Publications by authors named "Ronald Allen"

40 Publications

TNF-α regulates diabetic macrophage function through the histone acetyltransferase MOF.

JCI Insight 2020 03 12;5(5). Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Department of Surgery.

A critical component of wound healing is the transition from the inflammatory phase to the proliferation phase to initiate healing and remodeling of the wound. Macrophages are critical for the initiation and resolution of the inflammatory phase during wound repair. In diabetes, macrophages display a sustained inflammatory phenotype in late wound healing characterized by elevated production of inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α. Previous studies have shown that an altered epigenetic program directs diabetic macrophages toward a proinflammatory phenotype, contributing to a sustained inflammatory phase. Males absent on the first (MOF) is a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that has been shown be a coactivator of TNF-α signaling and promote NF-κB-mediated gene transcription in prostate cancer cell lines. Based on MOF's role in TNF-α/NF-κB-mediated gene expression, we hypothesized that MOF influences macrophage-mediated inflammation during wound repair. We used myeloid-specific Mof-knockout (Lyz2Cre Moffl/fl) and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice to determine the function of MOF in diabetic wound healing. MOF-deficient mice exhibited reduced inflammatory cytokine gene expression. Furthermore, we found that wound macrophages from DIO mice had elevated MOF levels and higher levels of acetylated histone H4K16, MOF's primary substrate of HAT activity, on the promoters of inflammatory genes. We further identified that MOF expression could be stimulated by TNF-α and that treatment with etanercept, an FDA-approved TNF-α inhibitor, reduced MOF levels and improved wound healing in DIO mice. This report is the first to our knowledge to define an important role for MOF in regulating macrophage-mediated inflammation in wound repair and identifies TNF-α inhibition as a potential therapy for the treatment of chronic inflammation in diabetic wounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.132306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7141388PMC
March 2020

Upregulation of H3K27 Demethylase KDM6 During Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Enhances Proinflammatory Responses and Immunopathology.

J Immunol 2020 01 20;204(1):159-168. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109;

Severe disease following respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection has been linked to enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production that promotes a Th2-type immune environment. Epigenetic regulation in immune cells following viral infection plays a role in the inflammatory response and may result from upregulation of key epigenetic modifiers. In this study, we show that RSV-infected bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) as well as pulmonary dendritic cells (DC) from RSV-infected mice upregulated the expression of and , H3K27 demethylases. KDM6-specific chemical inhibition (GSK J4) in BMDC led to decreased production of chemokines and cytokines associated with the inflammatory response during RSV infection (i.e., CCL-2, CCL-3, CCL-5, IL-6) as well as decreased MHC class II and costimulatory marker (CD80/86) expression. RSV-infected BMDC treated with GSK J4 altered coactivation of T cell cytokine production to RSV as well as a primary OVA response. Airway sensitization of naive mice with RSV-infected BMDCs exacerbate a live challenge with RSV infection but was inhibited when BMDCs were treated with GSK J4 prior to sensitization. Finally, in vivo treatment with the KDM6 inhibitor, GSK J4, during RSV infection reduced inflammatory DC in the lungs along with IL-13 levels and overall inflammation. These results suggest that KDM6 expression in DC enhances proinflammatory innate cytokine production to promote an altered Th2 immune response following RSV infection that leads to more severe immunopathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1900741DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6920528PMC
January 2020

Postnatal β2 adrenergic treatment improves insulin sensitivity in lambs with IUGR but not persistent defects in pancreatic islets or skeletal muscle.

J Physiol 2019 12 29;597(24):5835-5858. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

School of Animal and Comparative Biomedical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Key Points: Previous studies in fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have shown that adrenergic dysregulation was associated with low insulin concentrations and greater insulin sensitivity. Although whole-body glucose clearance is normal, 1-month-old lambs with IUGR at birth have higher rates of hindlimb glucose uptake, which may compensate for myocyte deficiencies in glucose oxidation. Impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in IUGR lambs is due to lower intra-islet insulin availability and not from glucose sensing. We investigated adrenergic receptor (ADR) β2 desensitization by administering oral ADRβ modifiers for the first month after birth to activate ADRβ2 and antagonize ADRβ1/3. In IUGR lambs ADRβ2 activation increased whole-body glucose utilization rates and insulin sensitivity but had no effect on isolated islet or myocyte deficiencies. IUGR establishes risk for developing diabetes. In IUGR lambs we identified disparities in key aspects of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation, providing new insights into potential mechanisms for this risk.

Abstract: Placental insufficiency causes intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and disturbances in glucose homeostasis with associated β adrenergic receptor (ADRβ) desensitization. Our objectives were to measure insulin-sensitive glucose metabolism in neonatal lambs with IUGR and to determine whether daily treatment with ADRβ2 agonist and ADRβ1/β3 antagonists for 1 month normalizes their glucose metabolism. Growth, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and glucose utilization rates (GURs) were measured in control lambs, IUGR lambs and IUGR lambs treated with adrenergic receptor modifiers: clenbuterol atenolol and SR59230A (IUGR-AR). In IUGR lambs, islet insulin content and GSIS were less than in controls; however, insulin sensitivity and whole-body GUR were not different from controls. Of importance, ADRβ2 stimulation with β1/β3 inhibition increases both insulin sensitivity and whole-body glucose utilization in IUGR lambs. In IUGR and IUGR-AR lambs, hindlimb GURs were greater but fractional glucose oxidation rates and ex vivo skeletal muscle glucose oxidation rates were lower than controls. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) was lower in IUGR and IUGR-AR skeletal muscle than in controls but GLUT1 was greater in IUGR-AR. ADRβ2, insulin receptor, glycogen content and citrate synthase activity were similar among groups. In IUGR and IUGR-AR lambs heart rates were greater, which was independent of cardiac ADRβ1 activation. We conclude that targeted ADRβ2 stimulation improved whole-body insulin sensitivity but minimally affected defects in GSIS and skeletal muscle glucose oxidation. We show that risk factors for developing diabetes are independent of postnatal catch-up growth in IUGR lambs as early as 1 month of age and are inherent to the islets and myocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/JP278726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6911010PMC
December 2019

Histone Methylation Directs Myeloid TLR4 Expression and Regulates Wound Healing following Cutaneous Tissue Injury.

J Immunol 2019 03 1;202(6):1777-1785. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Section of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109;

Myeloid cells are critical for orchestrating regulated inflammation during wound healing. TLRs, particularly TLR4, and its downstream-signaling MyD88 pathway play an important role in regulating myeloid-mediated inflammation. Because an initial inflammatory phase is vital for tissue repair, we investigated the role of TLR4-regulated, myeloid-mediated inflammation in wound healing. In a cutaneous tissue injury murine model, we found that TLR4 expression is dynamic in wound myeloid cells during the course of normal wound healing. We identified that changes in myeloid TLR4 during tissue repair correlated with increased expression of the histone methyltransferase, mixed-lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1), which specifically trimethylates the histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) position of the TLR4 promoter. Furthermore, we used a myeloid-specific Mll1 knockout ( ) to determine MLL1 drives expression during wound healing. To understand the critical role of myeloid-specific TLR4 signaling, we used mice deficient in ( ), (), and myeloid-specific to demonstrate delayed wound healing at early time points postinjury. Furthermore, in vivo wound myeloid cells isolated from and wounds demonstrated decreased inflammatory cytokine production. Importantly, adoptive transfer of monocyte/macrophages from wild-type mice trafficked to wounds with restoration of normal healing and myeloid cell function in -deficient mice. These results define a role for myeloid-specific, MyD88-dependent TLR4 signaling in the inflammatory response following cutaneous tissue injury and suggest that MLL1 regulates TLR4 expression in wound myeloid cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1801258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6401313PMC
March 2019

The Histone Methyltransferase MLL1 Directs Macrophage-Mediated Inflammation in Wound Healing and Is Altered in a Murine Model of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes.

Diabetes 2017 09 29;66(9):2459-2471. Epub 2017 Jun 29.

Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

Macrophages are critical for the initiation and resolution of the inflammatory phase of wound repair. In diabetes, macrophages display a prolonged inflammatory phenotype in late wound healing. Mixed-lineage leukemia-1 (MLL1) has been shown to direct gene expression by regulating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-mediated inflammatory gene transcription. Thus, we hypothesized that MLL1 influences macrophage-mediated inflammation in wound repair. We used a myeloid-specific knockout ( ) to determine the function of MLL1 in wound healing. mice display delayed wound healing and decreased wound macrophage inflammatory cytokine production compared with control animals. Furthermore, wound macrophages from mice demonstrated decreased histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) (activation mark) at NF-κB binding sites on inflammatory gene promoters. Of note, early wound macrophages from prediabetic mice displayed similarly decreased MLL1, H3K4me3 at inflammatory gene promoters, and inflammatory cytokines compared with controls. Late wound macrophages from prediabetic mice demonstrated an increase in MLL1, H3K4me3 at inflammatory gene promoters, and inflammatory cytokines. Prediabetic macrophages treated with an MLL1 inhibitor demonstrated reduced inflammation. Finally, monocytes from patients with type 2 diabetes had increased compared with control subjects without diabetes. These results define an important role for MLL1 in regulating macrophage-mediated inflammation in wound repair and identify a potential target for the treatment of chronic inflammation in diabetic wounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db17-0194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5566299PMC
September 2017

Notch Regulates Macrophage-Mediated Inflammation in Diabetic Wound Healing.

Front Immunol 2017 1;8:635. Epub 2017 Jun 1.

Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.

Macrophages are essential immune cells necessary for regulated inflammation during wound healing. Recent studies have identified that Notch plays a role in macrophage-mediated inflammation. Thus, we investigated the role of Notch signaling on wound macrophage phenotype and function during normal and diabetic wound healing. We found that Notch receptor and ligand expression are dynamic in wound macrophages during normal healing. Mice with a myeloid-specific Notch signaling defect ( ) demonstrated delayed early healing (days 1-3) and wound macrophages had decreased inflammatory gene expression. In our physiologic murine model of type 2 diabetes (T2D), Notch receptor expression was significantly increased in wound macrophages on day 6, following the initial inflammatory phase of wound healing, corresponding to increased inflammatory cytokine expression. This increase in and was also observed in human monocytes from patients with T2D. Further, in prediabetic mice with a genetic Notch signaling defect ( on a high-fat diet), improved wound healing was seen at late time points (days 6-7). These findings suggest that Notch is critical for the early inflammatory phase of wound healing and directs production of macrophage-dependent inflammatory mediators. These results identify that canonical Notch signaling is important in directing macrophage function in wound repair and define a translational target for the treatment of non-healing diabetic wounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00635DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5451506PMC
June 2017

Evaluation of Salivary Cytokines for Diagnosis of both Trauma-Induced and Genetic Heterotopic Ossification.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2017 24;8:74. Epub 2017 Apr 24.

Burn/Wound and Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Purpose: Heterotopic ossification (HO) occurs in the setting of persistent systemic inflammation. The identification of reliable biomarkers can serve as an early diagnostic tool for HO, especially given the current lack of effective treatment strategies. Although serum biomarkers have great utility, they can be inappropriate or ineffective in traumatic acute injuries and in patients with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP). Therefore, the goal of this study is to profile the cytokines associated with HO using a different non-invasive source of biomarkers.

Methods: Serum and saliva were collected from a model of trauma-induced HO (tHO) with hind limb Achilles' tenotomy and dorsal burn injury at indicated time points (pre-injury, 48 h, 1 week, and 3 weeks post-injury) and a genetic non-trauma HO model ( ). Samples were analyzed for 27 cytokines using the Bio-Plex assay. Histologic evaluation was performed in mice and at 48 h and 1 week post-injury in burn tenotomy mice. The mRNA expression levels of these cytokines at the tenotomy site were also quantified with quantitative real-time PCR. Pearson correlation coefficient was assessed between saliva and serum.

Results: Levels of TNF-α and IL-1β peaked at 48 h and 1 week post-injury in the burn/tenotomy cohort, and these values were significantly higher when compared with both uninjured ( < 0.01,  < 0.03) and burn-only mice ( < 0.01,  < 0.01). Immunofluorescence staining confirmed enhanced expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and MCP-1 at the tenotomy site 48 h after injury. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and VEGF was detected in saliva showing elevated levels at 1 week post-injury in our tHO model when compared with both uninjured ( < 0.001,  < 0.01) and burn-only mice ( < 0.005,  < 0.01). The Pearson correlation between serum MCP-1 and salivary MCP-1 was statistically significant ( = 0.9686,  < 0.001) Similarly, the Pearson correlation between serum VEGF and salivary VEGF was statistically significant ( = 0.9709,  < 0.05).

Conclusion: In this preliminary study, we characterized the diagnostic potential of specific salivary cytokines that may serve as biomarkers for an early-stage diagnosis of HO. This study identified two candidate biomarkers for further study and suggests a novel method for diagnosis in the context of current difficult diagnosis and risks of current diagnostic methods in certain patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2017.00074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5401868PMC
April 2017

Slow-Myofiber Commitment by Semaphorin 3A Secreted from Myogenic Stem Cells.

Stem Cells 2017 07 31;35(7):1815-1834. Epub 2017 May 31.

The School of Animal and Comparative Biomedical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA.

Recently, we found that resident myogenic stem satellite cells upregulate a multi-functional secreted protein, semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), exclusively at the early-differentiation phase in response to muscle injury; however, its physiological significance is still unknown. Here we show that Sema3A impacts slow-twitch fiber generation through a signaling pathway, cell-membrane receptor (neuropilin2-plexinA3) → myogenin-myocyte enhancer factor 2D → slow myosin heavy chain. This novel axis was found by small interfering RNA-transfection experiments in myoblast cultures, which also revealed an additional element that Sema3A-neuropilin1/plexinA1, A2 may enhance slow-fiber formation by activating signals that inhibit fast-myosin expression. Importantly, satellite cell-specific Sema3A conditional-knockout adult mice (Pax7CreER -Sema3A ° activated by tamoxifen-i.p. injection) provided direct in vivo evidence for the Sema3A-driven program, by showing that slow-fiber generation and muscle endurance were diminished after repair from cardiotoxin-injury of gastrocnemius muscle. Overall, the findings highlight an active role for satellite cell-secreted Sema3A ligand as a key "commitment factor" for the slow-fiber population during muscle regeneration. Results extend our understanding of the myogenic stem-cell strategy that regulates fiber-type differentiation and is responsible for skeletal muscle contractility, energy metabolism, fatigue resistance, and its susceptibility to aging and disease. Stem Cells 2017;35:1815-1834.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stem.2639DOI Listing
July 2017

Laminin 521 maintains differentiation potential of mouse and human satellite cell-derived myoblasts during long-term culture expansion.

Skelet Muscle 2016 12 13;6(1):44. Epub 2016 Dec 13.

Discovery Biology, Tucson Innovation Center, Icagen, Oro Valley, AZ, 85755, USA.

Background: Large-scale expansion of myogenic progenitors is necessary to support the development of high-throughput cellular assays in vitro and to advance genetic engineering approaches necessary to develop cellular therapies for rare muscle diseases. However, optimization has not been performed in order to maintain the differentiation capacity of myogenic cells undergoing long-term cell culture. Multiple extracellular matrices have been utilized for myogenic cell studies, but it remains unclear how different matrices influence long-term myogenic activity in culture. To address this challenge, we have evaluated multiple extracellular matrices in myogenic studies over long-term expansion.

Methods: We evaluated the consequence of propagating mouse and human myogenic stem cell progenitors on various extracellular matrices to determine if they could enhance long-term myogenic potential. For the first time reported, we comprehensively examine the effect of physiologically relevant laminins, laminin 211 and laminin 521, compared to traditionally utilized ECMs (e.g., laminin 111, gelatin, and Matrigel) to assess their capacity to preserve myogenic differentiation potential.

Results: Laminin 521 supported increased proliferation in early phases of expansion and was the only substrate facilitating high-level fusion following eight passages in mouse myoblast cell cultures. In human myoblast cell cultures, laminin 521 supported increased proliferation during expansion and superior differentiation with myotube hypertrophy. Counterintuitively however, laminin 211, the native laminin isoform in resting skeletal muscle, resulted in low proliferation and poor differentiation in mouse and human cultures. Matrigel performed excellent in short-term mouse studies but showed high amounts of variability following long-term expansion.

Conclusions: These results demonstrate laminin 521 is a superior substrate for both short-term and long-term myogenic cell culture applications compared to other commonly utilized substrates. Since Matrigel cannot be used for clinical applications, we propose that laminin 521 could possibly be employed in the future to provide myoblasts for cellular therapy directed clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13395-016-0116-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5154152PMC
December 2016

Systemic Expression of Notch Ligand Delta-Like 4 during Mycobacterial Infection Alters the T Cell Immune Response.

Front Immunol 2016 24;7:527. Epub 2016 Nov 24.

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School , Ann Arbor, MI , USA.

The Notch ligand delta-like 4 (DLL4) is known to fine-tune the CD4 T cell cytokine response. DLL4 is expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in a MyD88-dependent manner. We found that DLL4 expression was upregulated on bone marrow progenitor cells and APCs in mice infected with BCG . Transfer of DLL4 progenitor cells from infected hosts resulted in an increase DLL4 myeloid cells in the spleen, indicating that expression of the gene is propagated throughout hematopoiesis. We also found an increase in DLL4 monocytes from individuals who were infected with . In latent individuals, DLL4 expression correlated with increased cytokine production from T cells in response to PPD stimulation. Finally, antibody blockade of DLL4 reduced T cell cytokine production from naïve T cells stimulated with antigen. These results demonstrate that the Notch ligand DLL4 can influence T cell cytokine production in both humans and mice, and further reveal that expression of DLL4 is upregulated on early hematopoietic progenitors in response to chronic mycobacterial infection. These data suggest that widespread DLL4 expression may occur as a result of mycobacterial infection, and that this expression may alter CD4 T cell responses to both previously encountered and novel antigens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2016.00527DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5121470PMC
November 2016

Another Perspective on Research as a Measure of High-Quality Practitioner Training: a Response to Dixon, Reed, Smith, Belisle, and Jackson.

Behav Anal Pract 2015 Oct 3;8(2):154-155. Epub 2015 Sep 3.

grid.28203.3b0000000403786053Simmons College, Boston, MA USA.

Dixon et al. ( 8:7-15, 2015) argued that the research productivity of behavior analytic graduate programs may be a reasonable criterion to evaluate training program quality. They reviewed the cumulative publications of graduate programs. From this analysis, they generated a top ten list of graduate programs with the greatest number of faculty publications and, because of the number of these publications, inferred that they may be better training programs than those not on the list. We countered that the quality of graduate training programs is evident in the behavior of those who are trained, and thus, our field's interest should focus on determining the degree to which individual program graduates-and not their faculty-have mastered the research process. Thus, we proposed including student authors' work as an alternative to Dixon et al.'s analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40617-015-0087-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5048283PMC
October 2015

Type I Interferon Induced Epigenetic Regulation of Macrophages Suppresses Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Acute Respiratory Viral Infection.

PLoS Pathog 2015 Dec 28;11(12):e1005338. Epub 2015 Dec 28.

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.

Influenza A virus (IAV) is an airborne pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality each year. Macrophages (Mϕ) are the first immune population to encounter IAV virions in the lungs and are required to control infection. In the present study, we explored the mechanism by which cytokine signaling regulates the phenotype and function of Mϕ via epigenetic modification of chromatin. We have found that type I interferon (IFN-I) potently upregulates the lysine methyltransferase Setdb2 in murine and human Mϕ, and in turn Setdb2 regulates Mϕ-mediated immunity in response to IAV. The induction of Setdb2 by IFN-I was significantly impaired upon inhibition of the JAK-STAT signaling cascade, and chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that both STAT1 and interferon regulatory factor 7 bind upstream of the transcription start site to induce expression. The generation of Setdb2LacZ reporter mice revealed that IAV infection results in systemic upregulation of Setdb2 in myeloid cells. In the lungs, alveolar Mϕ expressed the highest level of Setdb2, with greater than 70% lacZ positive on day 4 post-infection. Silencing Setdb2 activity in Mϕ in vivo enhanced survival in lethal IAV infection. Enhanced host protection correlated with an amplified antiviral response and less obstruction to the airways. By tri-methylating H3K9, Setdb2 silenced the transcription of Mx1 and Isg15, antiviral effectors that inhibit IAV replication. Accordingly, a reduced viral load in knockout mice on day 8 post-infection was linked to elevated Isg15 and Mx1 transcript in the lungs. In addition, Setdb2 suppressed the expression of a large number of other genes with proinflammatory or immunomodulatory function. This included Ccl2, a chemokine that signals through CCR2 to regulate monocyte recruitment to infectious sites. Consistently, knockout mice produced more CCL2 upon IAV infection and this correlated with a 2-fold increase in the number of inflammatory monocytes and alveolar Mϕ in the lungs. Finally, Setdb2 expression by Mϕ suppressed IL-2, IL-10, and IFN-γ production by CD4+ T cells in vitro, as well as proliferation in IAV-infected lungs. Collectively, these findings identify Setdb2 as a novel regulator of the immune system in acute respiratory viral infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005338DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4692439PMC
December 2015

Epigenetic regulation of IL-12-dependent T cell proliferation.

J Leukoc Biol 2015 Oct 9;98(4):601-13. Epub 2015 Jun 9.

*Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA; Department of Immunology, Nara Medical University, Nara, Japan; and Dermatology Research, Almirall, S.A., St Feliu de Llobregat, Spain.

It is well established that the cytokine IL-12 and the transcription factor STAT4, an essential part of the IL-12 signaling pathway, are critical components of the Th1 differentiation process in T cells. In response to pathogenic stimuli, this process causes T cells to proliferate rapidly and secrete high amounts of the cytokine IFN-γ, leading to the Th1 proinflammatory phenotype. However, there are still unknown components of this differentiation pathway. We here demonstrated that the expression of the histone methyltransferase Mll1 is driven by IL-12 signaling through STAT4 in humans and mice and is critical for the proper differentiation of a naïve T cell to a Th1 cell. Once MLL1 is up-regulated by IL-12, it regulates the proliferation of Th1 cells. As evidence of this, we show that Th1 cells from Mll1(+/-) mice are unable to proliferate rapidly in a Th1 environment in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, upon restimulation with cognate antigen Mll1(+/-), T cells do not convert to a Th1 phenotype, as characterized by IFN-γ output. Furthermore, we observed a reduction in IFN-γ production and proliferation in human peripheral blood stimulated with tetanus toxoid by use of a specific inhibitor of the MLL1/menin complex. Together, our results demonstrate that the MLL1 gene plays a previously unrecognized but essential role in Th1 cell biology and furthermore, describes a novel pathway through which Mll1 expression is regulated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1189/jlb.1A0814-375RRDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4763868PMC
October 2015

MDI 301 suppresses myeloid leukemia cell growth in vitro and in vivo without the toxicity associated with all-trans retinoic acid therapy.

Anticancer Drugs 2015 Aug;26(7):763-73

Department of Pathology, The University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

MDI 301 is a novel 9-cis retinoic acid derivative in which the terminal carboxylic acid group has been replaced by a picolinate ester. MDI 301, a retinoic acid receptor-α - agonist, suppressed the growth of several human myeloid leukemia cell lines (HL60, NB4, OCI-M2, and K562) in vitro and induced cell-substrate adhesion in conjunction with upregulation of CD11b. Tumor growth in HL60-injected athymic nude mice was reduced. In vitro, MDI 301 was comparable to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) whereas in vivo, MDI 301 was slightly more efficacious than ATRA. Most importantly, unlike what was found with ATRA treatment, MDI 301 did not induce a cytokine response in the treated animals and the severe inflammatory changes and systemic toxicity seen with ATRA did not occur. A retinoid with these characteristics might be valuable in the treatment of promyelocytic leukemia, or, perhaps, other forms of myeloid leukemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CAD.0000000000000248DOI Listing
August 2015

Epigenetic changes in bone marrow progenitor cells influence the inflammatory phenotype and alter wound healing in type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes 2015 Apr 3;64(4):1420-30. Epub 2014 Nov 3.

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Classically activated (M1) macrophages are known to play a role in the development of chronic inflammation associated with impaired wound healing in type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, the mechanism responsible for the dominant proinflammatory (M1) macrophage phenotype in T2D wounds is unknown. Since epigenetic enzymes can direct macrophage phenotypes, we assessed the role of histone methylation in bone marrow (BM) stem/progenitor cells in the programming of macrophages toward a proinflammatory phenotype. We have found that a repressive histone methylation mark, H3K27me3, is decreased at the promoter of the IL-12 gene in BM progenitors and this epigenetic signature is passed down to wound macrophages in a murine model of glucose intolerance (diet-induced obese). These epigenetically "preprogrammed" macrophages result in poised macrophages in peripheral tissue and negatively impact wound repair. We found that in diabetic conditions the H3K27 demethylase Jmjd3 drives IL-12 production in macrophages and that IL-12 production can be modulated by inhibiting Jmjd3. Using human T2D tissue and murine models, we have identified a previously unrecognized mechanism by which macrophages are programmed toward a proinflammatory phenotype, establishing a pattern of unrestrained inflammation associated with nonhealing wounds. Hence, histone demethylase inhibitor-based therapy may represent a novel treatment option for diabetic wounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db14-0872DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4375075PMC
April 2015

Myoblasts from intrauterine growth-restricted sheep fetuses exhibit intrinsic deficiencies in proliferation that contribute to smaller semitendinosus myofibres.

J Physiol 2014 Jul 23;592(14):3113-25. Epub 2014 May 23.

School of Animal and Comparative Biomedical Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) reduces skeletal muscle mass in fetuses and offspring. Our objective was to determine whether myoblast dysfunction due to intrinsic cellular deficiencies or serum factors reduces myofibre hypertrophy in IUGR fetal sheep. At 134 days, IUGR fetuses weighed 67% less (P < 0.05) than controls and had smaller (P < 0.05) carcasses and semitendinosus myofibre areas. IUGR semitendinosus muscles had similar percentages of pax7-positive nuclei and pax7 mRNA but lower (P < 0.05) percentages of myogenin-positive nuclei (7 ± 2% and 13 ± 2%), less myoD and myogenin mRNA, and fewer (P < 0.05) proliferating myoblasts (PNCA-positive-pax7-positive) than controls (44 ± 2% vs. 52 ± 1%). Primary myoblasts were isolated from hindlimb muscles, and after 3 days in growth media (20% fetal bovine serum, FBS), myoblasts from IUGR fetuses had 34% fewer (P < 0.05) myoD-positive cells than controls and replicated 20% less (P < 0.05) during a 2 h BrdU pulse. IUGR myoblasts also replicated less (P < 0.05) than controls during a BrdU pulse after 3 days in media containing 10% control or IUGR fetal sheep serum (FSS). Both myoblast types replicated less (P < 0.05) with IUGR FSS-supplemented media compared to control FSS-supplemented media. In differentiation-promoting media (2% FBS), IUGR and control myoblasts had similar percentages of myogenin-positive nuclei after 5 days and formed similar-sized myotubes after 7 days. We conclude that intrinsic cellular deficiencies in IUGR myoblasts and factors in IUGR serum diminish myoblast proliferation and myofibre size in IUGR fetuses, but intrinsic myoblast deficiencies do not affect differentiation. Furthermore, the persistent reduction in IUGR myoblast replication shows adaptive deficiencies that explain poor muscle growth in IUGR newborn offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2014.272591DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4214663PMC
July 2014

Cytokine induced phenotypic and epigenetic signatures are key to establishing specific macrophage phenotypes.

PLoS One 2013 21;8(10):e78045. Epub 2013 Oct 21.

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.

Macrophages (MΦ) play an essential role in innate immune responses and can either display a pro-inflammatory, classically activated phenotype (M1) or undergo an alternative activation program (M2) promoting immune regulation. M-CSF is used to differentiate monocytes into MΦ and IFN-γ or IL-4+IL-13 to further polarize these cells towards M1 or M2, respectively. Recently, differentiation using only GM-CSF or M-CSF has been described to induce a M1- or M2-like phenotype, respectively. In this study, we combined both approaches by differentiating human MΦ in GM-CSF or M-CSF followed by polarization with either IFN-γ or IL-4+IL-13. We describe the phenotypic differences between CD14(hi) CD163(hi) CD206(int) FOLR2-expressing M-CSF MΦ and CD14(lo) CD163(lo) CD206(hi) GM-CSF MΦ but show that both macrophage populations reacted similarly to further polarization with IFN-γ or IL-4+IL-13 with up- and down-regulation of common M1 and M2 marker genes. We also show that high expression of the mannose receptor (CD206), a marker of alternative activation, is a distinct feature of GM-CSF MΦ. Changes of the chromatin structure carried out by chromatin modification enzymes (CME) have been shown to regulate myeloid differentiation. We analyzed the expression patterns of CME during MΦ polarization and show that M1 up-regulate the histone methyltransferase MLL and demethylase KDM6B, while resting and M2 MΦ were characterized by DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylases. We demonstrate that MLL regulates CXCL10 expression and that this effect could be abrogated using a MLL-Menin inhibitor. Taken together we describe the distinct phenotypic differences of GM-CSF or M-CSF MΦ and demonstrate that MΦ polarization is regulated by specific epigenetic mechanisms. In addition, we describe a novel role for MLL as marker for classical activation. Our findings provide new insights into MΦ polarization that could be helpful to distinguish MΦ activation states.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0078045PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3804553PMC
September 2014

Skeletal muscle satellite cell migration to injured tissue measured with 111In-oxine and high-resolution SPECT imaging.

J Muscle Res Cell Motil 2013 Dec 5;34(5-6):417-27. Epub 2013 Nov 5.

Muscle Biology Group, Department of Animal Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

The delivery of adult skeletal muscle stem cells, called satellite cells, to several injured muscles via the circulation would be useful, however, an improved understanding of cell fate and biodistribution following their delivery is important for this goal to be achieved. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of systemically delivered satellite cells to home to injured skeletal muscle using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of (111)In-labeled satellite cells. Satellite cells labeled with (111)In-oxine and green fluorescent protein (GFP) were injected intravenously after bupivicaine-induced injury to the tibialis anterior muscle. Animals were imaged with a high-resolution SPECT system called FastSPECT II for up to 7 days after transplantation. In vivo FastSPECT II imaging demonstrated a three to five-fold greater number of transplanted satellite cells in bupivicaine-injured muscle as compared to un-injured muscle after transplantation; a finding that was verified through autoradiograph analysis and quantification of GFP expression. Satellite cells also accumulated in other organs including the lung, liver, and spleen, as determined by biodistribution measurements. These data support the ability of satellite cells to home to injured muscle and support the use of SPECT and autoradiograph imaging techniques to track systemically transplanted (111)In labeled satellite cells in vivo, and suggest their homing may be improved by reducing their entrapment in filter organs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10974-013-9368-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3896547PMC
December 2013

Numb-deficient satellite cells have regeneration and proliferation defects.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013 Nov 29;110(46):18549-54. Epub 2013 Oct 29.

School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501.

The adaptor protein Numb has been implicated in the switch between cell proliferation and differentiation made by satellite cells during muscle repair. Using two genetic approaches to ablate Numb, we determined that, in its absence, muscle regeneration in response to injury was impaired. Single myofiber cultures demonstrated a lack of satellite cell proliferation in the absence of Numb, and the proliferation defect was confirmed in satellite cell cultures. Quantitative RT-PCR from Numb-deficient satellite cells demonstrated highly up-regulated expression of p21 and Myostatin, both inhibitors of myoblast proliferation. Transfection with Myostatin-specific siRNA rescued the proliferation defect of Numb-deficient satellite cells. Furthermore, overexpression of Numb in satellite cells inhibited Myostatin expression. These data indicate a unique function for Numb during the initial activation and proliferation of satellite cells in response to muscle injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1311628110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3831958PMC
November 2013

Oxytocin stimulated release of PGF2α and its inhibition by a cyclooxygenase inhibitor and an oxytocin receptor antagonist from equine endometrial cultures.

Anim Reprod Sci 2013 Jun 24;139(1-4):69-75. Epub 2013 Apr 24.

Department of Animal Sciences, William J. Parker Agricultural Research Center, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA.

Uterine inflammation results in a poor uterine environment and early embryonic loss in the mare due to an inhibition of maternal recognition of pregnancy caused from increased prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α). Oxytocin binds to endometrial cell receptors to activate prostaglandin synthesis. An oxytocin receptor antagonist (Atosiban) and a cyclooxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin) both decrease PGF2α production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of Atosiban and indomethacin on equine uterine prostaglandin secretion. Equine endometrial explants were harvested on day two of behavioral estrus. Endometrial explant cultures were challenged with oxytocin (250nM) and PGF2α concentrations were measured over time. Explants were also cultured with Atosiban and indomethacin for 6h to determine the influence on PGF2α secretion. When endometrial explants were challenged with oxytocin, PGF2α concentrations were greater (P<0.0001) at each time point over the 24h of culture as compared to controls. Oxytocin failed (P<0.001) to elicit PGF2α release in explants cultured with either Atosiban or indomethacin. These findings show equine endometrial explants can be stimulated with oxytocin to increase secretion of PGF2α and this secretion can be inhibited through an oxytocin receptor antagonist and a Cox inhibitor, suggesting that this response to oxytocin involves an oxytocin receptor mediated event that activates the prostaglandin synthesis cascade through cyclooxygenase. Furthermore, this data suggests a role for the use of these inhibitors in vivo to decrease uterine PGF2α secretion and prevent early luteal regression and embryonic loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2013.04.010DOI Listing
June 2013

STAT3-mediated IL-17 production by postseptic T cells exacerbates viral immunopathology of the lung.

Shock 2012 Nov;38(5):515-23

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Survivors of severe sepsis exhibit increased morbidity and mortality in response to secondary infections. Although bacterial secondary infections have been widely studied, there remains a paucity of data concerning viral infections after sepsis. In an experimental mouse model of severe sepsis (cecal ligation and puncture [CLP]) followed by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, exacerbated immunopathology was observed in the lungs of CLP mice compared with RSV-infected sham surgery mice. This virus-associated immunopathology was evidenced by increased mucus production in the lungs of RSV-infected CLP mice and correlated with increased IL-17 production in the lungs. Respiratory syncytial virus-infected CLP mice exhibited increased levels of TH2 cytokines and reduced interferon γ in the lungs and lymph nodes compared with RSV-infected sham mice. In addition, CD4 T cells from CLP mice produced increased IL-17 in vitro irrespective of the presence of exogenous cytokines or blocking antibodies. This increased IL-17 production correlated with increased STAT3 transcription factor binding to the IL-17 promoter in CD4 T cells from CLP mice. Furthermore, in vivo neutralization of IL-17 before RSV infection led to a significant reduction in virus-induced mucus production and TH2 cytokines. Taken together, these data provide evidence that postseptic CD4 T cells are primed toward IL-17 production via increased STAT3-mediated gene transcription, which may contribute to the immunopathology of a secondary viral infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0b013e31826f862cDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3475732PMC
November 2012

Calcium influx through a possible coupling of cation channels impacts skeletal muscle satellite cell activation in response to mechanical stretch.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2012 Jun 28;302(12):C1741-50. Epub 2012 Mar 28.

Department of Animal and Marine Bioresource Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Hakozaki, Fukuoka, Japan.

When skeletal muscle is stretched or injured, satellite cells, resident myogenic stem cells positioned beneath the basal lamina of mature muscle fibers, are activated to enter the cell cycle. This signaling pathway is a cascade of events including calcium-calmodulin formation, nitric oxide (NO) radical production by NO synthase, matrix metalloproteinase activation, release of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) from the extracellular matrix, and presentation of HGF to the receptor c-met, as demonstrated by assays of primary cultures and in vivo experiments. Here, we add evidence that two ion channels, the mechanosensitive cation channel (MS channel) and the long-lasting-type voltage-gated calcium-ion channel (L-VGC channel), mediate the influx of extracellular calcium ions in response to cyclic stretch in satellite cell cultures. When applied to 1-h stretch cultures with individual inhibitors for MS and L-VGC channels (GsMTx-4 and nifedipine, respectively) or with a less specific inhibitor (gadolinium chloride, Gd), satellite cell activation and upstream HGF release were abolished, as revealed by bromodeoxyuridine-incorporation assays and Western blotting of conditioned media, respectively. The inhibition was dose dependent with a maximum at 0.1 μM (GsMTx-4), 10 μM (nifedipine), or 100 μM (Gd) and canceled by addition of HGF to the culture media; a potent inhibitor for transient-type VGC channels (NNC55-0396, 100 μM) did not show any significant inhibitory effect. The stretch response was also abolished when calcium-chelator EGTA (1.8 mM) was added to the medium, indicating the significance of extracellular free calcium ions in our present activation model. Finally, cation/calcium channel dependencies were further documented by calcium-imaging analyses on stretched cells; results clearly demonstrated that calcium ion influx was abolished by GsMTx-4, nifedipine, and EGTA. Therefore, these results provide an additional insight that calcium ions may flow in through L-VGC channels by possible coupling with adjacent MS channel gating that promotes the local depolarization of cell membranes to initiate the satellite cell activation cascade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00068.2012DOI Listing
June 2012

The critical role of Notch ligand Delta-like 1 in the pathogenesis of influenza A virus (H1N1) infection.

PLoS Pathog 2011 Nov 3;7(11):e1002341. Epub 2011 Nov 3.

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.

Influenza A viral infections have been identified as the etiologic agents for historic pandemics, and contribute to the annual mortality associated with acute viral pneumonia. While both innate and acquired immunity are important in combating influenza virus infection, the mechanism connecting these arms of the immune system remains unknown. Recent data have indicated that the Notch system is an important bridge between antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T cell communication circuits and plays a central role in driving the immune system to overcome disease. In the present study, we examine the role of Notch signaling during influenza H1N1 virus infection, focusing on APCs. We demonstrate here that macrophages, but not dendritic cells (DCs), increased Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (Dll1) expression following influenza virus challenge. Dll1 expression on macrophages was dependent on retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) induced type-I IFN pathway, and not on the TLR3-TRIF pathway. We also found that IFNα-Receptor knockout mice failed to induce Dll1 expression on lung macrophages and had enhanced mortality during influenza virus infection. Our results further showed that specific neutralization of Dll1 during influenza virus challenge induced higher mortality, impaired viral clearance, and decreased levels of IFN-γ. In addition, we blocked Notch signaling by using γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI), a Notch signaling inhibitor. Intranasal administration of GSI during influenza infection also led to higher mortality, and higher virus load with excessive inflammation and an impaired production of IFN-γ in lungs. Moreover, Dll1 expression on macrophages specifically regulates IFN-γ levels from CD4(+)and CD8(+)T cells, which are important for anti-viral immunity. Together, the results of this study show that Dll1 positively influences the development of anti-viral immunity, and may provide mechanistic approaches for modifying and controlling the immune response against influenza H1N1 virus infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3207886PMC
November 2011

Effects of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1) on satellite cell activation and survival during oxidative stress.

J Muscle Res Cell Motil 2011 Sep 8;32(2):99-109. Epub 2011 Aug 8.

Muscle Biology Group, Department of Animal Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

The regulation of adult skeletal muscle repair and regeneration is largely due to the contribution of resident adult myogenic precursor cells called satellite cells. The events preceding their participation in muscle repair include activation (exit from quiescence), proliferation, and differentiation. This study examined the effects of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1) on satellite cell activation, determined whether TGF-β1 could maintain quiescence in the presence of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and whether the regulation of satellite cell activation with TGF-β1 improves the ability of satellite cells to withstand oxidative stress. The addition of TGF-β1 during early satellite cell activation (0-48 h) or during the proliferative phase (48-96 h) maintained and induced satellite cell quiescence, respectively, as determined by myogenic differentiation (MyoD) protein expression. TGF-β1 also attenuated satellite cell activation when used with HGF. Finally, the role of quiescence in protecting cells against oxidative stress was examined. TGF-β1 treatment and the low pH satellite cell preparation procedure, a technique that forestalls spontaneous activation in vitro, both enhanced survival of cultured satellite cells following hydrogen peroxide treatment. These findings indicate that TGF-β1 is capable of maintaining and inducing satellite cell quiescence and suggest methods to maintain satellite cell quiescence may improve their transplantation efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10974-011-9255-8DOI Listing
September 2011

High concentrations of HGF inhibit skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation in vitro by inducing expression of myostatin: a possible mechanism for reestablishing satellite cell quiescence in vivo.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2010 Mar 9;298(3):C465-76. Epub 2009 Dec 9.

Dept. of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Hakozaki 6-10-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan.

Skeletal muscle regeneration and work-induced hypertrophy rely on molecular events responsible for activation and quiescence of resident myogenic stem cells, satellite cells. Recent studies demonstrated that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) triggers activation and entry into the cell cycle in response to mechanical perturbation, and that subsequent expression of myostatin may signal a return to cell quiescence. However, mechanisms responsible for coordinating expression of myostatin after an appropriate time lag following activation and proliferation are not clear. Here we address the possible role of HGF in quiescence through its concentration-dependent negative-feedback mechanism following satellite cell activation and proliferation. When activated/proliferating satellite cell cultures were treated for 24 h beginning 48-h postplating with 10-500 ng/ml HGF, the percentage of bromodeoxyuridine-incorporating cells decreased down to a baseline level comparable to 24-h control cultures in a HGF dose-dependent manner. The high level HGF treatment did not impair the cell viability and differentiation levels, and cells could be reactivated by lowering HGF concentrations to 2.5 ng/ml, a concentration that has been shown to optimally stimulate activation of satellite cells in culture. Coaddition of antimyostatin neutralizing antibody could prevent deactivation and abolish upregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p21. Myostatin mRNA expression was upregulated with high concentrations of HGF, as demonstrated by RT-PCR, and enhanced myostatin protein expression and secretion were revealed by Western blots of the cell lysates and conditioned media. These results indicate that HGF could induce satellite cell quiescence by stimulating myostatin expression. The HGF concentration required (over 10-50 ng/ml), however, is much higher than that for activation, which is initiated by rapid release of HGF from its extracellular association. Considering that HGF is produced by satellite cells and spleen and liver cells in response to muscle damage, local concentrations of HGF bathing satellite cells may reach a threshold sufficient to induce myostatin expression. This time lag may delay action of the quiescence signaling program in proliferating satellite cells during initial phases of muscle regeneration followed by induction of quiescence in a subset of cells during later phases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00449.2009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2838568PMC
March 2010

Epigenetic regulation of the alternatively activated macrophage phenotype.

Blood 2009 Oct 30;114(15):3244-54. Epub 2009 Jun 30.

Immunology Program, Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200, USA.

Alternatively activated (M2) macrophages play critical roles in diverse chronic diseases, including parasite infections, cancer, and allergic responses. However, little is known about the acquisition and maintenance of their phenotype. We report that M2-macrophage marker genes are epigenetically regulated by reciprocal changes in histone H3 lysine-4 (H3K4) and histone H3 lysine-27 (H3K27) methylation; and the latter methylation marks are removed by the H3K27 demethylase Jumonji domain containing 3 (Jmjd3). We found that continuous interleukin-4 (IL-4) treatment leads to decreased H3K27 methylation, at the promoter of M2 marker genes, and a concomitant increase in Jmjd3 expression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that IL-4-dependent Jmjd3 expression is mediated by STAT6, a major transcription factor of IL-4-mediated signaling. After IL-4 stimulation, activated STAT6 is increased and binds to consensus sites at the Jmjd3 promoter. Increased Jmjd3 contributes to the decrease of H3K27 dimethylation and trimethylation (H3K27me2/3) marks as well as the transcriptional activation of specific M2 marker genes. The decrease in H3K27me2/3 and increase in Jmjd3 recruitment were confirmed by in vivo studies using a Schistosoma mansoni egg-challenged mouse model, a well-studied system known to support an M2 phenotype. Collectively, these data indicate that chromatin remodeling is mechanistically important in the acquisition of the M2-macrophage phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2009-04-217620DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2759649PMC
October 2009

Possible implication of satellite cells in regenerative motoneuritogenesis: HGF upregulates neural chemorepellent Sema3A during myogenic differentiation.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2009 Aug 10;297(2):C238-52. Epub 2009 Jun 10.

Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Regenerative coordination and remodeling of the intramuscular motoneuron network and neuromuscular connections are critical for restoring skeletal muscle function and physiological properties. The regulatory mechanisms of such coordination remain unclear, although both attractive and repulsive axon guidance molecules may be involved in the signaling pathway. Here we show that expression of a neural secreted chemorepellent semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is remarkably upregulated in satellite cells of resident myogenic stem cells that are positioned beneath the basal lamina of mature muscle fibers, when treated with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), established as an essential cue in muscle fiber growth and regeneration. When satellite cells were treated with HGF in primary cultures of cells or muscle fibers, Sema3A message and protein were upregulated as revealed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunochemical studies. Other growth factors had no inductive effect except for a slight effect of epidermal growth factor treatment. Sema3A upregulation was HGF dose dependent with a maximum (about 7- to 8-fold units relative to the control) at 10-25 ng/ml and occurred exclusively at the early-differentiation stage, as characterized by the level of myogenin expression and proliferation (bromodeoxyuridine incorporation) of the cells. Neutralizing antibody to the HGF-specific receptor, c-met, did not abolish the HGF response, indicating that c-met may not mediate the Sema3A expression signaling. Finally, in vivo Sema3A was upregulated in the differentiation phase of satellite cells isolated from muscle regenerating following crush injury. Overall, the data highlight a heretofore unexplored and active role for satellite cells as a key source of Sema3A expression triggered by HGF, hence suggesting that regenerative activity toward motor innervation may importantly reside in satellite cells and could be a crucial contributor during postnatal myogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00161.2009DOI Listing
August 2009

A role for calcium-calmodulin in regulating nitric oxide production during skeletal muscle satellite cell activation.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2009 Apr 21;296(4):C922-9. Epub 2009 Jan 21.

Department of Bioscience, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

When skeletal muscle is stretched or injured, myogenic satellite cells are activated to enter the cell cycle. This process depends on nitric oxide (NO) production by NO synthase (NOS), matrix metalloproteinase activation, release of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) from the extracellular matrix, and presentation of HGF to the c-met receptor as demonstrated by a primary culture and in vivo assays. We now add evidence that calcium-calmodulin is involved in the satellite cell activation cascade in vitro. Conditioned medium from cultures that were treated with a calcium ionophore (A23187, ionomycin) for 2 h activated cultured satellite cells and contained active HGF, similar to the effect of mechanical stretch or NO donor treatments. The response was abolished by addition of calmodulin inhibitors (calmidazolium, W-13, W-12) or a NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride but not by its less inactive enantiomer N(G)-nitro-d-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride. Satellite cells were also shown to express functional calmodulin protein having a calcium-binding activity at 12 h postplating, which is the time at which the calcium ionophore was added in this study and the stretch treatment was applied in our previous experiments. Therefore, results from these experiments provide an additional insight that calcium-calmodulin mediates HGF release from the matrix and that this step in the activation pathway is upstream from NO synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00471.2008DOI Listing
April 2009

Matrix metalloproteinase-2 mediates stretch-induced activation of skeletal muscle satellite cells in a nitric oxide-dependent manner.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2008 23;40(10):2183-91. Epub 2008 Feb 23.

Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kyushu University, Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan.

When skeletal muscle is stretched or injured, myogenic satellite cells are activated to enter the cell cycle. This process depends on nitric oxide (NO) production, release of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) from the extracellular matrix, and presentation of HGF to the c-met receptor. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a large family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases, mediate HGF release from the matrix and this step in the pathway is downstream from NO synthesis [Yamada, M., Tatsumi, R., Kikuiri, T., Okamoto, S., Nonoshita, S., Mizunoya, W., et al. (2006). Matrix metalloproteinases are involved in mechanical stretch-induced activation of skeletal muscle satellite cells. Muscle Nerve, 34, 313-319]. Experiments reported herein provide evidence that MMP2 may be involved in the NO-dependent release of HGF in vitro. Whole lysate analyses of satellite cells demonstrated the presence of MMP2 mRNA and the protein. When rat satellite cells were treated with 30 microM sodium nitroprusside a NO donor or mechanical cyclic stretch for 2h period, inactive proMMP2 (72 kDa) was converted into 52-kDa form and this processing was abolished by adding a NO synthase inhibitor l-NAME (10 microM) to the stretch culture. The 52-kDa species was also generated by treatment of the recombinant MMP2 protein with 1 microM NOC-7 that can spontaneously release NO under physiological conditions without any cofactor, and its activating activity was demonstrated by applying the NOC-7-treated MMP2 to satellite cell culture. HGF release was detected in NOC-7-MMP2-conditioned media by western blotting; very little HGF was found in media that were generated from cultures receiving NOC-7-treated MMP2 (10 ng/ml) plus 250 ng/ml tissue inhibitor-1 of metalloproteinases. Therefore, results from these experiments provide evidence that NO-activated MMP2 may cause release of HGF from the extracellular matrix of satellite cells and contribute to satellite cell activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2008.02.017DOI Listing
October 2008

Sox15 and Fhl3 transcriptionally coactivate Foxk1 and regulate myogenic progenitor cells.

EMBO J 2007 Apr 15;26(7):1902-12. Epub 2007 Mar 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

The regulation of myogenic progenitor cells during muscle regeneration is not clearly understood. We have previously shown that the Foxk1 gene, a member of the forkhead/winged helix family of transcription factors, is expressed in myogenic progenitor cells in adult skeletal muscle. In the present study, we utilize transgenic technology and demonstrate that the 4.6 kb upstream fragment of the Foxk1 gene directs beta-galactosidase expression to the myogenic progenitor cell population. We further establish that Sox15 directs Foxk1 expression to the myogenic progenitor cell population, as it binds to an evolutionarily conserved site and recruits Fhl3 to transcriptionally coactivate Foxk1 gene expression. Knockdown of endogenous Sox15 results in perturbed cell cycle kinetics and decreased Foxk1 expression. Furthermore, Sox15 mutant mice display perturbed skeletal muscle regeneration, due in part to decreased numbers of satellite cells and decreased Foxk1 expression. These studies demonstrate that Sox15, Fhl3 and Foxk1 function to coordinately regulate the myogenic progenitor cell population and skeletal muscle regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.emboj.7601635DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1847663PMC
April 2007