Publications by authors named "Ronald Huang"

40 Publications

Retrieval Analysis of Polyethylene Components in Rotating Hinge Knee Arthroplasty Implants.

J Arthroplasty 2021 08 13;36(8):2998-3003. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Adult Reconstruction and Joint Replacement Service, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY.

Background: This study examined a cohort of retrieved rotating hinge (RH) total knee arthroplasty implants of four different designs with emphasis on the surface damage observed on the polyethylene components. Our purpose was to determine if differences in polyethylene damage existed among the designs, and if those differences could be explained by differences in design characteristics.

Materials And Methods: Seventy-two RH implants from four manufacturers (DePuy LPS/SROM, Zimmer NexGen, Stryker Howmedica MRH, and Biomet Finn-OSS) removed at the time of revision performed between 2002 and 2017 were identified in our institutional retrieval registry. Damage to the surfaces of the polyethylene was assessed using a subjective grading system and evaluated in multiple zones. Design characteristics that were evaluated included the following: location of the dwell point on the polyethylene component, posterior position of the axle, and amount of hyperextension and rotation allowed by the implant.

Results: There were no differences in total damage scores between the four implant groups (P = .45). The Stryker Howmedica MRH group showed the least backside wear of all implants but significantly more articular-sided wear compared with two of the other three groups. All implants except NexGen showed increased total damage scores in implants revised for mechanical (vs nonmechanical) reasons and in implants with a longer duration of implantation.

Conclusion: No single implant design emerged as superior in terms of minimizing polyethylene wear damage. Polyethylene damage existed in various locations but was not different in severity across designs, suggesting that there is no clear superior RH design that minimizes overall articular surface wear compared with other designs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.04.003DOI Listing
August 2021

Five-Year Follow-Up of Clinical Outcomes with an Anatomic Dual-Mobility Acetabular System: A Multicenter Study.

Arthroplast Today 2020 Sep 27;6(3):543-547. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Hospital for Special Surgery, Adult Reconstruction and Joint Replacement, New York, NY, USA.

Background: The dual-mobility implant system has been shown to increase impingement-free range of motion and decrease dislocation risk by increasing the effective head size. In addition, the anatomic dual-mobility (ADM) cup offers relief between the acetabular shell rim and the iliopsoas tendon. This study was designed to review a series of hips implanted with the ADM acetabular cup to examine clinical outcomes after 5 years of implantation at multiple orthopaedic centers.

Methods: We retrospectively queried our prospectively collected total joint arthroplasty registry for patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty with an ADM cup from January 2008 to December 2012 at 4 different orthopaedic institutions and who had minimum 5-year follow-up. Harris Hip Scores and visual analog scale scores were evaluated. Postoperative complications, dislocations, and revisions for any reason were recorded.

Results: A total of 142 patients had a mean follow-up of 5.7 years (range: 5.0 to 8.0 years). Radiographic analysis showed no radiolucent lines, osteolysis, or acetabular loosening. There were no dislocations in this patient series. Two (1.2%) hips required a revision because of adverse local tissue reactions related to corrosion from a recalled modular neck stem, but this was unrelated to the ADM cup. The mean Harris Hip pain scores increased from 17 points preoperatively to 39 points at the most recent follow-up ( < .001). The mean Harris Hip function score increased from an average of 29 points preoperatively to 38 points at the most recent follow-up ( < .001). The mean visual analog scale score showed patient improvement from 6.5 preoperatively to 1.2 postoperatively ( < .001).

Conclusions: ADM prostheses were designed to reduce the risk of dislocation by increasing the size of the effective femoral head. In this multicenter study of ADM cups used in primary total hip arthroplasty, we demonstrated good clinical and radiographic outcomes, no dislocations, and no revisions at midterm 5-year minimum follow-up. Patient-reported outcome measures were also improved, supporting the use of this implant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.artd.2020.06.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7393448PMC
September 2020

Multicenter Evaluation of a Modular Dual Mobility Construct for Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2019 Jul 30;34(7S):S287-S291. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Hospital for Special Surgery, Adult Reconstruction and Joint Replacement, New York, NY.

Introduction: Modular Dual Mobility (MDM) constructs in total hip arthroplasty (THA) offer increased hip stability compared with constrained liners, without compromising hip range of motion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes of revision THA using MDM.

Methods: The study was a multiinstitutional retrospective cohort study of 315 hips that underwent revision THA using MDM between 2011 and 2017. Clinical outcomes and reasons for failure were collected.

Results: Three hundred fifteen patients met 1-year minimum follow-up (mean 3.3 years). Nine hips had instability postoperatively (2.9%), and 30 hips required reoperation (9.5%). Seven had recurrent instability (6.5%) which was associated with liner-only exchange (P = .021) and liner outer diameter of ≤ 38 mm (P = .016).

Conclusion: Revision THA with MDM provided a low rate of instability and reoperation in a revision cohort. Recurrent instability following use of MDM in revision THA was associated with retention of the acetabular component and polyethylene outer diameter ≤ 38 mm.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.03.027DOI Listing
July 2019

Potent Anticoagulation Does Not Reduce Venous Thromboembolism in High-Risk Patients.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2019 Apr;101(7):589-599

Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Based on current guidelines from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS), a number of prophylactic modalities for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in total joint arthroplasty may be used. It is common practice that more potent prophylactic agents are used for patients at higher risk of venous thromboembolism. However, we are aware of no studies that have investigated the efficacy of potent anticoagulation in higher-risk individuals. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to test the hypothesis that low-molecular-weight heparin and warfarin result in a reduction in venous thromboembolism events in high-risk patients.

Methods: A retrospective, multi-institutional study of 60,467 primary and revision total joint arthroplasties from 2000 to 2015 was performed. Identified medications were classified as aspirin, low-molecular-weight heparin, or warfarin. Patients with unavailable venous thromboembolism prophylaxis information or those not receiving the aforementioned prophylaxis were excluded. Information pertinent to the objective of this study was collected and a venous thromboembolism risk score was calculated based on 26 variables. Treatment outcomes assessed included 90-day rate of symptomatic venous thromboembolism and periprosthetic joint infection. Propensity score matching was performed (1:1), as well as logistic regression analysis on the total sample.

Results: Aspirin prophylaxis demonstrated a lower rate of deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and venous thromboembolism than warfarin and low-molecular-weight heparin alone throughout all risk scores. In the matched propensity score analysis, low-molecular-weight heparin and warfarin demonstrated increased odds of venous thromboembolism for both standard-risk and high-risk patients undergoing total knee arthroplasties compared with aspirin. For primary total hip arthroplasty, warfarin demonstrated an increased risk for high-risk patients and low-molecular-weight heparin demonstrated an increased risk for standard-risk patients. The prevalence of periprosthetic joint infection was higher in patients receiving warfarin (p < 0.001 for both comparisons of warfarin with aspirin and low-molecular-weight heparin).

Conclusions: The results of this multi-institutional study demonstrate that the use of warfarin and low-molecular-weight heparin in higher-risk patients does not necessarily result in a reduction in symptomatic venous thromboembolism. Aspirin administered to higher-risk patients seems to be as effective as potent anticoagulation and more effective than warfarin.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.18.00335DOI Listing
April 2019

The Use of Aspirin for Prophylaxis Against Venous Thromboembolism Decreases Mortality Following Primary Total Joint Arthroplasty.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2019 Mar;101(6):504-513

The Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: The use of aspirin as prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism (VTE) following total joint arthroplasty (TJA) has increased in popularity; however, the potential cardioprotective effects of aspirin when administered as VTE prophylaxis remain unknown. The present study investigated the influence of VTE prophylaxis, including aspirin, on mortality following TJA.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 31,133 patients who underwent primary TJA from 2000 to 2017. Patient demographics, body mass index, and comorbidities were obtained from an electronic chart query. Patients were allocated into 2 cohorts on the basis of the VTE prophylaxis administered: aspirin (25.9%, 8,061 patients) and non-aspirin (74.1%, 23,072 patients). Mortality was assessed with use of an institutional mortality database that is updated biannually. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed.

Results: The overall mortality rate was 0.2% and 0.6% at 30 days and 1 year after TJA, respectively. The use of aspirin was independently associated with lower risk of death at both 30 days (odds ratio [OR], 0.39; p = 0.020) and 1 year (OR, 0.51; p = 0.004). Patients in the non-aspirin cohort showed 3 times the risk of death at 30 days compared with the aspirin cohort (0.3% compared with 0.1%; p = 0.004), and twice the risk of death at 1 year (0.7% compared with 0.3%; p < 0.001). At 1 year, the primary cause of death in the non-aspirin group was cardiac-related (46 of 23,072, 0.20%). In the aspirin group, the rate of cardiac-related death was almost 5 times lower (3 of 8,061, 0.04%; p = 0.005). Risk factors for mortality at 1 year included higher age (p < 0.001), male sex (p = 0.020), history of congestive heart failure (p = 0.003), cerebrovascular disease (p < 0.001), malignancy (p < 0.001), and history of prior myocardial infarction (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that the use of aspirin as prophylaxis against VTE following TJA may reduce the risk of mortality. Given the numerous options available and permitted by the current guidelines, orthopaedic surgeons should be aware of the potential added benefits of aspirin when selecting a VTE-prophylactic agent.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.18.00143DOI Listing
March 2019

Aspirin provides adequate VTE prophylaxis for patients undergoing hip preservation surgery, including periacetabular osteotomy.

J Hip Preserv Surg 2018 Jul 5;5(2):125-130. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Rothman Institute at Thomas, Jefferson University Hospital, Sheridan Building, Suite 1000 125 South 9th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

There are no clear guidelines regarding optimal venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis for patients undergoing hip preservation surgery (HPS), in particular pelvic osteotomy, which is considered to be a major orthopaedic procedure. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of aspirin for VTE prophylaxis in a large cohort of patients undergoing femoroacetabular osteoplasty (FAO) and periacetabular osteotomy (PAO). This was a retrospective study of prospectively collected data on patients undergoing HPS. A total of 603 patients (643 cases) underwent FAO and 80 patients (87 cases) underwent PAO between 2003 and 2016. The mean age of patients was 34.3 years (range 14.3-68.1 years). The type of VTE prophylaxis administered changed over time with earlier patients receiving warfarin (44 cases), followed by aspirin at 325 mg twice daily (448 cases), and most recently aspirin 81 mg twice daily (238 cases). The complications of symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE), deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and major bleeding events within 90 days of surgery were documented. There were zero patients that developed major bleeding events or required evacuation of a hematoma. One patient who underwent FAO and received aspirin 325 mg, developed post-operative symptomatic DVT. One patient who underwent PAO and received aspirin 325 mg developed DVT and PE. This study demonstrates that the incidence of VTE following joint preservation procedure is acceptably low. Administration of aspirin to patients undergoing FAO or PAO appears to be adequate in reducing the risk of VTE. Only two patients in this cohort developed VTE following HPS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jhps/hny010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5961137PMC
July 2018

One- and two-stage surgical revision of peri-prosthetic joint infection of the hip: a pooled individual participant data analysis of 44 cohort studies.

Eur J Epidemiol 2018 Oct 5;33(10):933-946. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Musculoskeletal Research Unit, Translational Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, Southmead Hospital, University of Bristol, Southmead Road, Bristol, BS10 5NB, UK.

One-stage and two-stage revision strategies are the two main options for treating established chronic peri-prosthetic joint infection (PJI) of the hip; however, there is uncertainty regarding which is the best treatment option. We aimed to compare the risk of re-infection between the two revision strategies using pooled individual participant data (IPD). Observational cohort studies with PJI of the hip treated exclusively by one- or two-stage revision and reporting re-infection outcomes were retrieved by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform; as well as email contact with investigators. We analysed IPD of 1856 participants with PJI of the hip from 44 cohorts across four continents. The primary outcome was re-infection (recurrence of infection by the same organism(s) and/or re-infection with a new organism(s)). Hazard ratios (HRs) for re-infection were calculated using Cox proportional frailty hazards models. After a median follow-up of 3.7 years, 222 re-infections were recorded. Re-infection rates per 1000 person-years of follow-up were 16.8 (95% CI 13.6-20.7) and 32.3 (95% CI 27.3-38.3) for one-stage and two-stage strategies respectively. The age- and sex-adjusted HR of re-infection for two-stage revision was 1.70 (0.58-5.00) when compared with one-stage revision. The association remained consistently absent after further adjustment for potential confounders. The HRs did not vary importantly in clinically relevant subgroups. Analysis of pooled individual patient data suggest that a one-stage revision strategy may be as effective as a two-stage revision strategy in treating PJI of the hip.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-018-0377-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6153557PMC
October 2018

Prolonged Preoperative Weakness Affects Recovery of Motor Function After Anterior Cervical Diskectomy and Fusion.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2018 Jan;26(2):67-73

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals, Philadelphia, PA (Dr. Kreitz, Dr. Huang, Dr. Beck, and Dr. Park), and the Rothman Institute, Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals, Philadelphia (Dr. Hilibrand).

Introduction: Some patients who undergo anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion for radiculopathy or myelopathy demonstrate preoperative weakness. The purpose of this study was to determine which factors predict motor recovery in patients undergoing anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion.

Methods: A retrospective review of our institutional database identified patients undergoing anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion between 2010 and 2013 with 2 years of clinical follow-up. Patients with substantial weakness, defined as preoperative grade ≤3 (on a scale from 0 to 5) in one or more upper extremity muscle groups, were identified. Regression analysis was used to determine risk factors associated with persistent postoperative weakness.

Results: Of the 1,001 patients who were included, 54 (5.4%) demonstrated substantial weakness. By 2 years postoperatively, 47 of 54 patients (87%) demonstrated motor recovery. The duration of preoperative weakness was an independent predictor of recovery (median, 4 months of preoperative weakness among patients with recovery versus 10 months in patients with persistent weakness; P = 0.012).

Discussion: Duration of preoperative motor weakness is an independent predictor of motor recovery after anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion in patients with substantial motor weakness.

Conclusion: Patients being considered for anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion who have substantial preoperative motor deficits may benefit from earlier surgical intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-16-00606DOI Listing
January 2018

Reduction Loss After Distal Radius Fracture Fixation With Locked Volar Plates.

J Surg Orthop Adv 2017 FALL;26(3):160-165

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Distal radius fractures are among the most common injuries in the upper extremity. While many studies have looked at the maintenance of reduction with volar locking plates, there is a paucity of literature comparing the ability of different plates to maintain reduction over time. This study reviews the ability of various plates to maintain radiographic reduction at union after distal radius fracture treatment. Loss of some aspect of fracture reduction was routinely observed following locked volar plating regardless of implant. However, choice of implant did have a significant impact on final radiographic alignment, particularly with respect to volar tilt and ulnar variance. Yet, selecting between a fixed angle versus a variable angle was not found to make a difference in maintaining reduction. The authors recommend that surgeons take these findings into consideration when selecting a volar locking plate. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances.
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December 2017

Outcomes After Percutaneous Reduction and Fixation of Low-Energy Lisfranc Injuries.

Foot Ankle Int 2017 Jul 8;38(7):710-715. Epub 2017 May 8.

4 Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Lisfranc injuries are often missed initially or not anatomically reduced, leading to midfoot collapse, arthrosis, and pain. Operative management of these injuries is also fraught with complications, particularly with respect to the soft tissues. Wound dehiscence and infection are not uncommon. The goal of this study was to analyze the outcomes of a minimally invasive technique in reduction and percutaneous fixation of low-energy minimally displaced Lisfranc injuries and determine if it is a safe alternative to more traditional, open approaches.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed for all patients who underwent minimally invasive Lisfranc treatment at a single institution over a 6-year period. Thirty-eight patients were identified in this series. All patients were skeletally mature and had a minimum follow-up of 3 years. Patients were assessed clinically and radiographically, in addition to undertaking patient-centric outcome scoring using the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) activities of daily living (ADL) and sports subscales at a mean follow-up of 66 months (range, 36-100). Patients were also asked to subjectively rate their percentage return to preinjury functional level at the time of final follow-up. There were 20 males and 18 females. Seventeen patients were injured participating in sports-related activities, 19 during falls, and 2 as a result of motor vehicle accidents. The average age at the time of surgery was 34.2 (range, 16-69) years. At final follow-up, 31 patients were available for assessment (81.6%).

Results: The mean FAAM-ADL score was 94.2 (range, 40.5-100), and sports score was 90.4 (range, 0-100). Percentage recovery compared to their preinjury functional level averaged 91.4% (range, 40%-100%). There were no complications in this series. Twenty-two patients underwent screw removal electively at an average of 6.9 months following the index procedure. No patients had undergone any additional operative procedures, or had any objective evidence of midfoot collapse or arthritis at the time of final follow-up.

Conclusion: Minimally invasive methods of treating low-energy Lisfranc injuries with less soft tissue stripping and disruption, as described in this series, were a valuable tool to optimize outcomes while minimizing the potential morbidity of more traditional, open techniques.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, retrospective case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1071100717706154DOI Listing
July 2017

Low-Dose Aspirin Is Effective Chemoprophylaxis Against Clinically Important Venous Thromboembolism Following Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Preliminary Analysis.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2017 Jan;99(2):91-98

1Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Aspirin is a safe and effective prophylaxis for the prevention of venous thromboembolism following total joint arthroplasty. The optimal dose of aspirin prophylaxis is unknown. Our hypothesis was that lower-dose aspirin is as effective as higher-dose aspirin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism and is associated with fewer gastrointestinal side effects.

Methods: In a prospective, crossover study, we analyzed 4,651 primary total joint arthroplasty cases performed from July 2013 to June 2015. For 4 weeks, 3,192 patients received enteric-coated 325-mg aspirin twice daily (the 325-mg aspirin group) and 1,459 patients received 81-mg aspirin twice daily (the 81-mg aspirin group). There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in sex, body mass index, or Charlson Comorbidity Index between the two patient populations. Recorded complications occurring within 90 days postoperatively included symptomatic venous thromboembolism (deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism), gastrointestinal complications, acute periprosthetic joint infection, and death.

Results: The incidence of venous thromboembolism of 0.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0% to 0.3%) in the 81-mg aspirin group (1 with deep venous thrombosis and 1 with pulmonary embolism) was not significantly different (p = 0.345) from 0.3% (95% CI, 0.1% to 0.6%) in the 325-mg aspirin group (7 with deep venous thrombosis and 5 with pulmonary embolism). The incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding or ulceration of 0.3% (95% CI, 0% to 0.5%) in the 81-mg aspirin group was slightly, but not significantly (p = 0.66), lower than the 0.4% (95% CI, 0.2% to 0.6%) in the 325-mg aspirin group. The incidence of acute periprosthetic joint infection was 0.2% (95% CI, 0% to 0.4%) in the 81-mg aspirin group compared with 0.5% (95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%) in the 325-mg aspirin group (p = 0.28). The 90-day mortality rate was similar in both groups at 0.1% (95% CI, 0% to 0.2%) in the 81-mg aspirin group and 0.1% (95% CI, 0% to 0.2%) in the 325-mg aspirin group (p = 0.78).

Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that low-dose aspirin is not inferior to high-dose aspirin for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis following total joint arthroplasty. This is not unexpected, as the available literature demonstrates that low-dose aspirin is as effective as higher-dose aspirin in the prevention of acute coronary syndrome and cerebrovascular events.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.16.00147DOI Listing
January 2017

Individualized Risk Model for Venous Thromboembolism After Total Joint Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2016 09 17;31(9 Suppl):180-6. Epub 2016 Mar 17.

The Rothman Institute of Orthopaedics at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is a potentially fatal complication. Currently, a standard protocol for postoperative VTE prophylaxis is used that makes little distinction between patients at varying risks of VTE. We sought to develop a simple scoring system identifying patients at higher risk for VTE in whom more potent anticoagulation may need to be administered.

Methods: Utilizing the National Inpatient Sample data, 1,721,806 patients undergoing TJA were identified, among whom 15,775 (0.9%) developed VTE after index arthroplasty. Among the cohort, all known potential risk factors for VTE were assessed. An initial logistic regression model using potential predictors for VTE was performed. Predictors with little contribution or poor predictive power were pruned from the data, and the model was refit.

Results: After pruning of variables that had little to no contribution to VTE risk, using the logistic regression, all independent predictors of VTE after TJA were identified in the data. Relative weights for each factor were determined. Hypercoagulability, metastatic cancer, stroke, sepsis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had some of the highest points. Patients with any of these conditions had risk for postoperative VTE that exceeded the 3% rate. Based on the model, an iOS (iPhone operating system) application was developed (VTEstimator) that could be used to assign patients into low or high risk for VTE after TJA.

Conclusion: We believe individualization of VTE prophylaxis after TJA can improve the efficacy of preventing VTE while minimizing untoward risks associated with the administration of anticoagulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2016.02.077DOI Listing
September 2016

Aspirin Is as Effective as and Safer Than Warfarin for Patients at Higher Risk of Venous Thromboembolism Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2016 09 15;31(9 Suppl):83-6. Epub 2016 Mar 15.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: There is continued controversy regarding the optimal venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis, particularly for total joint arthroplasty (TJA) patients at higher risk. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of aspirin (ASA) to warfarin in patients with higher risk of VTE.

Methods: This retrospective study examined 30,270 patients who received ASA or warfarin for VTE prophylaxis after TJA. Using a previously developed risk stratification model, patients were classified into low or high VTE risk categories. Postoperative 90-day VTE, periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), gastrointestinal complications, and mortality were recorded.

Results: The incidences of VTE, PJI, and mortality were higher in patients receiving warfarin compared to ASA. In multivariate analysis, warfarin was an independent risk factor for VTE, PJI, and mortality in the higher risk VTE patients (P < .001). There was no significant difference in gastrointestinal complications between groups.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that ASA is as effective as and safer than warfarin for VTE prophylaxis after TJA, even in patients at higher risk of VTE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2016.02.074DOI Listing
September 2016

Development and Validation of a Risk Stratification System for Pulmonary Embolism After Elective Primary Total Joint Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2016 09 17;31(9 Suppl):187-91. Epub 2016 Mar 17.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.

Introduction: Stratification of patients into different risk categories for pulmonary embolism (PE) after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) may allow clinicians to individualize venous thromboembolism prophylaxis based on an appropriate risk-benefit scale.

Methods: Patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) as part of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program were identified. Independent risk factors for PE within 30 days of surgery were identified and used to develop a point-scoring system to estimate the relative risk for PE. For validation, the system was tested on patients undergoing TJA at a single institution.

Results: A total of 118,473 patients were identified, including 72,673 (61.3%) undergoing TKA and 45,800 (38.7%) undergoing THA. The incidence of PE within 30 days of the index arthroplasty was 0.50%. The risk factors associated with PE were age ≥70, female gender, higher body mass index (25-30 kg/m(2) and ≥30 kg/m(2)), and TKA (vs THA); anemia was protective. The point scores derived for each of these factors were as follows: anemia: -2; female: +1; body mass index 25-30 kg/m(2): +2; body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2): +3; age ≥70 years: +3; TKA: +5. The point-scoring system was then applied to 17,384 patients from a single institution. Single-institution patients categorized as low risk using the point-scoring system had a 0.44% 90-day risk for PE (95% CI = 0.29%-0.58%); medium risk, 1.51% (95% CI = 1.18%-1.84%); and high risk, 2.60% (95% CI = 2.09%-3.10%).

Conclusion: This point-scoring system predicts risk for PE after TJA and may help surgeons to optimize selection of chemical prophylaxis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2016.02.080DOI Listing
September 2016

Optimal Positioning for Volar Plate Fixation of a Distal Radius Fracture: Determining the Distal Dorsal Cortical Distance.

Orthop Clin North Am 2016 Jan;47(1):235-44

The Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, 925 Chestnut Street, 5th Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

Distal radius fractures are currently among the most common fractures of the musculoskeletal system. With a population that is living longer, being more active, and the increasing incidence of osteoporosis, these injuries will continue to become increasingly prevalent. When operative fixation is indicated, the volar locking plate has recently become the treatment of choice. However, despite its success, suboptimal position of the volar locking plate can still result in radiographic loss of reduction. The distal dorsal cortical distance is being introduced as an intraoperative radiographic tool to help optimize plate position and minimize late loss of fracture reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocl.2015.08.020DOI Listing
January 2016

Administration of Aspirin as a Prophylaxis Agent Against Venous Thromboembolism Results in Lower Incidence of Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

J Arthroplasty 2015 Sep 7;30(9 Suppl):39-41. Epub 2015 Jul 7.

The Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

The efficacy and safety of aspirin (ASA) for prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following total joint arthroplasty (TJA) have been demonstrated. Our hypothesis was that postoperative ASA compared to warfarin lowers the incidence of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). Between January 2006 and December 2012, 1456 patients received ASA and 1700 patients received warfarin following primary TJA as standard VTE prophylaxis. Logistic regression was utilized to identify independent risk factors of PJI. Incidence of PJI was significantly lower at 0.4% in patients receiving ASA vs. 1.5% in patients receiving warfarin (P<0.001). Warfarin and elevated BMI were independent risk factors for PJI following TJA (P<0.05). Our research suggests that the use of ASA compared to warfarin for VTE prophylaxis reduces the risk of PJI following TJA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2015.07.001DOI Listing
September 2015

Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Presenting as a Recurrent Nucleus Pulposus Herniation: A Case Report and Literature Review.

JBJS Case Connect 2015 Jul-Sep;5(3):e59

Orthopedic Spine Surgery, The Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, 925 Chestnut Street, 5th Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19107.

Case: Of the many potential causes of nerve compression that lead to radiculopathy, vascular etiologies remain among the most infrequent, with an estimated prevalence of only five to ten per million cases of radiculopathy. In this case report, we outline the clinical presentation, imaging, intraoperative findings, and pathologic findings for a fifty-four-year old patient with an intradural, extramedullary form of a spinal dural arteriovenous fistula at the L1-L2 level who presented only with axial back pain and radiculopathy. The radiologist and surgeon initially diagnosed the patient with a herniated nucleus pulposus. However, the intraoperative findings and angiogram were suggestive of an arteriovenous fistula. Methods to identify this rare entity are described for the orthopaedic spine community.

Conclusion: The potential for a missed diagnosis is particularly important as many partial discectomy procedures are performed at small surgical centers with limited blood products available and no vascular surgeon on staff. For patients with preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that is suggestive of vascular malformations (T2 hyperintensity in the lower spinal cord and conus medullaris), we recommend that MR angiography be performed as a secondary diagnostic evaluation. MR angiography has a 95% positive predictive value for specifically diagnosing an arteriovenous fistula.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.CC.M.00284DOI Listing
December 2017

Timing of Symptomatic Pulmonary Embolism with Warfarin Following Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2015 Jun 13;30(6):1050-3. Epub 2015 Jan 13.

Orthopaedic Surgery at the Rothman Institute, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA.

The purpose is to determine the incidence and timing of pulmonary embolism for patients receiving warfarin for thrombo-prophylaxis following total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Current guidelines for duration of prophylaxis are nonspecific. Chemical prophylaxis carries the risk of bleeding and associated periprosthetic joint infection. We retrospectively studied 26,415 primary and revision TJA cases performed at our institution between 2000 and 2010. The overall 90-day rate of symptomatic PE was 1.07%. Fatal PE rate was 0.02%. Out of 283 documented symptomatic PE cases, 81% occurred within three postoperative days, 89% within one postoperative week, and 94% within two postoperative weeks. The risk of symptomatic PE appears to be highest during the first week after TJA. Efforts must be made to minimize risk during this period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2015.01.004DOI Listing
June 2015

Total joint arthroplasty in cancer patients.

J Arthroplasty 2015 May 18;30(5):758-61. Epub 2014 Dec 18.

The Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Increasing numbers of total joint arthroplasty (TJA) patients have a history, or an active diagnosis, of cancer. We aimed to evaluate the risk of early postoperative complications in these patients. In our series, a history of malignancy was associated with an elevated risk of ischemic cardiac events and postoperative deep vein thrombosis (DVT), while active malignancy was associated with increased respiratory and renal complications, hematoma/seroma formation and early postoperative mortality. Both groups presented increased rates of overall in-hospital complications. Patients with bone metastasis to the hip demonstrated increased DVT and 90-day mortality rates. Cancer patients have increased morbidity and mortality after TJA and should undergo comprehensive medical optimization and adapted thromboprophylaxis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2014.12.017DOI Listing
May 2015

Revision total knee arthroplasty using metaphyseal sleeves at short-term follow-up.

Orthopedics 2014 Sep;37(9):e804-9

The treatment of bone loss in revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has involved using revision implants in association with cement, augments, particulate, and structural allograft. Newer metaphyseal augments were introduced to allow for metaphyseal fixation of the prosthesis while managing significant bone loss. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the outcome of revision TKA using metaphyseal sleeves. The authors prospectively followed 96 knees that underwent revision TKA with metaphyseal sleeves. Eighty-three knees met the minimum 2-year criteria for follow-up. Thirty-six sleeves were used in femoral revisions and 83 sleeves were used in tibial revisions. The defects were classified according to the Anderson Orthopaedic Research Institute classification. Femoral defects were classified as type I in 4 knees, type IIb in 25 knees, and type III in 7 knees. Tibial defects were classified as type I in 9 knees, type IIa in 1 knee, type IIb in 68 knees, and type III in 5 knees. The patients were followed for an average of 2.4 years (range, 2.0-3.7 years). Mean Knee Society function score improved from 47.9 to 61.1 points. Mean Short Form 36 physical score improved from 43.3 to 56.3 points. Mean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index improved from 55.3 to 25.9 points. None of the implants demonstrated progressive radiolucent lines around the metaphyseal sleeves. At final follow-up, only 2 (2.7%) tibial components required revision for aseptic loosening. At short-term follow-up, revision TKA with metaphyseal sleeves provided reliable fixation. This is especially encouraging given the severe nature of bone loss in the majority of patients in whom a metaphyseal sleeve was used. Long-term follow-up is needed to demonstrate the true effectiveness of these devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20140825-57DOI Listing
September 2014

Staged Bilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty: Time of the Second Side.

J Knee Surg 2015 Aug 28;28(4):311-4. Epub 2014 Jul 28.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a safe time frame for performing the second total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in staged bilateral TKAs. Retrospectively, 589 TKAs were studied at a single institution from January 2000 to June 2012. Patients were excluded if they underwent simultaneous or staggered bilateral TKA during the same hospitalization. Patients were included if they underwent bilateral staged TKA during a different hospitalization within 21 to 90, 91 to 180, 181 to 270, and 271 to 360 days after the first TKA. In-hospital complications were determined using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for cardiac, pulmonary, urinary, deep vein thrombosis, wound complications, mechanical complications, and wound infections. Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) was determined by hospital readmission records. There were 29 postoperative complication events (4.9%) and there was no difference between time groups and complications. The highest rates of PJI occurred when the second TKA was performed after 271 to 360 days (3.6%), followed by the early postoperative period after 21 to 90 days (2.7%). We could not identify a time frame for performing the second TKA in staged bilateral TKAs to reduce complications. A signal from the study suggests that complications, particularly PJI, may be lower if the second TKA is performed more than 90 days and less than 270 days after the first TKA, although this finding was not significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0034-1384215DOI Listing
August 2015

Reply to the letter to the editor: symptomatic pulmonary embolus after joint arthroplasty: stratification of risk factors.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2014 Aug 11;472(8):2554. Epub 2014 Jun 11.

Orthopaedic Surgery at the Rothman Institute, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, 125 S 9th St. Ste 1000, Philadelphia, PA, 19107, USA,

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11999-014-3718-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4079855PMC
August 2014

The impact of patellar resurfacing in two-stage revision of the infected total knee arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2014 Jul 11;29(7):1439-42. Epub 2014 May 11.

The Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Evidence for optimal management of the patellofemoral joint in revision surgery for the infected TKA is limited. We reviewed 69 infected TKAs undergoing two-stage revision. Fifty four patellae were resurfaced, 11 had patelloplasty performed, two were augmented with trabecular metal, one had impaction grafting, and one knee underwent patellectomy. Average follow-up was 4.5 years. The patients that received patellar resurfacing at re-implantation experienced statistically significant improvements in KSS pain score, functional KSS, and patellar score (P < 0.03). One further patient treated with impaction grafting improved significantly in terms of pain and function. Patients treated with patelloplasty, trabecular metal augmentation, or patellectomy did not have significant improvements in clinical or functional outcome. Patient age, use of dynamic vs. static spacer, use of extensor mechanism release, and differences in Charlson index did not seem to statistically affect outcome. We recommend that every effort should be made to minimize patellar bone loss in first stage resection, as inability to resurface the patella at time of reimplantation may adversely affect patient outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2013.07.018DOI Listing
July 2014

Total joint arthroplasty: should patients have preoperative dental clearance?

J Arthroplasty 2014 Jun 2;29(6):1087-90. Epub 2013 Dec 2.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Obtaining dental clearance prior to elective total joint arthroplasty is a common practice; however, little published data exist to justify this requirement. Dental clearance data for 365 elective total knee and total hip arthroplasty patients were gathered prospectively. Of these patients, 358 (average age of 62.4 years; 157 men and 201 women; 152 primary total knee arthroplasties (TKAs), 16 revision TKA arthroplasties, one conversion TKA, 168 primary total hip (THAs) arthroplasties and 21 revision THA arthroplasties) proceeded to surgery and follow-up data were available for 355. A comparison group of 218 hip fracture patients (average age of 78.7 years; 52 men and 109 women; 137 THA and 81 hemiarthroplasties) with no preoperative dental clearance who were treated with hip arthroplasty was extracted retrospectively from an institutional database. Follow-up data were available for 161 of these patients. The incidence of dental pathology in the elective arthroplasty group was 8.8%. Early postoperative infection requiring surgical treatment occurred in six patients (1.7%) in the dental clearance elective arthroplasty group and in four patients (2.5%) in the hip fracture arthroplasty group. No statistical difference was found between the two groups. This suggests that the perceived need for routine preoperative dental screening for all hip and knee arthroplasty patients should be reassessed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2013.11.019DOI Listing
June 2014

Symptomatic pulmonary embolus after joint arthroplasty: stratification of risk factors.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2014 Mar 22;472(3):903-12. Epub 2013 Nov 22.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rothman Institute, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, 925 Chestnut Street, 5th Floor, Philadelphia, PA, 19107, USA.

Background: Prophylaxis for pulmonary embolism (PE) after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) presents the clinical dilemma of balancing the risk of postoperative thrombotic risk and anticoagulation-related complications such as bleeding, hematoma formation, and infection. Risk stratification of patients undergoing TJA is needed to tailor prophylaxis based on thrombotic and bleeding risk.

Questions/purposes: The purpose of this study was to identify the preoperative comorbidities that were associated with an increased risk of symptomatic PE after joint arthroplasty in a large group of patients who had TJAs and who were treated with either aspirin or warfarin.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 26,391 primary and revision TJAs performed at our institution between January 2000 and April 2011. A total of 24,567 patients received warfarin prophylaxis for 6 weeks (targeted international normalized ratio of 1.5-2.0) and 1824 patients received 325 mg aspirin twice daily. Symptomatic patients with decreased oxygen saturation were evaluated for PE using either a ventilation/perfusion scan or multidetector CT scan. Symptomatic PEs occurring in patients within 90 days postoperatively identified with CT or ventilation/perfusion scans were considered complications related to surgery, and fatal PEs were those that occurred in patients who died during the hospital admission owing to cardiopulmonary failure after PE. Using a logistic regression analysis, a nomogram was created to predict postoperative symptomatic PE risk.

Results: Risk of postoperative symptomatic PE after primary and revision TJAs was 1.1%. Risk of postoperative fatal PE was 0.02%. Elevated BMI (p < 0.035), procedures on the knee (p < 0.006), higher Charlson Comorbidity Index (p < 0.015), chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (p = 0.006), atrial fibrillation (p < 0.001), anemia (p < 0.001), presence of deep vein thrombosis (p < 0.001), and depression (p = 0.012) were independent risk factors for symptomatic PE. Based on these risk factors and derived scoring criteria, patients can be classified into low- (0.35%), medium- (1.4%), and high- (9.3%) risk categories.

Conclusions: Patients who are obese, undergo knee procedures, have an elevated Charlson Comorbidity Index, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atrial fibrillation, anemia, depression, or postoperative deep vein thrombosis are at greater risk of having a postoperative PE develop. These risk factors should be considered when deciding on postoperative anticoagulation prophylaxis.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11999-013-3358-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3916633PMC
March 2014

The effect of malnutrition on patients undergoing elective joint arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2013 Sep 30;28(8 Suppl):21-4. Epub 2013 Aug 30.

Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Malnutrition has been linked to serious complications in patients undergoing elective total joint arthroplasty (TJA). This study prospectively evaluated 2,161 patients undergoing elective TJA for malnutrition as defined by either an abnormal serum albumin or transferrin. The overall incidence of malnutrition was 8.5% (184 of 2,161) and the rate of overall complications in the malnourished group was 12% as compared to 2.9% in patients with normal parameters (P<0.0001). Malnutrition predicted serious complications involving hematoma formation, infection, renal and cardiac complications. Obesity, defined by a body mass index (BMI) of 30kg/m(2) was present in 42.9% of malnourished patients with a significantly higher complication rate in this cohort. Malnutrition remains prevalent in patients >55years-old undergoing TJA and is associated with a significant increase in post-operative complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2013.05.038DOI Listing
September 2013
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