation stratified by baseline characteristics. Even in patients with hemoglobin (Hb) < 10 g/dL, the CIF at 12 months for any anemia medication was 40%, and 28% for ESAs. Patients with TSAT < 20% had a CIF of 26% and 6% for oral and IV iron, respectively. Heart failure was associated with earlier initiation of anemia medications. IV iron was prescribed to < 10% of patients with iron deficiency. Only 40% of patients with Hb < 10 g/dL received any anemia medication within a year. Discontinuation of anemia treatment was very common. Anemia treatment is initiated in a limited number of NDD-CKD patients, even in those with guideline-based indications to treat. Hemoglobin trajectory and a history of heart failure appear to guide treatment start. These results support the concept that anemia is sub-optimally managed among NDD-CKD patients in the real-world setting.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79254-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7815803PMC
January 2021

Sex differences in chronic kidney disease awareness among US adults, 1999 to 2018.

PLoS One 2020 18;15(12):e0243431. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Internal Medicine III, Clinical Division of Nephrology & Dialysis, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is less prevalent among men than women, but more men than women initiate kidney replacement therapy. Differences in CKD awareness may contribute to this gender gap, which may further vary by race/ethnicity. We aimed to investigate trends in CKD awareness and the association between individual characteristics and CKD awareness among US men versus women.

Methods And Findings: We conducted a serial, cross-sectional analysis of 10 cycles (1999-2018) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Adult participants with CKD stages G3-G5 (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73m2) were included, unless they were on dialysis or medical information was missing. Serum creatinine was measured during NHANES medical exams. CKD stage was classified by eGFR, based on the CKD-EPI formula. CKD awareness was assessed with the question: "Have you ever been told by a health care professional you had weak or failing kidneys", asked in standardized NHANES questionnaires on each survey. Using logistic regression models, we evaluated the association between sex and CKD awareness, adjusting for potential confounders including age, race/ethnicity and comorbidities. We stratified CKD awareness by 5 pre-defined calendar-year periods and conducted all analyses for the complete study population as well as the Caucasian and African American subpopulations. We found that among 101871 US persons participating in NHANES, 4411 (2232 women) had CKD in stages G3-G5. These participants were, on average, 73±10 years old, 25.3% reported diabetes, 78.0% reported hypertension or had elevated blood pressure during medical examinations and 39.8% were obese (percentages were survey-weighted). CKD awareness was more prevalent among those with higher CKD stage, younger age, diabetes, hypertension and higher body mass index. CKD awareness was generally low (<22.5%), though it increased throughout the study period, remaining consistently higher among men compared to women, with a decreasing gender gap over time (adjusted odds ratio [men-to-women] for CKD awareness = 2.71 [1.31-5.64] in period 1; = 1.32 [0.82-2.12] in period 5). The sex difference in CKD awareness was smaller in African American participants, in whom CKD awareness was generally higher. Using serum creatinine rather than eGFR as the CKD-defining exposure, CKD awareness increased with rising serum creatinine, in a close to identical fashion among both sexes during 1999-2008, while during 2009-2018, CKD awareness among women increased earlier than among men (i.e. with lower serum creatinine levels).

Conclusions: CKD awareness is lower among US women than men. The narrowing gap between the sexes in more recent years and the results on CKD awareness by serum creatinine indicate that health care professionals have previously been relying on serum creatinine to inform patients about their condition, but in more recent years have been using eGFR, which accounts for women's lower serum creatinine levels due to their lower muscle mass. Additional efforts should be made to increase CKD awareness among both sexes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243431PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7748269PMC
January 2021

Survival Among Incident Peritoneal Dialysis Versus Hemodialysis Patients Who Initiate With an Arteriovenous Fistula.

Kidney Med 2020 Nov-Dec;2(6):732-741.e1. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Rationale & Objective: Comparisons of outcomes between in-center hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) are confounded by selection bias because PD patients are typically younger and healthier and may have received longer predialysis care. We compared first-year survival between what we hypothesized were clinically equivalent groups; namely, patients who initiate maintenance HD using an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and those selecting PD as their initial modality.

Study Design: Observational, registry-based, retrospective cohort study.

Setting & Participants: US Renal Data System data for 5 annual cohorts (2010-2014; n = 130,324) of incident HD with an AVF and incident PD patients.

Exposures And Predictors: Exposure was more than 1 day receiving PD or more than 1 day receiving HD with an AVF. Time at risk for both cohorts was determined for 12 consecutive 30-day segments, censoring for transplantation, loss to follow-up, or end of time. Predictors included patient-level characteristics obtained from Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services 2728 Form and other data sources.

Outcomes: Patient survival.

Analytical Approach: Unadjusted and multivariable risk-adjusted HRs for death of HD versus PD patients, averaged over 2010 to 2014, were calculated.

Results: The HD cohort's average unadjusted mortality rate was consistently higher than for the PD cohort. The HR of HD versus PD was 1.25 (95% CI, 1.20-1.30) in the unadjusted model and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.80-0.87) in the adjusted model. However, multivariable risk-adjusted analyses showed the HR of HD versus PD for the first 90 days was 1.06 (95% CI, 0.98-1.14), decreasing to 0.74 (95% CI, 0.68-0.80) in the 270- to 360-day period.

Limitations: Residual confounding due to selection bias inherent in dialysis modality choice and the observational study design. Form 2728 provides baseline data at dialysis incidence alone, but not over time.

Conclusions: US patients receiving HD with an AVF appear to have a survival advantage over PD patients after 90 days of dialysis initiation after accounting for patient characteristics. These findings have implications in the choice of initial dialysis modality and vascular access for patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xkme.2020.09.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7729241PMC
October 2020

Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Mortality Among Prevalent Hemodialysis Patients in the Japan Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study.

Kidney Int Rep 2020 Nov 20;5(11):1956-1964. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Division of Nephrology, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Japan.

Introduction: Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels have been strongly associated with mortality in the predialysis and incident hemodialysis populations, but few studies have examined this relationship in a large cohort of prevalent hemodialysis patients and in particular among persons with high dialysis vintage. To address this, we analyzed data from the Japan Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (J-DOPPS).

Methods: We included 1122 prevalent hemodialysis patients from the J-DOPPS phase 5 (2012-2015) who had FGF23 measurements. We evaluated the association of FGF23 levels with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular composite outcome using Cox regression adjusted for potential confounders.

Results: At study enrollment, median dialysis vintage was 5.8 years (interquartile range, 2.7-12.4 years) and median FGF23 level was 2113 pg/ml (interquartile range, 583-6880 pg/ml). During 3-year follow-up, 154 of the 1122 participants died. In adjusted analyses, higher FGF23 was associated with a greater hazard of death (hazard ratio per doubling of FGF23, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.21); however, the association became weaker as the dialysis vintage increased and finally disappeared in the highest tertile (>9.4 years). Similar patterns of effect modification by dialysis vintage were observed for cardiovascular composite outcome and in time-dependent models.

Conclusion: Elevated FGF23 was associated with mortality and cardiovascular events in prevalent hemodialysis patients, but the association was attenuated at longer dialysis vintages. This novel finding suggests that long-term hemodialysis patients may be less susceptible to the detrimental effects of FGF23 or correlated biological processes, and additional studies are needed to gain understanding of these possibilities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2020.08.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7609896PMC
November 2020

Peritoneal Dialysis and Mortality, Kidney Transplant, and Transition to Hemodialysis: Trends From 1996-2015 in the United States.

Kidney Med 2020 Sep-Oct;2(5):610-619.e1. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Arbor Research Collaborative for Health, Ann Arbor, MI.

Rationale & Objective: Transitions between dialysis modalities can be disruptive to care. Our goals were to evaluate rates of transition from peritoneal dialysis (PD) to in-center hemodialysis (HD), mortality, and transplantation among incident PD patients in the US Renal Data System from 1996 to 2015 and identify factors associated with these outcomes.

Study Design: Observational registry-based retrospective cohort study.

Setting & Participants: Medicare patients incident to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from January 1, 1996, through December 31, 2011 (for adjusted analyses; through December 31, 2014, for unadjusted analyses), and treated with PD 1 or more days within 180 days of ESRD incidence (n = 173,533 for adjusted analyses; n = 219,787 for unadjusted analyses).

Exposure & Predictors: Exposure: 1 or more days of PD. Predictors: patient- and facility-level characteristics obtained from Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Form 2728 and other data sources.

Outcomes: Patients were followed up for 3 years until transition to in-center HD, death, or transplantation.

Analytical Approach: Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate hazards over time and associations with predictors.

Results: Compared with earlier cohorts, recent incident PD patient cohorts had lower rates of death (48% decline) and transition to in-center HD (13% decline). Among many other findings, we found that: (1) rates of transition to in-center HD and death were lowest in the 2008 to 2011 cohort, (2) longer time receiving PD was associated with higher mortality risk but lower risk for transition to in-center HD, and (3) larger PD programs (≥25 vs ≤6 patients) displayed lower risks for death and transition to in-center HD.

Limitations: Data collected on Form 2728 are only at the time of ESRD incidence and do not provide information at the time of transition to in-center HD, death, or transplantation.

Conclusions: Rates of transition from PD to in-center HD and death rates for PD patients decreased over time and were lowest in PD programs with 25 or more patients. Implications of the observed improved technique survival warrant further investigation, focusing on modifiable factors of center-level performance to create opportunities for improved patient outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xkme.2020.06.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7568078PMC
August 2020

The risk of medically uncontrolled secondary hyperparathyroidism depends on parathyroid hormone levels at haemodialysis initiation.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2021 01;36(1):160-169

Arbor Research Collaborative for Health, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Background: Optimal parathyroid hormone (PTH) control during non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD) might decrease the subsequent risk of parathyroid hyperplasia and uncontrolled secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) on dialysis. However, the evidence for recommending PTH targets and therapeutic strategies is weak for ND-CKD. We evaluated the patient characteristics, treatment patterns and PTH control over the first year of haemodialysis (HD) by PTH prior to HD initiation.

Methods: We studied 5683 incident HD patients from 21 countries in Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study Phases 4-6 (2009-18). We stratified by PTH measured immediately prior to HD initiation and reported the monthly prescription prevalence of active vitamin D and calcimimetics over the first year of HD and risk of PTH >600 pg/mL after 9-12 months on HD.

Results: The 16% of patients with PTH >600 pg/mL prior to HD initiation were more likely to be prescribed active vitamin D and calcimimetics during the first year of HD. The prevalence of PTH >600 pg/mL 9-12 months after start of HD was greater for patients who initiated HD with PTH >600 (29%) versus 150-300 (7%) pg/mL (adjusted risk difference: 19%; 95% confidence interval : 15%, 23%). The patients with sustained PTH >600 pg/mL after 9-12 months on HD were younger, more likely to be black, and had higher serum phosphorus and estimated glomerular filtration rates at HD initiation.

Conclusions: Increased PTH before HD start predicted a higher PTH level 9-12 months later, despite greater use of active vitamin D and calcimimetics. More targeted PTH control during ND-CKD may influence outcomes during HD, raising the need for PTH target guidelines in these patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfaa195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7771977PMC
January 2021

International Comparisons of Native Arteriovenous Fistula Patency and Time to Becoming Catheter-Free: Findings From the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS).

Am J Kidney Dis 2021 02 21;77(2):245-254. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Arbor Research Collaborative for Health, Ann Arbor, MI.

Rationale & Objective: Optimizing vascular access use is crucial for long-term hemodialysis patient care. Because vascular access use varies internationally, we examined international differences in arteriovenous fistula (AVF) patency and time to becoming catheter-free for patients receiving a new AVF.

Study Design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting & Participants: 2,191 AVFs newly created in 2,040 hemodialysis patients in 2009 to 2015 at 466 randomly selected facilities in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) from the United States, Japan, and EUR/ANZ (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand).

Predictors: Demographics, comorbid conditions, dialysis vintage, body mass index, AVF location, and country/region.

Outcomes: Primary/cumulative AVF patency (from creation), primary/cumulative functional patency (from first use), catheter dependence duration, and mortality.

Analytical Approach: Outcomes estimated using Cox regression.

Results: Across regions, mean patient age ranged from 61 to 66 years, with male preponderance ranging from 55% to 66%, median dialysis vintage of 0.3 to 3.2 years, with 84%, 54%, and 32% of AVFs created in the forearm in Japan, EUR/ANZ, and United States, respectively. Japan displayed superior primary and cumulative patencies due to higher successful AVF use, whereas cumulative functional patency was similar across regions. AVF patency associations with age and other patient characteristics were weak or varied considerably between regions. Catheter-dependence following AVF creation was much longer in EUR/ANZ and US patients, with nearly 70% remaining catheter dependent 8 months after AVF creation when AVFs were not successfully used. Not using an arteriovenous access within 6 months of AVF creation was related to 53% higher mortality in the subsequent 6 months.

Limitations: Residual confounding.

Conclusions: Our findings highlight the need to reevaluate practices for optimizing long-term access planning and achievable AVF outcomes, especially AVF maturation. New AVFs that are not successfully used are associated with long-term catheter exposure and elevated mortality risk. These findings highlight the importance of selecting the best access type for each patient and developing effective clinical pathways for when AVFs fail to mature successfully.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2020.06.020DOI Listing
February 2021

Anemia and iron deficiency among chronic kidney disease Stages 3-5ND patients in the Chronic Kidney Disease Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study: often unmeasured, variably treated.

Clin Kidney J 2020 Aug 3;13(4):613-624. Epub 2019 Aug 3.

Arbor Research Collaborative for Health, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Background: International variation in anemia assessment and management practices in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is poorly understood.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of anemia laboratory monitoring, prevalence and management in the prospective Chronic Kidney Disease Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (CKDopps). A total of 6766 participants with CKD Stages 3a-5ND from nephrology clinics in Brazil, France, Germany and the USA were included.

Results: Among patients with anemia (hemoglobin <12 g/dL), 36-58% in Brazil, the USA and Germany had repeat hemoglobin measured and 40-61% had iron indices measured within 3 months of the index hemoglobin measurement. Anemia was more common in the USA and Brazil than in France and Germany across CKD stages. Higher ferritin and lower iron saturation (TSAT) levels were observed with lower hemoglobin levels, and higher ferritin with more advanced CKD. The proportion of anemic patients with ferritin <100 ng/mL or TSAT <20% ranged from 42% in Brazil to 53% in France and Germany, and of these patients, over 40% in Brazil, Germany and the USA, compared with 27% in France, were treated with oral or intravenous iron within 3 months after hemoglobin measurement. The proportion of patients with hemoglobin <10 g/dL treated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents ranged from 28% in the USA to 57% in Germany.

Conclusions: Hemoglobin and iron stores are measured less frequently than per guidelines. Among all regions, there was a substantial proportion of anemic patients with iron deficiency who were not treated with iron, highlighting an area for practice improvement in CKD care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfz091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7467578PMC
August 2020

International variation in dialysis discontinuation in patients with advanced kidney disease.

CMAJ 2020 Aug;192(35):E995-E1002

University Health Network (Jassal), Toronto, Ont.; Arbor Research Collaborative for Health (Larkina, Port, McCullough, Pisoni), Ann Arbor, Mich.; ERA-EDTA Registry (Jager), Department of Medical Informatics, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Wolfson Palliative Care Research Centre (Murtagh), Hull York Medical School, University of Hull, Hull, UK; VA Puget Sound Health Care System (O'Hare), Seattle, Wash.; Department of Blood Purification (Hanafusa), Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan; Departments of Epidemiology (Morgenstern) and Environmental Health Sciences (Morgenstern), School of Public Health, and Department of Urology (Morgenstern), Medical School, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.; DaVita Outcomes Research and Patient Empowerment (Tentori), Denver, Colo.; Divisions of Nephrology (Perlman, Swartz) and Palliative Care (Swartz), Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Mich.

Background: Decisions about dialysis for advanced kidney disease are often strongly shaped by sociocultural and system-level factors rather than the priorities and values of individual patients. We examined international variation in the uptake of conservative approaches to the care of patients with advanced kidney disease, in particular discontinuation of dialysis.

Methods: We employed an observational cohort study design using data collected from patients maintained on long-term hemodialysis between 1996 and 2015 in facilities across 12 developed countries participating in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS). The main outcome was discontinuation of dialysis therapy. We analyzed the association between several patient characteristics and time to dialysis discontinuation by country and phase of study entry.

Results: A total of 259 343 DOPPS patients contributed data to the study, of whom 48 519 (18.7%) died during the study period. Of the decedents, 5808 (12.0%) discontinued dialysis before death. Rates of discontinuation were higher within the first few months after initiation of dialysis, among older adults, among those with a greater number of comorbidities and among those living in an institution. After adjustment for age, sex, dialysis duration, diabetes and dialysis era, rates of discontinuation were highest in Canada, the United States and Australia/New Zealand (33.8, 31.4 and 21.5 per 1000/yr, respectively) and lowest in Japan and Italy (< 0.1 per 1000/yr). Crude discontinuation rates were highest in dialysis facilities that were more likely to offer comprehensive conservative renal care to older adults.

Interpretation: We found persistent international variation in average rates of dialysis discontinuation not explained by differences in patient case-mix. These differences may reflect physician-, facility- and society-level differences in clinical practice. There may be opportunities for international cross-collaboration to improve support for patients with end-stage renal disease who prefer a more conservative approach.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.191631DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7458683PMC
August 2020

Optimizing Peritoneal Dialysis-Associated Peritonitis Prevention in the United States: From Standardized Peritoneal Dialysis-Associated Peritonitis Reporting and Beyond.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2020 12 6;16(1):154-161. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Arbor Research Collaborative for Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis is the leading cause of permanent transition to hemodialysis among patients receiving PD. Peritonitis is associated with higher mortality risk and added treatment costs and limits more widespread PD utilization. Optimizing the prevention of peritonitis in the United States will first require standardization of peritonitis definitions, key data elements, and outcomes in an effort to facilitate nationwide reporting. Standardized reporting can also help describe the variability in peritonitis rates and outcomes across facilities in the United States in an effort to identify potential peritonitis prevention strategies and engage with stakeholders to develop strategies for their implementation. Here, we will highlight considerations and challenges in developing standardized definitions and implementation of national reporting of peritonitis rates by PD facilities. We will describe existing peritonitis prevention evidence gaps, highlight successful infection-reporting initiatives among patients receiving in-center hemodialysis or PD, and provide an overview of nationwide quality improvement initiatives, both in the United States and elsewhere, that have translated into a reduction in peritonitis incidence. We will discuss opportunities for collaboration and expansion of the Nephrologists Transforming Dialysis Safety (NTDS) initiative to develop knowledge translation pathways that will lead to dissemination of best practices in an effort to reduce peritonitis incidence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.11280919DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7792655PMC
December 2020
-->