Publications by authors named "Ronald Denis"

27 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A reliable, reproducible flow cytometry protocol for immune cell quantification in human adipose tissue.

Anal Biochem 2021 01 11;613:113951. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Health, Kinesiology, and Applied Physiology, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke St W, Montreal, QC, H4B 1R6, Canada; Metabolism, Obesity, Nutrition Lab, PERFORM Centre, Concordia University, 7200 Sherbrooke St W, Montreal, QC, H4B 1R6, Canada; Centre de Recherche - Axe Maladies Chroniques, Centre Intégré Universitaire de Santé et de Services Sociaux Du Nord-de-l'Ile-de-Montreal, Hôpital Du Sacré-Coeur de Montreal, 5400 Boul Gouin O, Montréal, QC, H4J 1C5, Canada. Electronic address:

The ability to accurately identify and quantify immune cell populations within adipose tissue is important in understanding the role of immune cells in metabolic disease risk. Flow cytometry is the gold standard method for immune cell quantification. However, quantification of immune cells from adipose tissue presents a number of challenges because of the complexities of working with an oily substance and the rapid deterioration of immune cell viability before analysis can be performed. Here we present a highly reproducible flow cytometry protocol for the quantification of immune cells in human adipose tissue, which overcomes these issues.
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January 2021

Case Report: Endoscopic Removal of an Eroded Gastric Band Causing Small Bowel Obstruction upon Migration into the Proximal Jejunum.

Obes Surg 2020 Dec 11;30(12):5153-5156. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Minimally Invasive and Bariatric Surgery, Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur, CIUSSS du Nord de l'île de Montréal, 5400 Boulevard Gouin Ouest H4J 1C5, Québec, Montréal, Canada.

Background: Adjustable gastric banding (AGB) is on the decline due to its relatively modest amount of expected weight loss, coupled with high rates of revision and complications such as band erosion. Management of eroded gastric bands can be challenging especially when complete intra-gastric erosion is followed by distal migration causing small bowel obstruction.

Methods: We present an endoscopic option of using a pediatric colonoscope to remove an eroded AGB causing jejunal obstruction.

Result: Endoscopic removal of an eroded ABG causing bowel obstruction was successful.

Conclusion: Endoscopy remains a safe and relatively non-invasive approach to deal with such complications.
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December 2020

Efficiency of Laparoscopic One-Step Revision of Failed Adjusted Gastric Banding to Gastric Sleeve: a Retrospective Review of 101 Consecutive Patients.

Obes Surg 2019 12;29(12):3868-3873

Division of Bariatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, H4J1C5, Canada.

Background: Until recently, laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) was one of the most commonly performed bariatric surgeries worldwide. Today, its high rate of complications and failure rates up to 70% requires revisional surgery. The one-stage conversion from LAGB to laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has been shown to be safe, although there are some concerns on efficacy and long-term weight loss.

Objectives: To demonstrate that one-step revision of LAGB to another restrictive procedure, such as LSG, might have efficient long-term outcomes.

Methods: The charts from 133 revisional LSGs for failed or complicated LAGB were retrospectively reviewed for the period between January 2010 and August 2017. Thirty-two patients were excluded for loss to follow-up. Demographics, complications, and percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) were determined.

Results: One hundred one patients were included (85 women and 16 men), with a mean age of 48.5 years, and a mean body mass index of 47.1 kg/m. During the follow-up, 15 patients (15%) underwent a second revisional surgery for weight loss failure (8 Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP), 3 biliopancreatic diversion, 3 single anastomosis duodenal-ileal bypass, 1 revisional LSG). Ten patients (10%) had long-term complications (8 severe reflux and 2 stenosis) during this period and underwent a second revisional surgery (10 RYGBP). The remaining 76 had a mean follow-up of 4.3 years and a mean %EWL of 53.2%.

Conclusion: Single-stage conversion to LSG is a safe and appropriate solution for failed or complicated LAGB with good long-term weight loss.
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December 2019

Decreasing complication rates for one-stage conversion band to laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: A retrospective cohort study.

J Minim Access Surg 2020 Jul-Sep;16(3):264-268

Department of Surgery, Division of Bariatric Surgery, Sacré-Coeur Hospital of Montreal, University of Montreal, Québec H4J 1C5, Canada.

Background: Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) revision surgery is often necessary because of its high failure rate. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that better patient selection, when converting a failed LAGB to a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) as a one-stage revision procedure, is safe, feasible and improves the complication rate.

Patients And Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on patients who underwent a one-stage conversion of failed gastric banding to a LSG. Collected data included age, sex, body mass index (BMI), intraoperative complications, length of stay and post-operative complications. The results were compared to a previous study of 90 cases of LSG as a revision procedure for failed LAGB.

Results: There were 75 patients in the current study, 61 women and 14 men, aged 25-67 (average: 46), with a mean BMI of 45 kg/m (32-66). Seventy patients (93.3%) were operated for insufficient weight loss and 5 patients (6.7%) for intolerance to the band. In our previous study, 35 patients (39%) were operated for slippage, erosion or obstruction and 14 (15.6%) had post-operative complications as opposed to only 4 patients (5.3%) in this series (P = 0.0359). Gastric leak also improved to 1.3% compared to 5.5% previously. Average hospitalisation time was 2.5 days (1-40).

Conclusions: Rigorous patient selection, without band complications such as slippage, erosion or obstruction, allows for a significantly lower rate of operative complications for a one-stage conversion of failed gastric banding to a LSG.
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April 2019

Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy: A Radiological Guide to Common Postsurgical Failure.

Can Assoc Radiol J 2018 May 1;69(2):184-196. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Department of Radiology, McGill University Health Center, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is one of the most common bariatric procedures worldwide. It has recently gained in popularity because of a low complication rate, satisfactory resolution of comorbidities, and excellent weight loss outcome. This article reviews the surgical technique, expected postsurgical imaging appearance, and imaging findings of common complications after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Understanding of the surgical technique of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and of the normal postsurgical anatomy allows accurate interpretation of imaging findings in cases of insufficient weight loss, weight regain, and postsurgical complications.
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May 2018

Does Sleep Bruxism Contribute to Headache-Related Disability After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury? A Case-Control Study.

J Oral Facial Pain Headache 2017 3;31(4):306–312. Epub 2017 Oct 3.

Aims: To explore whether traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients have a higher prevalence of sleep bruxism (SB) and a higher level of orofacial muscle activity than healthy controls and whether orofacial muscle activity in the context of mild TBI (mTBI) increases the risk for headache disability.

Methods: Sleep laboratory recordings of 24 mTBI patients (15 males, 9 females; mean age ± standard deviation [SD]: 38 ± 11 years) and 20 healthy controls (8 males, 12 females; 31 ± 9 years) were analyzed. The primary variables included degree of headache disability, rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) index (as a biomarker of SB), and masseter and mentalis muscle activity during quiet sleep periods.

Results: A significantly higher prevalence of moderate to severe headache disability was observed in mTBI patients than in controls (50% vs 5%; P = .001). Although 50% and 25% of mTBI patients had a respective RMMA index of ≥ 2 episodes/hour and ≥ 4 episodes/hour, they did not present more evidence of SB than controls. No between-group differences were found in the amplitude of RMMA or muscle tone. Logistic regression analyses suggested that while mTBI is a strong predictor of moderate to severe headache disability, RMMA frequency is a modest but significant mediator of moderate to severe headache disability in both groups (odds ratios = 21 and 2, respectively).

Conclusion: Clinicians caring for mTBI patients with poorly controlled headaches should screen for SB, as it may contribute to their condition.
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October 2017

Sleep, chronic pain, and opioid risk for apnea.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2018 12 19;87(Pt B):234-244. Epub 2017 Jul 19.

CIUSSS du Nord de l'Île de Montréal, Hôpital Sacré-Cœur, Québec, Canada; Faculty of Dental Medicine, Université de Montréal, Department of Stomatology, CHUM, Montréal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Pain is an unwelcome sleep partner. Pain tends to erode sleep quality and alter the sleep restorative process in vulnerable patients. It can contribute to next-day sleepiness and fatigue, affecting cognitive function. Chronic pain and the use of opioid medications can also complicate the management of sleep disorders such as insomnia (difficulty falling and/or staying asleep) and sleep-disordered breathing (sleep apnea). Sleep problems can be related to various types of pain, including sleep headache (hypnic headache, cluster headache, migraine) and morning headache (transient tension type secondary to sleep apnea or to sleep bruxism or tooth grinding) as well as periodic limb movements (leg and arm dysesthesia with pain). Pain and sleep management strategies should be personalized to reflect the patient's history and ongoing complaints. Understanding the pain-sleep interaction requires assessments of: i) sleep quality, ii) potential contributions to fatigue, mood, and/or wake time functioning; iii) potential concomitant sleep-disordered breathing (SDB); and more importantly; iv) opioid use, as central apnea may occur in at-risk patients. Treatments include sleep hygiene advice, cognitive behavioral therapy, physical therapy, breathing devices (continuous positive airway pressure - CPAP, or oral appliance) and medications (sleep facilitators, e.g., zolpidem; or antidepressants, e.g., trazodone, duloxetine, or neuroleptics, e.g., pregabalin). In the presence of opioid-exacerbated SDB, if the dose cannot be reduced and normal breathing restored, servo-ventilation is a promising avenue that nevertheless requires close medical supervision.
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December 2018

Endoscopic management of post-laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy stenosis.

Surg Endosc 2018 Feb 19;32(2):601-609. Epub 2017 Jul 19.

Division de Chirurgie Bariatrique, Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, Département de Chirurgie, Université de Montréal, 5400 Boul. Gouin Ouest, Montréal, QC, H4J 1C5, Canada.

Background: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is the most popular bariatric surgery worldwide. Gastric sleeve stenosis is the most common postoperative complication, occurring in up to 3.9% of the cases. Current treatment options include endoscopic treatments, such as dilatations and stent placement as well as surgical revisions such as laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB), wedge gastrectomy or seromyotomy.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of our prospectively collected therapeutical endoscopy database was performed between January 2014 and February 2017. We included all cases of axial deviation or stenosis post LSG, which were treated endoscopically. Patients with concomitant sleeve leaks were excluded. Endoscopic interventions were performed under general anaesthesia and fluoroscopic assistance when needed. Sequential treatment with CRE balloons, achalasia balloons (30-40 mm) and fully covered stent placement for refractory cases was performed.

Results: A total of 1332 LSG were performed. Overall, 27/1332 patients (2%) developed a gastric stenosis. All patients presented an axial deviation at the incisura angularis and 26% had a concomitant proximal stenosis. Successful endoscopic treatments were performed in 56% (15/27) of patients, 73% of the successful patients underwent a single dilatation procedure. All successful cases had a maximum of 3 interventions. The unsuccessful cases (44%) underwent LRYGB. Mean time between the primary surgery and the diagnosis of the stenosis was 10.3 months. Mean follow-up after the endoscopic treatment was 11.5 months. A stent migration was the only complication (3.7%) recorded.

Conclusions: Endoscopic treatment appears to be effective in 56% of patients with post-LSG stenosis. Only one session of achalasia balloon dilatation is necessary in 73% of successful cases. Pneumatic balloon dilatation seems to be a safe procedure in this patient population. Surgical revision into a LRYGB offers good outcomes in patients that have failed three consecutive endoscopic treatments.
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February 2018

Laparoscopic revision of Billroth II with Braun anastomosis into Roux-en-Y anatomy in a patient with intestinal malrotation.

Surg Endosc 2018 01 22;32(1):511. Epub 2017 Jun 22.

Département de Chirurgie, Division de Chirurgie Bariatrique, Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, Université de Montréal, 5400 boul. Gouin ouest, Montreal, QC, H4J 1C5, Canada.

Introduction: Various reconstructions of the gastro-intestinal tract have been described in the past after distal gastrectomy. Among these, a Billroth II (BII) anastomosis can be performed with the addition of the Omega entero-enterostomy that may theoretically reduce the alkaline reflux. Given the significant complications associated with this procedure such as biliary reflux, marginal ulceration, and afferent loop syndrome, a revision into a Roux-en-Y anatomy is generally recommended.

Methods And Procedures: A 73-year-old healthy male was referred to our foregut surgery service for treatment of severe biliary gastritis. The patient previously underwent an open distal gastrectomy with a BII reconstruction followed by a Braun-type entero-enterostomy 6 months later. His main complaint was worsening daily biliary reflux with constant regurgitations, which were non-responsive to medical treatment. The preoperative endoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of severe biliary gastritis secondary to alkaline reflux. The distance between the gastro-jejunostomy and the Braun anastomosis was also measured with a pediatric colonoscope and the length of the efferent limb was estimated to be 80 cm.

Results: Identification of the afferent and efferent limb was complicated by the patient's incomplete intestinal malrotation with the angle of Treitz being present in the right hypochondrium. Intra-operative gastroscopy enabled visualization of the jejuno-jejunostomy and ensured correct interpretation of the anatomy. Subsequently, resection of the afferent limb completed the revision into a Roux-en-Y anatomy. The patient recovered well after the surgery and was discharged home on post-operative day 2. At 6 months follow-up, the patient's reflux symptoms have completely disappeared.

Conclusion: BII reconstruction with or without Braun entero-enterostomy is a classic historical option following distal gastrectomy. Surgical revision of a BII into a Roux-en-Y anatomy is a good solution for severe biliary reflux and other long-term complications. Intra-operative endoscopy is a great adjunct to laparoscopic exploration in case of complex surgical procedures.
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January 2018

Individuals with pain need more sleep in the early stage of mild traumatic brain injury.

Sleep Med 2017 05 22;33:36-42. Epub 2016 Oct 22.

Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Faculty of Nursing, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: Hypersomnia is frequently reported after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), but its cause(s) remain elusive. This study examined sleep/wake activity after mTBI and its association with pain, a comorbidity often associated with insomnia.

Methods: Actigraphy recording was performed for 7 ± 2 consecutive days in 56 individuals at one month post-mTBI (64% male; 38 ± 12 years), 24 individuals at one year post-mTBI (58% male; 44 ± 11years), and in 20 controls (50% male; 37 ± 12 years). Pain intensity and its effect on quality of life was assessed with a visual analogue scale and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) bodily pain subscale.

Results: Overall, few differences in sleep/wake patterns were found between mTBI patients and controls. However, higher percentages of mTBI individuals with moderate-to-severe pain were found to require more than eight hours of sleep per day (37% vs11%; p = 0.04) and to be frequent nappers (defined as those who took three or more naps per week) (42% vs 22%; p = 0.04) compared to those with mild or no pain at one month postinjury. Correcting for age and depression, The SF-36 score was found to be a significant predictor of sleep duration exceeding eight hours per day at one month (odds ratio = 0.95; 95% confidence interval = 0.92-0.99; p = 0.01), but not at one year post-mTBI. Pain and increased sleep need (in terms of hours per day or napping frequency) were found to co-exist in as much as 29% of mTBI patients at one month postinjury.

Conclusion: Pain could be associated with more pronounced sleep need in about one-third of mTBI patients during early recovery. Unalleviated pain, found in more than 60% of mTBI patients, should therefore be looked for in all mTBI patients reporting new onset of sleep disorder, not only in those with insomnia.
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May 2017

Evolution of endoscopic treatment of sleeve gastrectomy leaks: from partially covered to long, fully covered stents.

Surg Obes Relat Dis 2017 Jun 26;13(6):925-932. Epub 2016 Dec 26.

Département de Chirurgie, Division de Chirurgie Bariatrique, Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has become a widely accepted option in the treatment of morbid obesity. Gastric leaks after SG occur in .9%-2.2% of the patients, mostly at the gastroesophageal junction. The current treatment algorithm includes drainage, antibiotics, nutritional support, and endoluminal control.

Objectives: Our hypothesis is that long, fully covered stents represent a safe, effective solution for SG leaks.

Setting: University hospital.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of our prospectively collected bariatric database was performed between June 2014 and May 2016. We included all patients treated for leaks after SG. Endoscopic treatment included partially covered metallic stent (Wallstent, Boston Scientific, Galway, Ireland), fully covered stent (Mega stent, Taewoong Medical Industries, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea), over-the-scope clip (Ovesco Endoscopy, Tubingen, Germany), and internal pigtail drainage.

Results: A total of 872 SGs were performed. Overall, 10 of 872 patients (1.1%) developed a gastric leak. One patient was an outside referral. The 11 patients underwent endoscopic treatment accompanied by either percutaneous or laparoscopic abscess drainage. Endoscopic fistula closure at the gastroesophageal junction was achieved in 10 of 11 cases and the average time for closure was 9.9 (range: 4-24) weeks. One patient developed a second leak in the antrum, treated by subtotal gastrectomy. Overall, treatment with Wallstent failed in 3 of 5 patients, and these patients were eventually successfully treated with a Mega stent. The initial use of long, fully covered stents was successful in 5 of 6 cases.

Conclusion: Long, fully covered stents appear to be a good alternative to traditional stents either as primary treatment or after failure of other endoscopic treatments.
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June 2017

Long-term outcome after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in patients over 65 years old: a retrospective analysis.

Surg Obes Relat Dis 2017 Jan 26;13(1):1-6. Epub 2016 May 26.

Department of Surgery, Division of Bariatric Surgery, Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, University of Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Bariatric surgery has been proven to be a safe and effective treatment for obesity with BMI (body mass index) reduction, and resolution or lowering of obesity-related co-morbidities. The relative age limit for bariatric surgery has gradually been increased to 60 years of age and above.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) performed in older patients (≥65 years old).

Setting: University hospital.

Methods: Between May 1, 2007 and November 30, 2013, 30 consecutive patients≥65 years old were included in this retrospective study of our prospectively collected bariatric database.

Results: A total of 27 (90%) primary LSG and 3 revisional LSG (10%) were performed. Mean patient age was 67.2 (range: 65-74) years, and mean preoperative BMI (±standard deviation [SD]) was 44.1±5.6 kg/m. Thirty-day morbidity included 3 cases of self-limiting nausea and vomiting and 1 case of gastric sleeve stenosis necessitating conversion to gastric bypass. No mortality reported. The overall mean percentage of excess weight loss (±SD) and percentage of total weight loss (±SD) at 12 months were 53.8±19.8 and 23.9±8.4; 52.9±21.8 and 24±9.9 at 36 months, respectively. No patients were lost to follow-up but 5 were excluded because they underwent revisions. Age-adjusted mixed model analyses revealed that baseline BMI (P = .018), BMI>45 kg/m (P = .001), and having diabetes (P = .030) were associated with excess weight loss<50% across follow-up.

Conclusion: LSG seems to be effective and safe for patients≥65 years old. Obesity related co-morbidities have improved across follow-up. BMI>45 kg/m and diabetes is associated with insufficient weight loss or weight regain.
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January 2017

Medium Increased Risk for Central Sleep Apnea but Not Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Long-Term Opioid Users: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Clin Sleep Med 2016 Apr 15;12(4):617-25. Epub 2016 Apr 15.

Center for Advanced Research in Sleep Medicine, Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Study Objective: Opioids are associated with higher risk for ataxic breathing and sleep apnea. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to assess the influence of long-term opioid use on the apnea-hypopnea and central apnea indices (AHI and CAI, respectively).

Methods: A systematic review protocol (Cochrane Handbook guidelines) was developed for the search and analysis. We searched Embase, Medline, ACP Journal Club, and Cochrane Database up to November 2014 for three topics: (1) narcotics, (2) sleep apnea, and (3) apnea-hypopnea index. The outcome of interest was the variation in AHI and CAI in opioid users versus non-users. Two reviewers performed the data search and extraction, and disagreements were resolved by discussion. Results were combined by standardized mean difference using a random effect model, and heterogeneity was tested by χ(2) and presented as I(2) statistics.

Results: Seven studies met the inclusion criteria, for a total of 803 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We compared 2 outcomes: AHI (320 opioid users and 483 non-users) and 790 patients with CAI (315 opioid users and 475 non-users). The absolute effect size for opioid use was a small increased in apnea measured by AHI = 0.25 (95% CI: 0.02-0.49) and a medium for CAI = 0.45 (95% CI: 0.27-0.63). Effect consistency across studies was calculated, showing moderate heterogeneity at I(2) = 59% and 29% for AHI and CAI, respectively.

Conclusions: The meta-analysis results suggest that long-term opioid use in OSA patients has a medium effect on central sleep apnea.
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April 2016

Fully Ambulatory Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy: 328 Consecutive Patients in a Single Tertiary Bariatric Center.

Obes Surg 2016 07;26(7):1429-35

Département de Chirurgie, Division de Chirurgie Bariatrique, Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, Université de Montréal, 5400 boul. Gouin ouest Montréal, Québec, H4J 1C5, Canada.

Background: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is becoming one of the most popular bariatric procedures because of its short operative time, good resolution of comorbidities, excellent weight loss, and low complications rate. However, the safety of LSG as a day-surgery procedure has not yet been widely documented.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected bariatric database, in a single institution, between August 2012 and February 2015, yielded 980 patients who underwent LSG; 328 patients (33.5 %) responded to established criteria and were operated on a 1-day surgery basis (length of stay < 12 h).

Results: There were 258 (78 %) primary LSG and 70 revisional LSG (22 %) performed on 284 females and 44 males, with a mean age (±SD) of 38 ± 9 years. Mean (±SD) preoperative body mass index (BMI) was 45 ± 6 kg/m(2). Operative time was 68 ± 17 min (mean ± SD). There were no deaths. A total of 322 patients (98.2 %) were discharged home the day of surgery. There were 6 (1.8 %) unplanned overnight hospitalization, and 28 patients (8.5 %) were readmitted between days 1 and 30. Most patients (25/34, 73 %) were hospitalized for minor problems, such as pain, nausea, and/or vomiting. There were two cases of (0.6 %) gastric staple line leaks, three (0.9 %) of intra-abdominal hematomas, two (0.6 %) of pneumonia, one (0.3 %) of acute pancreatitis, and one (0.3 %) of urinary tract infection. All patients recovered well.

Conclusions: LSG can be performed as an outpatient procedure in selected patients, with acceptable results in terms of retention, readmission, and complication rates.
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July 2016

Biomechanical analysis of traumatic mesenteric avulsion.

Med Biol Eng Comput 2015 Feb 19;53(2):187-94. Epub 2014 Nov 19.

Laboratoire de Biomécanique Appliquée UMR24, Department of General Surgery, Hôpital Nord, Aix-Marseille University, Chemin des Bourrelly, 13015, Marseille, France,

Mesenteric avulsion, corresponding to a tearing of intestine's root, generally results from high deceleration in road accidents. The biomechanical analysis of bowel and mesenteric injuries is a major challenge for injury prevention, particularly because seat belt restraint may paradoxically increase their risk of occurrence. The aim of this study was to identify the biomechanical behavior of mesentery and small bowel (MSB) tissue samples under dynamical loading conditions. A dedicated test bench was designed in order to perform tensile tests on fresh MSB porcine specimens, with quasi-static (1 mm/s) and dynamic (100 mm/s) loading conditions. The mechanical behavior of MSB specimens was investigated and compared to isolated mesenteric and isolated small bowel specimens. The results show a high sensitivity of MSB stiffness (1.0 ± 0.2 and 1.3 ± 0.3 N/mm at 1 and 100 mm/s, p = 0.001) and ultimate force (22 ± 5 and 35 ± 8 N at 1 and 100 mm/s, p = 0.001) to the loading rate but not for the displacement at failure. This leads to postulate on a failure criteria based on strain level regardless of the strain rate. These experimental results could be further used to develop refined finite element models and to further investigate on injury mechanisms associated to seat belt restraints, as well as to evaluate and improve protective devices.
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February 2015

Postoperative sleep disruptions: a potential catalyst of acute pain?

Sleep Med Rev 2014 Jun 24;18(3):273-82. Epub 2013 Sep 24.

Faculty of Dental Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Centre for Advanced Research in Sleep Medicine, Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Trauma Unit, Surgery Department, Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Emergency Unit, Surgery Department, Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Despite the substantial advances in the understanding of pain mechanisms and management, postoperative pain relief remains an important health care issue. Surgical patients also frequently report postoperative sleep complaints. Major sleep alterations in the postoperative period include sleep fragmentation, reduced total sleep time, and loss of time spent in slow wave and rapid eye movement sleep. Clinical and experimental studies show that sleep disturbances may exacerbate pain, whereas pain and opioid treatments disturb sleep. Surgical stress appears to be a major contributor to both sleep disruptions and altered pain perception. However, pain and the use of opioid analgesics could worsen sleep alterations, whereas sleep disruptions may contribute to intensify pain. Nevertheless, little is known about the relationship between postoperative sleep and pain. Although the sleep-pain interaction has been addressed from both ends, this review focuses on the impact of sleep disruptions on pain perception. A better understanding of the effect of postoperative sleep disruptions on pain perception would help in selecting patients at risk for more severe pain and may facilitate the development of more effective and safer pain management programs.
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June 2014

Novel uroflow stop test at time of catheter removal is a strong predictor of early urinary continence recovery following robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy: a pilot study.

Neurourol Urodyn 2015 Jan 27;34(1):60-4. Epub 2013 Aug 27.

Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Hôpital Sacré-Cœur de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

Aim: To study whether the ability to completely stop urinary flow during voiding at time of catheter removal, measured objectively using uroflowmetry, can predict early recovery of urine continence following robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP).

Materials And Methods: In this pilot study, 108 patients with a minimum of 2 years follow-up, operated by a single surgeon (AEH) were subjected to an uroflowmetry at the time of urethral catheter removal following RARP. Normal Saline (150 ml) was instilled intravesically prior to catheter removal and patients were instructed to attempt to stop urine flow during voiding in uroflowmeter. Two groups were studied, group one with positive Stop Test (n = 80) and group two with negative Stop Test (n = 28). Covariates included age, BMI, IPSS score, PSA, tumor stage, prostate volume, nerve sparing status, and estimated blood loss.

Results: Basic characteristics were not statistically different between both groups. Early continence recovery was significantly higher in group one. Pad-free continence rates in group one and two at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months were 62% vs. 7% (P < 0.001), 85% vs. 28% (P < 0.001), 93% vs. 67% (P 0.001), 93% vs. 82% (P 0.079), 97% vs. 82% (P 0.006), and 97% vs. 85% (P 0.023), respectively. Uroflow Stop Test was the only independent predictor of early urine continence recovery on univariate and multivariate regression analysis [OR 2.87 (95%CI 1.34-4.38, P = < 0.001)].

Conclusion: Novel use of uroflowmetry at time of urethral catheter removal is a simple, non-invasive study with independent ability to predict early continence recovery following RARP.
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January 2015

Is there a future for Laparoscopic Gastric Greater Curvature Plication (LGGCP)? a review of 44 patients.

Obes Surg 2013 Sep;23(9):1397-403

Département de Chirurgie, Division de Chirurgie Bariatrique, Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, Université de Montréal, 5400 boul. Gouin ouest Montréal, Québec, H4J 1C5, Canada.

Background: Laparoscopic gastric greater curvature plication (LGGCP) is a new restrictive weight loss procedure.

Methods: Between February 2011 and June 2012, 57 patients underwent LGGCP. Thirteen had it associated with a lap band and were excluded from the study. Data was collected through routine follow-up. Demographics, complications, and percentage of excess weight loss (% EWL) were determined.

Results: Forty-four patients underwent LGGCP, 40 women and 4 men with a mean age of 40 years (range, 18-72), a mean body mass index of 38 kg/m(2) (range, 35-46). Comorbidities included 2 diabetes mellitus, 11 hypertension, 8 hyperlipidaemia, and 8 obstructive sleep apnea. The mean operative time was 106 min (range, 60-180) and mean duration of hospital stay was 18 h (range, 12-168). Operative complications included one subphrenic abscess, one gastrogastric hernia, and one acute respiratory distress syndrome. Thirty patients experienced strong restriction with nausea and vomiting for the first 10 days (79.5 %). Eleven patients (25.0 %) came back with intractable nausea and vomiting, and were hospitalized, or had their hospital stay prolonged. Four patients needed early reversal of gastric plication (9 %). There was no postoperative death. The mean postoperative % EWL was 30.6 % (n = 40), 57.0 % (n = 24), 50.7 % (n = 13) at 1, 6, and 12 months, respectively.

Conclusions: LGGCP yields an acceptable weight loss compared to other restrictive procedures, but with a higher readmission rate for postoperative nausea and vomiting, or even reversal of plication. We advocate more studies to evaluate safety and effectiveness.
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September 2013

Rapid EEG activity during sleep dominates in mild traumatic brain injury patients with acute pain.

J Neurotrauma 2013 Apr 18;30(8):633-41. Epub 2013 Apr 18.

Centre for Advanced Research in Sleep Medicine, Sacré-Cœur Hôspital, Montreal, Québec H4J 1C5, Canada.

Chronic pain is a highly prevalent post-concussion symptom occurring in a majority of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). About half of patients with mTBI report sleep-wake disturbances. It is known that pain can alter sleep quality in this population, but the interaction between pain and sleep is not fully understood. This study aimed to identify how pain affects subjective sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]), sleep architecture, and quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG) brain activity after mTBI. Twenty-four mTBI patients complaining of sleep-wake disturbances, with and without pain (8 and 16, respectively), were recruited 45 (±22.7) days post-trauma on average. Data were compared with those of 18 healthy controls (no sleep or pain complaints). The PSQI, sleep architecture, and qEEG activity were analyzed. Pain was assessed using questionnaires and a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Patients with mTBI reported three times poorer sleep quality than controls on the PSQI. Sleep architecture significantly differed between patients with mTBI and controls but was within normal range. Global qEEG showed lower delta (deep sleep) and higher beta and gamma power (arousal) at certain EEG derivations in patients with mTBI compared with controls (p<0.04). Patients with mTBI with pain, however, showed greater increase in rapid EEG frequency bands, mostly during REM sleep, and beta bands in non-REM sleep compared with patients with mTBI without pain and controls (p<0.001). Pain in patients with mTBI was associated with more rapid qEEG activity, mostly during REM sleep, suggesting that pain is associated with poor sleep and is a critical factor in managing post-concussion symptoms.
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April 2013

Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG)-a good bariatric option for failed laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB): a review of 90 patients.

Obes Surg 2013 Mar;23(3):300-5

Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, 5400 boul. Gouin ouest, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H4J 1C5.

Background: Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is one of the most frequently performed bariatric surgeries. Even with a high failure rate, revisional procedures such as re-banding or laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) were commonly performed. Recently, conversions of LAGB to laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) were reported. We will review our experience on this conversion.

Methods: Between February 2007 and January 2012, 800 patients underwent LSG, with 90 as a revisional procedure for failed LAGB. A retrospective review of a prospectively collected database was performed. Data were collected through routine follow-up and weight loss data were also obtained through self-reporting via the Internet. Demographics, complications, and percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) were determined.

Results: A total of 90 patients underwent LSG as a revisional procedure, comprising of 77 women and 13 men with a mean age of 41 years (22 to 67), a mean body mass index of 42 kg/m(2) (26 to 58). Among them, 15.5 % had diabetes mellitus, 35.5 % had hypertension, 20.0 % had hyperlipidemia, and 18.8 % had obstructive sleep apnea. The mean operative time was 112 min (50 to 220) and mean hospital stay was 4.2 days (1 to 180). Operative complications included 5.5 % leak and 4.4 % hemorrhage or gastric hematoma. There was no postoperative mortality. The mean postoperative %EWL was 51.8 % (n = 82), 61.3 % (n = 60), 61.6 % (n = 45), 53.0 % (n = 30), 55.3 % (n = 20), and 54.1 % (n = 10) at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 months, respectively.

Conclusions: LSG after LAGB yields a positive outcome with higher complication rates than for primary LSG. We advocate this procedure as a good bariatric option for failed LAGB.
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March 2013

Prospective randomized trial of barbed polyglyconate suture to facilitate vesico-urethral anastomosis during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: time reduction and cost benefit.

BJU Int 2012 May 5;109(10):1526-32. Epub 2012 Jan 5.

University of Montreal Hospital Center, Hôpital Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, QC, Canada.

Unlabelled: Study Type - RCT (randomized trial) Level of Evidence 2b. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? In a previous randomized controlled trial, barbed polyglyconate suture for vesico-urethral anastomosis was associated with more frequent cystogram leaks, longer mean catheterization times and greater suture costs per case. In the current randomized controlled trial, we show that barbed polyglyconate suture is associated with decreased anastomosis time, decreased need to readjust suture tension, cost reduction, and equal continence and early/late urinary complication rates.

Objective: To examine the effectiveness of barbed polyglyconate suture (V-Loc 180; Covidien, Mansfield, MA, USA) compared with standard monofilament for posterior reconstruction (PR) and vesico-urethral anastomosis (VUA) during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP).

Patients And Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted in 70 consecutive RARP cases by a single surgeon (K.C.Z.). Standard VUA was performed using three 4-0 poliglecaprone 25 (Monocryl; Ethicon Endosurgery, Cincinnati, OH, USA) sutures secured with absorbable suture clips (LapraTy, Ethicon; one single 6-inch [15.2 cm] for PR and two attached 6-inch [15.2 cm] for VUA). Barbed suture VUA was performed using two 3-0 6-inch (15.2 cm) barbed polyglyconate sutures. Time to complete the suture set-up by the nursing team, anastomosis time and need to adjust suture tension were recorded. Suture-related complications, validated-questionnaire continence and cost were also examined.

Results:   Compared with a conventional reconstruction technique, there was a significant reduction in mean nurse set-up time (31 vs. 294 s; P < 0.01) and reconstruction time (13.1 vs. 20.8 min; P < 0.01) for the barbed suture technique. Need to readjust suture tension or to place additional suture clips for watertight closure was greater in the standard monofilament group than in the barbed suture group (6% vs. 24%; P= 0.03). •  A cost reduction was recorded at our institution (48.05 vs. 70.25 $CAN) with the barbed suture technique. •  With a mean follow-up of 6.2 months, no delayed anastomotic leak or bladder neck contracture was observed in either group. •  Pad-free continence outcomes for the monofilament suture vs the barbed suture groups at 1 (64 vs. 69%, P= 0.6), 3 (76 vs. 81%, P= 0.5) and 6 months (88 vs. 92%, P= 0.7) were similar.

Conclusions: •  Compared with standard monofilament suture, the unidirectional barbed polyglyconate suture appears to provide safe, efficient and cost-effective PR and VUA during RARP. •  Use of the interlocked barbed polyglyconate suture technique prevents slippage, precluding the need for assistance, knot-tying and constant reassessment of anastomosis integrity.
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May 2012

Novel method of knotless vesicourethral anastomosis during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: feasibility study and early outcomes in 30 patients using the interlocked barbed unidirectional V-LOC180 suture.

Can Urol Assoc J 2011 Jun;5(3):188-94

Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Montreal, Sacre-Coeur de Montreal Hospital, Montreal, QC.

Purpose: : Our purpose was to describe the safety and feasibility of a running posterior reconstruction (PR) integrated with continuous vesicourethral anastomosis (VUA) using a novel self-cinching unidirectional barbed suture in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP).

Methods: : Between March and October 2010, 30 consecutive patients with organ-confined prostate cancer underwent RARP by an experienced single surgeon (KCZ). Upon completion of radical prostatectomy, urinary reconstruction was carried out using 2 knotless, interlocked 6-inches 3-0 V-Loc-180 suture. The left tail of the suture was initially used for PR (starting at 5-o'clock and ran to re-approximate the retrotrigonal layer to the rectourethralis) followed by left-sided VUA (from 6- to 12-o'clock), while the right-sided suture completed the right-sided VUA. Assurance of watertight closure with an intraoperative 300 cc saline visual cystogram was performed in all cases prior to case completion. Perioperative outcomes and 30-day complications were recorded.

Results: : All anastamoses were performed without assistance and without knot tying. Median time for nurse setup and urinary reconstruction was 40 seconds (interquartile range [IQR] 25-60) and 14.6 min (IQR 10-18), respectively. The need to readjust suture tension or place Lapra-Ty clips (Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Cincinnati, OH) to establish watertight closure was observed in 2 cases (7%). No patient had clinical urinary leak and there was no urinary retention after catheter removal on mean postoperative day 5 (IQR 4-6).

Conclusions: : Our clinical experience with a novel technique using the interlocked V-Loc suture during RARP for both PR and anastomosis appears to be safe and efficient. Using the barbed suture prevents slippage and eliminates the need for bedside assistance to maintain suture tension or knot tying, thus assuring watertight tissue closure.
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June 2011

Relationship among subjective sleep complaints, headaches, and mood alterations following a mild traumatic brain injury.

Sleep Med 2009 Aug 14;10(7):713-6. Epub 2009 Jan 14.

Facultés de Médecine Dentaire et de Médecine, Université de Montréal, CP 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, Que., Canada.

Background: Sleep complaints (e.g., frequent awakenings, nightmares), headaches and mood alterations (e.g., feeling depressed, irritable) can appear following a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). The objective of this retrospective study was to assess the relationships between the above symptoms. Our hypothesis was that sleep complaints might be among the risk factors for the development of headaches and mood alterations.

Methods: The consecutive charts of 443 patients (68.2% males vs. 31.8% female; mean age of 46.9 years) diagnosed with MTBI were reviewed for past medical history and above symptoms using the Rivermead post-concussion symptom assessment questionnaire and self-report. Data were retrieved in 2 time courses: 10 days and 6 weeks.

Results: For the 2 time courses, the prevalence of subjective sleep complaints were 13.3% and 33.5%; headaches 46.8% and 39.3%; feeling depressed 9.5% and 20.4%; and feeling irritable 5.6% and 20.2%, respectively. Reports of sleep complaints at 6 weeks were 2.9 times (p=0.004) more likely if such a symptom was reported at 10 days. Moreover, the presence of sleep complaints at 10 days is associated with concomitant headaches, depressive symptoms, and feeling irritable by 2.3, 9.9, and 12.2 times (p=0.0001 and 0.014); and by 2.9, 6.3, and 4.8 times (p=0.0001) at 6 weeks, respectively.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that patients afflicted with sleep complaints are more likely to suffer from concomitant headaches, depressive symptoms, and irritability.
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August 2009

Functional status and quality of life in survivors of injury treated at tertiary trauma centers: what are we neglecting?

J Trauma 2006 Apr;60(4):806-13

Department of Surgery, McGill University Health Center, Montreal General Hospital, Quebec, Canada.

Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the functional status and quality of life (QOL) of patients at 12 months after injury.

Methods: Retrospective study consisting of patients treated at three tertiary trauma centers for injuries. Functional capacity (FC) was measured using the Sickness Impact Profile and QOL was measured using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (MOS SF-36) at approximately 12 months after the date of injury.

Results: There were 144 patients that fulfilled the study inclusion and exclusion criteria. The mean duration of follow-up was 1.3 years, with a range of 0.8 to 1.5 years. Age and gender were not associated with the FC or QOL. The mean(standard deviation) Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 18.9(9.4), whereas ISS category distribution was 1 to 11 (22.9%), 12 to 24 (50.0%), and 25 to 49 (27.1%). Patients with an ISS of 25 to 49 had significantly worse physical (p = 0.008) and total (p = 0.023) Sickness Impact Profile scores and had more physical functioning (p = 0.096), emotional role functioning (p = 0.080), and energy (p = 0.017) impairments when compared with those with an ISS less than 24. Patients injured in motor vehicle collisions had significantly impaired psychosocial function (p = 0.031), whereas those injured in falls had reduced quality of life scores for physical function (p = 0.089), physical role (p = 0.066), and mental health (p = 0.081).

Conclusion: Patients who survive injuries experience residual impairments in FC and QOL for as long as 1 year after injury. Changes to the long-term management of these patients should be considered.
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April 2006

International prospective evaluation of scintimammography with (99m)technetium sestamibi.

Am J Surg 2003 Jun;185(6):544-9

Department of Surgery, University of Montreal, Hôpital Sacré-Coeur, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of scintimammography with (99m)Technetium-Sestamibi for the diagnosis of breast cancer.

Methods: This was a multicenter prospective cohort clinical trial. A total of 1,734 women were enrolled of whom 1,243 had complete data upon study completion.

Results: The mean +/- standard error age of the patients is 56 +/-12 years (with a range of 19 to 94). Mammographic results were classified by the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) as 199 (16%) BIRADS 5, 149 (12%) BIRADS 4, 199 (16%) BIRADS 3, and 696 (56%) BIRADS 2 or 1. Scintimammography was positive for 322 (26%) of the patients and negative for 921 (76%). Histopathology showed malignancy for 201 (16%) of the patients. Sensitivity and specificity of scintimammography was estimated 93% and 87% respectively. A positive predictive value (PPV) of 58% with a negative predictive value of 98% were calculated.

Conclusions: The present study suggests that scintimammography with (99m)Technetium-Sestamibi is highly accurate for the detection of breast cancer.
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June 2003

Multicenter Canadian study of prehospital trauma care.

Ann Surg 2003 Feb;237(2):153-60

McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Montreal General Hospital, Department of Surgery, Canada.

Objective: To evaluate whether the type of on-site care a trauma patient receives affects outcome.

Summary Background Data: The controversy regarding the prehospital care of trauma patients between Advanced Life Support (ALS) and Basic Life Support (BLS) is ongoing. Due to this unresolved controversy, as well as historical, cultural, and political factors, there are significant variations with respect to the type of prehospital care available for trauma patients.

Methods: This prospective cohort study compared three types of prehospital trauma care systems: Montreal, where physicians provide ALS (MD-ALS); Toronto, where paramedics provide ALS (PMD-ALS); and Quebec City, where emergency medical technicians provide BLS only (EMT-BLS). The study took advantage of this variation to evaluate the association between the type of on-site care and mortality in patients with major life-threatening injuries. All patients were treated at highly specialized tertiary (level I) trauma hospitals. The main outcome measure was death as a result of injury. Follow-up was to hospital discharge.

Results: The overall mortality rates by type of on-site personnel were physicians 35%, paramedics 24%, and EMTs 18%. For patients with major but survivable trauma, the overall mortality rates were physicians 32%, paramedics 28%, and EMTs 26%. The overall mortality rate of patients receiving only BLS at the scene was 18% compared to 29% for patients receiving ALS. For the subgroup of patients with major but survivable injuries, the mortality rates were 30% for ALS and 26% for BLS. The adjusted increased risk for mortality in patients receiving ALS at the scene was 21%.

Conclusions: In urban centers with highly specialized level I trauma centers, there is no benefit in having on-site ALS for the prehospital management of trauma patients.
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February 2003

Impact of deferred treatment of blunt diaphragmatic rupture: a 15-year experience in six trauma centers in Quebec.

J Trauma 2002 Apr;52(4):633-40

Choc-trauma Montérégie, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada.

Background: The purpose of this study was to show that blunt diaphragmatic rupture does not require immediate emergency operation in the absence of other indications.

Methods: We reviewed all patients with blunt diaphragmatic rupture admitted within 24 hours of injury to one of six university trauma centers providing trauma care for the province of Quebec from April 1, 1984, to March 31, 1999. Multivariate analysis of demographic profiles, severity indices, indications for operation, and preoperative delays was performed.

Results: There were 160 patients (91 men and 69 women) with blunt diaphragmatic rupture. Mean age was 40.1 +/- 16.2 years. Mean Injury Severity Score was 26.9 +/- 11.5 and mortality was 14.4%. Patients undergoing emergency surgery for indications other than diaphragmatic rupture had a significantly higher Injury Severity Score than those undergoing surgery for repair of diaphragmatic rupture alone (34.7 +/- 10.7 vs. 22.0 +/- 9.0, p < 0.001). In patients undergoing surgery for diaphragmatic rupture alone, delay before repair of the diaphragmatic hernia did not lead to an increased mortality compared with patients undergoing immediate surgery (3.4% vs. 5.0%, p = NS).

Conclusion: Blunt diaphragmatic rupture in the absence of other surgical injuries carries low mortality. Operative repair of diaphragmatic rupture can be deferred without appreciable increased mortality if no other indication mandates immediate surgery.
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April 2002