Publications by authors named "Ronak Delewi"

70 Publications

Balloon-Expandable versus Self-Expandable Valves in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: Complications and Outcomes from a Large International Patient Cohort.

J Clin Med 2021 Sep 4;10(17). Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Heart Center, Amsterdam UMC, Department of Cardiology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Both balloon-expandable (BE) and self-expandable (SE) valves for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) are broadly used in clinical practice. However, adequately powered randomized controlled trials comparing these two valve designs are lacking.

Methods: The CENTER-study included 12,381 patients undergoing transfemoral TAVI. Patients undergoing TAVI with a BE-valve ( = 4096) were compared to patients undergoing TAVI with an SE-valve ( = 4096) after propensity score matching. Clinical outcomes including one-year mortality and stroke rates were assessed.

Results: In the matched population of = 5410 patients, the mean age was 81 ± 3 years, 60% was female, and the STS-PROM predicted 30-day mortality was 6.2% (IQR 4.0-12.4). One-year mortality was not different between patients treated with BE- or SE-valves (BE: 16.4% vs. SE: 17.0%, Relative Risk 1.04, 95%CI 0.02-1.21, = 0.57). One-year stroke rates were also comparable (BE: 4.9% vs. SE: 5.3%, RR 1.09, 95%CI 0.86-1.37, = 0.48).

Conclusion: This study suggests that one-year mortality and stroke rates were comparable in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis undergoing TAVI with either BE or SE-valves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10174005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8432462PMC
September 2021

Cangrelor Use in Routine Practice: A Two-Center Experience.

J Clin Med 2021 Jun 26;10(13). Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Cangrelor is the first and only intravenous P2Y-inhibitor and is indicated when (timely) administration of an oral P2Y inhibitor is not feasible in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Our study evaluated the first years of cangrelor use in two Dutch tertiary care centers. Cangrelor-treated patients were identified using a data-mining algorithm. The cumulative incidences of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, definite stent thrombosis and major bleeding at 48 h and 30 days were assessed using Kaplan-Meier estimates. Predictors of 30-day mortality were identified using uni- and multivariable Cox regression models. Between March 2015 and April 2021, 146 patients (median age 63.7 years, 75.3% men) were treated with cangrelor. Cangrelor was primarily used in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients (84.2%). Approximately half required cardiopulmonary resuscitation (54.8%) or mechanical ventilation (48.6%). The cumulative incidence of all-cause death was 11.0% and 25.3% at 48 h and 30 days, respectively. Two cases (1.7%) of definite stent thrombosis, both resulting in myocardial infarction, occurred within 30 days, but after 48 h. No other cases of recurrent myocardial infarction transpired within 30 days. Major bleeding occurred in 5.6% and 12.5% of patients within 48 h and 30 days, respectively. Cardiac arrest at presentation was an independent predictor of 30-day mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 5.20, 95%-CI: 2.10-12.9, < 0.01). Conclusively, cangrelor was used almost exclusively in STEMI patients undergoing PCI. Even though cangrelor was used in high-risk patients, its use was associated with a low rate of stent thrombosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10132829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269409PMC
June 2021

Pharmacodynamic Effects of Pre-Hospital Administered Crushed Prasugrel in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 06;14(12):1323-1333

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands; Department of Cardiology, Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study sought to compare the pharmacodynamic effects of pre-hospitally administered P2Y inhibitor prasugrel in crushed versus integral tablet formulation in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI).

Background: Early dual antiplatelet therapy is recommended in STEMI patients. Yet, onset of oral P2Y inhibitor effect is delayed and varies according to formulation administered.

Methods: The COMPARE CRUSH (Comparison of Pre-hospital Crushed Versus Uncrushed Prasugrel Tablets in Patients With STEMI Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Interventions) trial randomized patients with suspected STEMI to crushed or integral prasugrel 60-mg loading dose in the ambulance. Pharmacodynamic measurements were performed at 4 time points: before antiplatelet treatment, at the beginning and end of pPCI, and 4 h after study treatment onset. The primary endpoint was high platelet reactivity at the end of pPCI. The secondary endpoint was impact of platelet reactivity status on markers of coronary reperfusion.

Results: A total of 441 patients were included. In patients with crushed prasugrel, the occurrence of high platelet reactivity at the end of pPCI was reduced by almost one-half (crushed 34.7% vs. uncrushed 61.6%; odds ratio [OR] = 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.22 to 0.50; p < 0.01). Platelet reactivity <150 P2Y reactivity units at the beginning of coronary angiography correlated with improved Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction flow grade 3 in the infarct artery pre-pPCI (OR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.08 to 2.94; p = 0.02) but not ST-segment resolution (OR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.48 to 1.34; p = 0.40).

Conclusions: Oral administration of crushed compared with integral prasugrel significantly improves platelet inhibition during the acute phase in STEMI patients undergoing pPCI. However, a considerable number of patients still exhibit inadequate platelet inhibition at the end of pPCI, suggesting the need for alternative agents to bridge the gap in platelet inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2021.04.022DOI Listing
June 2021

DEtection of ProxImal Coronary stenosis in the work-up for Transcatheter aortic valve implantation using CTA (from the DEPICT CTA collaboration).

Eur Radiol 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105, AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is performed routinely in the work-up for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), and could potentially replace invasive coronary angiography (ICA) to rule out left main (LM) and proximal coronary stenosis. The objectives were to assess the diagnostic yield and accuracy of pre-TAVI CTA to detect LM and proximal coronary stenosis of ≥ 50% and ≥ 70% diameter stenosis (DS).

Methods: The DEPICT CTA database consists of individual patient data from four studies with a retrospective design that analyzed the diagnostic accuracy of pre-TAVI CTA to detect coronary stenosis, as compared with ICA. Pooled data were used to assess diagnostic accuracy to detect coronary stenosis in the left main and the three proximal coronary segments on a per-patient and a per-segment level. We included 1060 patients (mean age: 81.5 years, 42.7% male).

Results: On ICA, the prevalence of proximal stenosis was 29.0% (≥ 50% DS) and 15.7% (≥ 70% DS). Pre-TAVI CTA ruled out ≥ 50% DS in 51.6% of patients with a sensitivity of 96.4%, specificity of 71.2%, PPV of 57.7%, and NPV of 98.0%. For ≥ 70% DS, pre-TAVI CTA ruled out stenosis in 70.0% of patients with a sensitivity of 96.7%, specificity of 87.5%, PPV of 66.9%, and NPV of 99.0%.

Conclusion: CTA provides high diagnostic accuracy to rule out LM and proximal coronary stenosis in patients undergoing work-up for TAVI. Clinical application of CTA as a gatekeeper for ICA would reduce the need for ICA in 52% or 70% of patients, using a threshold of ≥ 50% or ≥ 70% DS, respectively.

Key Points: • Clinical application of CTA as a gatekeeper for ICA would reduce the need for ICA in 52% or 70% of TAVI patients, using a threshold of ≥ 50% or ≥ 70% diameter stenosis. • The diagnostic accuracy of CTA to exclude proximal coronary stenosis in these patients is high, with a sensitivity of 96.4% and NPV of 98.0% for a threshold of ≥ 50%, and a sensitivity of 96.7% and NPV of 99.0% for a threshold of ≥ 70% diameter stenosis. • Atrial fibrillation and heart rate did not significantly affect sensitivity and NPV. However, a heart rate of < 70 b/min during CTA was associated with a significantly improved specificity and PPV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-08095-2DOI Listing
June 2021

Periprocedural Course of Proteinuria After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: Substudy From the POPular TAVI Trial.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2021 07 10;14(7):e010404. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Cardiology (J.B., V.J.N., D.J.v.G., M.J.S., B.J.W.M.R., L.T., J.M.t.B.), St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, the Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.120.010404DOI Listing
July 2021

Effect of Prehospital Crushed Prasugrel Tablets in Patients With ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Planned for Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: The Randomized COMPARE CRUSH Trial.

Circulation 2020 12 14;142(24):2316-2328. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (G.J.V., V.P., P.C.S.).

Background: Early treatment with a potent oral platelet P2Y inhibitor is recommended in patients presenting with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction scheduled to undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). The impact on coronary reperfusion of crushed P2Y inhibitor tablets, which lead to more prompt and potent platelet inhibition, is unknown.

Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled, multicenter trial in the Netherlands, enrolling patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction scheduled to undergo pPCI. Patients were randomly allocated to receive in the ambulance, before transfer, a 60-mg loading dose of prasugrel either as crushed or integral tablets. The independent primary end points were thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) 3 flow in the infarct-related artery at initial coronary angiography, and complete (≥70%) ST-segment resolution 1 hour after pPCI. The safety end points were TIMI major and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium ≥3 bleedings. Secondary end points included platelet reactivity and ischemic outcomes.

Results: A total of 727 patients were assigned to either crushed or integral tablets of prasugrel loading dose. The median time from study treatment to wire-crossing during pPCI was 57 (47-70) minutes. The primary end point TIMI 3 flow in the infarct-related artery before pPCI occurred in 31.0% in the crushed group versus 32.7% in the integral group (odds ratio, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.65-1.30], =0.64). Complete ST-segment resolution 1 hour after pPCI was present in 59.9% in the crushed group versus 57.3% in the integral group (odds ratio, 1.11 [95% CI, 0.78-1.58], =0.55). Platelet reactivity at the beginning of pPCI, measured as P2Y reactivity unit, differed significantly between groups (crushed, 192 [132-245] versus integral, 227 [184-254], ≤0.01). TIMI major and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium ≥3 bleeding occurred in 0% in the crushed group versus 0.8% in the integral group, and in 0.3% in the crushed group versus 1.1% in the integral group, respectively. There were no differences observed between groups regarding ischemic events at 30 days.

Conclusions: Prehospital administration of crushed prasugrel tablets does not improve TIMI 3 flow in the infarct-related artery before pPCI or complete ST-segment resolution 1 h after pPCI in patients presenting with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction scheduled for pPCI. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03296540.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.051532DOI Listing
December 2020

Duration of dual antiplatelet therapy after myocardial infarction: Insights from a pooled database of the SMART-DATE and DAPT-STEMI trials.

Atherosclerosis 2020 12 9;315:55-61. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background And Aims: The optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after myocardial infarction (MI) in patients treated with second-generation drug-eluting stent (DES) is unclear, therefore, we aim to evaluate the ischemic and bleeding risk according to DAPT duration using a pooled-analysis of two randomized trials.

Methods: MI patients treated with durable-polymer second-generation DES from two randomized trials, SMART-DATE and DAPT-STEMI, were pooled. The primary endpoint was a composite of net adverse clinical events (NACEs) defined by all-cause mortality, any MI, stroke and BARC 3-5 bleeding, between 6 and 18 months after index percutaneous coronary intervention.

Results: A total of 2016 patients were analyzed, 1014 were treated with 6-month DAPT versus 1002 patients with ≥12-month DAPT duration. The primary endpoint occurred in 2.7% vs 2.5% (HR 1.07; 95%CI 0.62-1.85, p = 0.80) of cases, in 6 vs ≥ 12-month DAPT, respectively. The composite of cardiac death, MI and stroke was similar (2% vs 1.6%, HR 1.24, 95%CI 0.65-2.4, p = 0.52). BARC 3-5 bleeding occurred more frequently in the ≥12-month DAPT (0.2% vs 0.9%, HR 0.22, 95%CI 0.05-1.02 p = 0.05, log rank p = 0.03). MI occurred more frequently in the 6-month DAPT (1.6% vs 0.6%, HR 2.66, 95%CI 1.04-6.79, p = 0.04). Stent thrombosis was similar in both arms (0.7% vs 0.5%, p = 0.26).

Conclusions: Six vs ≥ 12-month DAPT, followed by aspirin alone, resulted in comparable NACEs in patients with event-free MI at six months after durable-polymer DES implantation. However, single therapy with aspirin beyond the 6 months reduced bleeding rates but was associated with a higher rate of MI compared to ≥12-month DAPT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2020.11.003DOI Listing
December 2020

Delirium After TAVR: Crosspassing the Limit of Resilience.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2020 11;13(21):2453-2466

Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Patients who undergo transcatheter aortic valve replacement often are frail and elderly. Delirium is a frequently observed complication, associated with impaired recovery, prolonged hospital stay, and mortality. In different hospital settings, interventions that reduced the incidence of delirium resulted in improved clinical outcome and reduced costs. In that context, prevention, early recognition, and timely interventions could be the next step toward better outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement. This review is focused on awareness and recognition of delirium, including predisposing "vulnerability" factors (such as cognitive impairment and carotid artery disease) and "trigger" factors (such as anesthesia, hemodynamic imbalance, and complications). For prevention and treatment, clinicians should focus on sleep hygiene, orientation, pain management, and early mobilization. In case of delirium, a thorough search and treatment of trigger factors is warranted. Future studies should focus on risk assessment, preventive and therapeutic interventions, and their potential benefit in terms of costs and clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2020.07.044DOI Listing
November 2020

Cerebral Blood Flow in Patients with Severe Aortic Valve Stenosis Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 02 17;69(2):494-499. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Cardiology, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Heart Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a minimally invasive, life-saving treatment for patients with severe aortic valve stenosis that improves quality of life. We examined cardiac output and cerebral blood flow in patients undergoing TAVI to test the hypothesis that improved cardiac output after TAVI is associated with an increase in cerebral blood flow.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting: European high-volume tertiary multidisciplinary cardiac care.

Participants: Thirty-one patients (78.3 ± 4.6 years; 61% female) with severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis.

Measurements: Noninvasive prospective assessment of cardiac output (L/min) by inert gas rebreathing and cerebral blood flow of the total gray matter (mL/100 g per min) using arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging in resting state less than 24 hours before TAVI and at 3-month follow-up. Cerebral blood flow change was defined as the difference relative to baseline.

Results: On average, cardiac output in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis increased from 4.0 ± 1.1 to 5.4 ± 2.4 L/min after TAVI (P = .003). The increase in cerebral blood flow after TAVI strongly varied between patients (7% ± 24%; P = .41) and related to the increase in cardiac output, with an 8.2% (standard error = 2.3%; P = .003) increase in cerebral blood flow per every additional liter of cardiac output following the TAVI procedure.

Conclusion: Following TAVI, there was an association of increase in cardiac output with increase in cerebral blood flow. These findings encourage future larger studies to determine the influence of TAVI on cerebral blood flow and cognitive function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgs.16882DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7894507PMC
February 2021

Redo SAVR After Primary TAVR, A Dangerous Sequence?

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2020 09;13(18):2186

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2020.08.005DOI Listing
September 2020

Aspirin with or without Clopidogrel after Transcatheter Aortic-Valve Implantation.

N Engl J Med 2020 10 30;383(15):1447-1457. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

From the Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (J. Brouwer, V.J.N., J.P., D.R.P.P.C.P.Y., M.J.S., B.J.W.M.R., L.T., J.C.K., J.M.B.), the Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Amsterdam (R.D., J. Baan), the Department of Cardiology, Isala Hospital, Zwolle (R.S.H.), the Department of Cardiology, Maastricht University Medical Center (W.H., L.V., A.W.J.H.) and the Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (A.W.J.H., J.M.B.), Maastricht, the Department of Cardiology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede (G.K.H.), the Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (F.K.), the Department of Cardiology, Haga Hospital, The Hague (C.E.S.), the Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (P.H.), Erasmus School of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (F.W.F.T.), the Department of Cardiology, Zuyderland Medical Center, Heerlen (A.W.J.H.), and the Department of Cardiology, Division of Heart and Lungs, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht (P.R.S.) - all in the Netherlands; the Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Leuven, Leuven (C.L.F.D.), Cardiovascular Center Aalst, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Clinic (B.D.B.), and the Department of Cardiology, Algemeen Stedelijk Hospital Aalst (I.B.), Aalst, the Department of Cardiology, Sint-Jan Hospital, Brugge (J.A.S.V.D.H.), the Department of Cardiology, Hospital Oost-Limburg, Genk (B.F.), and the Department of Cardiology, Imelda Hospital, Bonheiden (J.R.) - all in Belgium; the Department of Cardiology, Institut National de Chirurgie Cardiaque et de Cardiologie Interventionnelle, Luxembourg, Luxembourg (P.F.); and the Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Královské Vinohrady and Third Medical Faculty, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic (P.T.).

Background: The effect of single as compared with dual antiplatelet treatment on bleeding and thromboembolic events after transcatheter aortic-valve implantation (TAVI) in patients who do not have an indication for long-term anticoagulation has not been well studied.

Methods: In a randomized, controlled trial, we assigned a subgroup of patients who were undergoing TAVI and did not have an indication for long-term anticoagulation, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive aspirin alone or aspirin plus clopidogrel for 3 months. The two primary outcomes were all bleeding (including minor, major, and life-threatening or disabling bleeding) and non-procedure-related bleeding over a period of 12 months. Most bleeding at the TAVI puncture site was counted as non-procedure-related. The two secondary outcomes were a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, non-procedure-related bleeding, stroke, or myocardial infarction (secondary composite 1) and a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, ischemic stroke, or myocardial infarction (secondary composite 2) at 1 year, with both outcomes tested sequentially for noninferiority (noninferiority margin, 7.5 percentage points) and superiority.

Results: A total of 331 patients were assigned to receive aspirin alone and 334 were assigned to receive aspirin plus clopidogrel. A bleeding event occurred in 50 patients (15.1%) receiving aspirin alone and in 89 (26.6%) receiving aspirin plus clopidogrel (risk ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42 to 0.77; P = 0.001). Non-procedure-related bleeding occurred in 50 patients (15.1%) and 83 patients (24.9%), respectively (risk ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.83; P = 0.005). A secondary composite 1 event occurred in 76 patients (23.0%) receiving aspirin alone and in 104 (31.1%) receiving aspirin plus clopidogrel (difference, -8.2 percentage points; 95% CI for noninferiority, -14.9 to -1.5; P<0.001; risk ratio, 0.74; 95% CI for superiority, 0.57 to 0.95; P = 0.04). A secondary composite 2 event occurred in 32 patients (9.7%) and 33 patients (9.9%), respectively (difference, -0.2 percentage points; 95% CI for noninferiority, -4.7 to 4.3; P = 0.004; risk ratio, 0.98; 95% CI for superiority, 0.62 to 1.55; P = 0.93). A total of 44 patients (13.3%) and 32 (9.6%), respectively, received oral anticoagulation during the trial.

Conclusions: Among patients undergoing TAVI who did not have an indication for oral anticoagulation, the incidence of bleeding and the composite of bleeding or thromboembolic events at 1 year were significantly less frequent with aspirin than with aspirin plus clopidogrel administered for 3 months. (Funded by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development; POPular TAVI EU Clinical Trials Register number, 2013-003125-28; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02247128.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2017815DOI Listing
October 2020

COMPARison of pre-hospital CRUSHed vs. uncrushed Prasugrel tablets in patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary interventions: Rationale and design of the COMPARE CRUSH trial.

Am Heart J 2020 06 11;224:10-16. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam.

Background: Dual antiplatelet therapy constitutes the cornerstone of medical treatment in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, oral antiplatelet agents, such as prasugrel or ticagrelor, are characterized by slow gastrointestinal drug absorption in the acute phase of STEMI, leading to decreased bioavailability and therefore delayed onset of platelet inhibition. Evidence suggests that administration of crushed tablets of the P2Y inhibitor prasugrel improves drug absorption and achieves earlier antiplatelet effects in STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the clinical implications of these pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic findings are unknown.

Hypothesis: The present study is designed to test the hypothesis that patients presenting with STEMI planned for primary PCI will have improved markers of optimal reperfusion and clinical outcomes by prehospital administration of crushed tablets of prasugrel loading dose.

Study Design: COMPARE CRUSH (NCT03296540) is a randomized trial in a regionally organized ambulance care setting evaluating the efficacy and safety of pre-hospital loading dose with prasugrel crushed tablets versus integral tablets in approximately 674 patients presenting with STEMI planned for primary PCI. The independent primary endpoints are percentage of patients reaching thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow grade 3 in the infarct-related artery at initial angiography, or achieving ≥70% ST-segment elevation resolution at 1 hour post-PCI. Secondary clinical endpoints are death, myocardial infarction, revascularization, and stent thrombosis followed up to 1 year. Moreover, the primary safety endpoint is bleeding events assessed at 48 hours.

Conclusions: The COMPARE CRUSH trial will assess whether prehospital administration of loading dose prasugrel in form of crushed tablets - which is expected to provide faster platelet inhibition compared to standard treatment with integral tablets - results in improved reperfusion and clinical outcomes. RCT# NCT03296540.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2020.03.005DOI Listing
June 2020

Anticoagulation with or without Clopidogrel after Transcatheter Aortic-Valve Implantation.

N Engl J Med 2020 04 29;382(18):1696-1707. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

From the Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (V.J.N., J. Brouwer, J.P., D.R.P.P.C.P.Y., M.J.S., B.J.W.M.R., L.T., J.C.K., J.M.B.), the Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Location AMC, Amsterdam (R.D., J. Baan), the Department of Cardiology, Isala Hospital, Zwolle (R.S.H.), the Department of Cardiology, Maastricht University Medical Center and Cardiovascular Research Institute, Maastricht (W.H., L.V., A.W.J.H.), the Department of Cardiology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede (G.K.H.), the Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (F.K.), the Department of Cardiology, Haga Hospital, The Hague (C.E.S.), the Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (P.H.), Erasmus School of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (F.W.F.T.), the Department of Cardiology, Zuyderland Medical Center, Heerlen (A.W.J.H.), and the Department of Cardiology, Division of Heart and Lungs, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht (P.R.S.) - all in the Netherlands; the Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Leuven, Leuven (C.L.F.D.), the Department of Cardiology, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Hospital (B.D.B.), and the Department of Cardiology, Algemeen Stedelijk Hospital Aalst (I.B.), Aalst, the Department of Cardiology, Sint-Jan Hospital, Brugge (J.A.S.V.D.H.), the Department of Cardiology, Hospital Oost-Limburg, Genk (B.F.), and the Department of Cardiology, Imelda Hospital, Bonheiden (J.R.) - all in Belgium; the Department of Cardiology, Institut National de Chirurgie Cardiaque et de Cardiologie Interventionnelle, Luxembourg, Luxembourg (P.F.); and the Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Královské Vinohrady and Third Medical Faculty, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic (P.T.).

Background: The roles of anticoagulation alone or with an antiplatelet agent after transcatheter aortic-valve implantation (TAVI) have not been well studied.

Methods: We performed a randomized trial of clopidogrel in patients undergoing TAVI who were receiving oral anticoagulation for appropriate indications. Patients were assigned before TAVI in a 1:1 ratio not to receive clopidogrel or to receive clopidogrel for 3 months. The two primary outcomes were all bleeding and non-procedure-related bleeding over a period of 12 months. Procedure-related bleeding was defined as Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 4 severe bleeding, and therefore most bleeding at the puncture site was counted as non-procedure-related. The two secondary outcomes were a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, non-procedure-related bleeding, stroke, or myocardial infarction at 12 months (secondary composite 1) and a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, ischemic stroke, or myocardial infarction (secondary composite 2), both tested for noninferiority (noninferiority margin, 7.5 percentage points) and superiority.

Results: Bleeding occurred in 34 of the 157 patients (21.7%) receiving oral anticoagulation alone and in 54 of the 156 (34.6%) receiving oral anticoagulation plus clopidogrel (risk ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43 to 0.90; P = 0.01); most bleeding events were at the TAVI access site. Non-procedure-related bleeding occurred in 34 patients (21.7%) and in 53 (34.0%), respectively (risk ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.92; P = 0.02). Most bleeding occurred in the first month and was minor. A secondary composite 1 event occurred in 49 patients (31.2%) receiving oral anticoagulation alone and in 71 (45.5%) receiving oral anticoagulation plus clopidogrel (difference, -14.3 percentage points; 95% CI for noninferiority, -25.0 to -3.6; risk ratio, 0.69; 95% CI for superiority, 0.51 to 0.92). A secondary composite 2 event occurred in 21 patients (13.4%) and in 27 (17.3%), respectively (difference, -3.9 percentage points; 95% CI for noninferiority, -11.9 to 4.0; risk ratio, 0.77; 95% CI for superiority, 0.46 to 1.31).

Conclusions: In patients undergoing TAVI who were receiving oral anticoagulation, the incidence of serious bleeding over a period of 1 month or 1 year was lower with oral anticoagulation alone than with oral anticoagulation plus clopidogrel. (Funded by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development; POPular TAVI EU Clinical Trials Register number, 2013-003125-28; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02247128.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1915152DOI Listing
April 2020

Can transcatheter aortic valve implantation improve cognition?

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 02 20;12(4):3117-3118. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Amsterdam University Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Clinical and Experimental Cardiology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.102851DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7066906PMC
February 2020

Sex Differences in Transfemoral Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2019 12 25;74(22):2758-2767. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Heart Center, Department of Clinical and Experimental Cardiology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Transfemoral aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a guideline-recommended treatment option for patients with severe aortic valve stenosis. Women and men present with different baseline characteristics, which may influence procedural outcomes.

Objectives: This study sought to evaluate differences between women and men undergoing transfemoral TAVR across the globe during the last decade.

Methods: The CENTER (Cerebrovascular EveNts in patients undergoing TranscathetER aortic valve implantation with balloon-expandable valves versus self-expandable valves)-collaboration was a global patient level dataset of patients undergoing transfemoral TAVR (N = 12,381) from 2007 to 2018. In this retrospective analysis, the study examined differences in baseline patient characteristics, 30-day stroke and mortality, and in-hospital outcomes between female and male patients. The study also assessed for temporal changes in outcomes and predictors for mortality per sex.

Results: We included 58% (n = 7,120) female and 42% (n = 5,261) male patients. Women had higher prevalence of hypertension and glomerular filtration rate <30 ml/min/1.73 m but lower prevalence of all other traditional cardiovascular comorbidities. Both sexes had similar rates of 30-day stroke (2.3% vs. 2.5%; p = 0.53) and mortality (5.9% vs. 5.5%; p = 0.17). In contrast, women had a 50% higher risk of life-threatening or major bleeding (6.7% vs. 4.4%; p < 0.01). Over the study period, mortality rates decreased to a greater extent in men than in women (60% vs. 50% reduction; both p < 0.001), with no reductions in stroke rates over time.

Conclusions: In this global collaboration, women and men had similar rates of 30-day mortality and stroke. However, women had higher rates of procedural life-threatening or major bleeding after TAVR. Between 2007 and 2018, mortality rates decreased to a greater extent in men than in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2019.09.015DOI Listing
December 2019

Aortic valve calcification volumes and chronic brain infarctions in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2019 Nov 16;35(11):2123-2133. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Cardiology, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Heart Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Chronic silent brain infarctions, detected as new white matter hyperintensities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), are associated with long-term cognitive deterioration. This is the first study to investigate to which extent the calcification volume of the native aortic valve (AV) measured with cardiac computed tomography angiography (CTA) predicts the increase in chronic white matter hyperintensity volume after TAVI. A total of 36 patients (79 ± 5 years, median EuroSCORE II 1.9%, Q-Q 1.5-3.4%) with severe AV stenosis underwent fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI < 24 h prior to TAVI and at 3 months follow-up for assessment of cerebral white matter hyperintensity volume (mL). Calcification volumes (mm) of the AV, aortic arch, landing zone and left ventricle were measured on the CTA pre-TAVI. The largest calcification volumes were found in the AV (median 692 mm) and aortic arch (median 633 mm), with a large variation between patients (Q-Q 482-1297 mm and 213-1727 mm, respectively). The white matter hyperintensity volume increased in 72% of the patients. In these patients the median volume increase was of 1.1 mL (Q-Q 0.3-4.6 mL), corresponding with a 27% increase from baseline (Q-Q 7-104%). The calcification volume in the AV predicted the increase of white matter hyperintensity volume (Δ%), with a 35% increase of white matter hyperintensity volume, per 100 mm of AV calcification volume (SE 8.5, p < 0.001). The calcification volumes in the aortic arch, landing zone and left ventricle were not associated with the increase in white matter hyperintensity volume. In 72% of the patients new chronic white matter hyperintensities developed 3 months after TAVI, with a median increase of 27%. A higher calcification volume in the AV was associated with a larger increase in the white matter hyperintensity volume. These findings show the potential for automated AV calcium screening as an imaging biomarker to predict chronic silent brain infarctions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-019-01663-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6805808PMC
November 2019

Resolute zotarolimus-eluting stent in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (resolute-STEMI): A prespecified prospective register from the DAPT-STEMI trial.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2020 03 3;95(4):706-710. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Isala Hartcentrum, Zwolle, the Netherlands.

Objectives: To evaluate the safety and efficacy outcomes after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) with second-generation Resolute™ zotarolimus-eluting stent (R-ZES) in patients enrolled in the DAPT-STEMI Trial (NCT01459627).

Background: R-ZES is one of the most used drug eluting stents worldwide. To date, the safety and efficacy data of this stent in setting of STEMI is limited.

Methods: The Resolute-STEMI is a prespecified prospective register that reports the safety and efficacy of R-ZES in setting of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) at 6 months for the following endpoints: a composite endpoint of all-cause mortality, any myocardial infarction (MI), any (unscheduled) revascularization, stroke and TIMI major bleeding, as well as target lesion failure and stent thrombosis (ST).

Results: From a total of 1,100 STEMI patients enrolled in the trial, 998 received a R-ZES. At 6 months the PE occurred in 42 (4.2%) patients. All-cause death, MI, revascularization, stroke and TIMI major bleeding was respectively 8 (0.8%), 9 (0.8%), 34 (3.4%), 2 (0.2%), and 4 (0.4%). The rate of target lesion revascularizations involving the culprit lesion was 1.1%. Target lesion failure was 1.5%. The rate of definite ST was 0.5%. The rate of both definite or probable ST was 0.7%.

Conclusions: The present analysis is the largest to date reporting short-term and mid-term clinical outcomes with the R-ZES stent in setting of STEMI. At 30 days and 6-months R-ZES has an outstanding safety and efficacy even in this high-risk category of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.28376DOI Listing
March 2020

Transfemoral TAVR in Nonagenarians: From the CENTER Collaboration.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2019 05;12(10):911-920

Heart Center, Department of Clinical and Experimental Cardiology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study aimed to compare differences in patient characteristics and clinical outcomes of nonagenarians undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) versus patients younger than 90 years of age and to test the predictive accuracy of the logistic EuroSCORE (European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation), the EuroSCORE II, and the STS-PROM (Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality) for mortality after TAVR in nonagenarians.

Background: The prevalence of severe aortic valve stenosis is increasing due to the rising life expectancy. However, there are limited data evaluating outcomes in patients older than 90 years of age. Moreover, the predictive accuracy of risk scores for mortality has not been evaluated in nonagenarian patients undergoing transfemoral TAVR.

Methods: The CENTER (Cerebrovascular EveNts in Patients Undergoing TranscathetER Aortic Valve Implantation) collaboration (N = 12,381) is an international collaboration consisting of 3 national registries, 6 local or multicenter registries, and 1 prospective clinical study, selected through a systematic online search. The primary endpoint of this study was the difference in 30-day all-cause mortality and stroke after TAVR in nonagenarians versus patients younger than 90 years of age. Secondary endpoints included differences in baseline characteristics, in-hospital outcomes, and the differences in predictive accuracy of the logistic EuroSCORE, the EuroSCORE II, and STS-PROM.

Results: A total of 882 nonagenarians and 11,499 patients younger than 90 years of age undergoing transfemoral TAVR between 2007 and 2018 were included. Nonagenarians had considerably fewer comorbidities than their counterparts. Nevertheless, rates of 30-day mortality (9.9% vs. 5.4%; relative risk [RR]: 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4 to 2.3; p = 0.001), in-hospital stroke (3.0% vs. 1.9%; RR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0 to 2.3; p = 0.04), major or life-threatening bleeding (8.1% vs. 5.5%; RR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1 to 2.2; p = 0.004), and new-onset atrial fibrillation (7.9% vs. 5.2%; RR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1 to 2.2; p = 0.01) were higher in nonagenarians. The STS-PROM adequately estimated mortality in nonagenarians, with an observed-expected mortality ratio of 1.0.

Conclusions: In this large, global, patient-level analysis, mortality after transfemoral TAVR was 2-fold higher in nonagenarians compared with patients younger than 90 years of age, despite the lower prevalence of baseline comorbidities. Moreover, nonagenarians had a higher risk of in-hospital stroke, major or life-threatening bleeding, and new-onset atrial fibrillation. The STS-PROM was the only surgical risk score that accurately predicted the risk of mortality in nonagenarians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2019.02.031DOI Listing
May 2019

Predictors, Incidence, and Outcomes of Patients Undergoing Transfemoral Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Complicated by Stroke.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2019 03;12(3):e007546

Heart Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands (W.V., J.C., J.B., J.G.P.T., J.J.P., R.D.).

Background: Stroke remains one of the most devastating complications of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The aim of this study was to identify the incidence, timing, temporal trends, and predictors of stroke after TAVI and evaluate the outcomes of patients with stroke.

Methods And Results: The CENTER-Collaboration is an international collaboration consisting of 3 national registries and 7 local registries or prospective clinical trials, selected through a systematic review. Accordingly, a total of 10 982 patients undergoing transfemoral TAVI between 2007 and 2018 were included in the current patient-level pooled analyses. A total of 261 patients (2.4%) experienced stroke during the first month after TAVI. The median time between TAVI and stroke was 1 day (interquartile range, 0-6 days). The stroke rate was comparable in procedures performed in the early years of TAVI (2007-2012) to those in the more recent years of TAVI (2013-2018; both 2.4%; P=1.0). Independent predictors of stroke at 30 days were a history of cerebrovascular events (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4-3.6; P=0.0012) and a glomerular filtration rate of <30 mL/min per 1.73 m (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.8; P=0.05). Stroke occurring within the first 30 days after TAVI was associated with a 6-fold increase of 30-day mortality (odds ratio, 6.0; 95% CI, 4.4-8.1; P<0.001). Moreover, patients with stroke more frequently had documented new-onset atrial fibrillation (16% versus 3%; P<0.001) and major or life-threatening bleedings (12% versus 7%; P=0.002) at 30-day follow-up.

Conclusions: In this large, global, patient-level analysis, the incidence of stroke after transfemoral TAVI was 2.4%. Prior cerebrovascular events and a low glomerular filtration rate independently predicted the occurrence of stroke after TAVI. The occurrence of stroke after TAVI was associated with a strikingly 6-fold increase of 30-day mortality; additionally, there was a 5-fold higher rate of new-onset atrial fibrillation in patients with stroke.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT03588247.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.118.007546DOI Listing
March 2019

Value of the SYNTAX Score in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients With a Concomitant Chronic Total Coronary Occlusion(from the EXPLORE Trial).

Am J Cardiol 2019 04 4;123(7):1035-1043. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

`To analyze the impact of additional coronary artery disease, quantified by the SYNTAX (SYNergy between PCI with TAXus and cardiac surgery) score, on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and long-term outcomes in a cohort of ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients with a concomitant chronic total coronary occlusion (CTO). A total of 302 STEMI patients were randomized to percutaneous coronary intervention of a CTO (CTO PCI) (n = 148) or conservative CTO treatment (n = 154). SYNTAX scores were calculated by an independent corelab (Cardialysis BV, Rotterdam) at two time-points: (1) at baseline, and (2) after primary PCI in the conservative CTO arm and after CTO PCI in the invasive arm (named 'discharge SYNTAX score'). The population was divided in two groups (below or equal to the median SYNTAX score preprimary PCI, or above the median). At 4-month follow-up, the LVEF was significantly lower in patients in the group with a SYNTAX score above the group median (42.8% vs 48.5%, p = 0.001), and the SYNTAX score was an independent predictor for LVEF at 4 months (β-0.151 (SE 0.068), p = 0.028). In the group with a SYNTAX score above the group median the mortality rate was higher (10.1% vs 3.9%, p = 0.025), and there was a trend towards a higher MACE rate (15.4% vs 8.5%, p = 0.063). In conclusion, in this sub-analysis of the EXPLORE trial we observed a worse LVEF and a higher mortality rate for patients with a SYNTAX score above the median. We found that the SYNTAX score is an independent negative predictor for LVEF and an independent positive predictor for LVEDV at 4-month follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2018.12.028DOI Listing
April 2019

Comparison of balloon-expandable vs. self-expandable valves in patients undergoing transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation: from the CENTER-collaboration.

Eur Heart J 2019 02;40(5):456-465

Department of Clinical and Experimental Cardiology, Heart Center, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Aims: The aim of this study was to compare clinical outcomes of patients undergoing transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with balloon-expandable (BE) valves vs. self-expandable (SE) valves. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a minimally invasive and lifesaving treatment in patients with aortic valve stenosis. Even though BE-valves and SE-valves are both commonly used on a large scale, adequately sized trials comparing clinical outcomes in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis treated with BE-valves compared with SE-valves are lacking.

Methods And Results: In this CENTER-collaboration, data from 10 registries or clinical trials, selected through a systematic search, were pooled and analysed. Propensity score methodology was used to reduce treatment selection bias and potential confounding. The primary endpoints were mortality and stroke at 30 days follow-up in patients treated with BE-valves compared with SE-valves. Secondary endpoints included clinical outcomes, e.g. bleeding during hospital admission. All outcomes were split for early-generation BE-valves compared with early-generation SE-valves and new-generation BE-valves with new-generation SE-valves. The overall patient population (N = 12 381) included 6239 patients undergoing TAVI with BE-valves and 6142 patients with SE-valves. The propensity matched population had a mean age of 81 ± 7 years and a median STS-PROM score or 6.5% [interquartile range (IQR) 4.0-13.0%]. At 30-day follow-up, the mortality rate was not statistically different in patients undergoing TAVI with BE-valves compared with SE-valves [BE: 5.3% vs. SE: 6.2%, relative risk (RR) 0.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-1.0, P = 0.10]. Stroke occurred less frequently in patients treated with BE-valves (BE: 1.9% vs. SE: 2.6%, RR 0.7; 95% CI 0.5-1.0, P = 0.03). Also, patients treated with BE-valves had a three-fold lower risk of requiring pacemaker implantation (BE: 7.8% vs. SE: 20.3%, RR 0.4; 95% CI 0.3-0.4, P < 0.001). In contrast, patients treated with new-generation BE-valves more frequently experienced major and life-threatening bleedings compared with new-generation SE-valves (BE: 4.8% vs. SE: 2.1%, RR 2.3; 95% CI 1.6-3.3, P < 0.001).

Conclusion: In this study, which is the largest study to compare valve types in TAVI, we demonstrated that the incidence of stroke and pacemaker implantation was lower in patients undergoing transfemoral TAVI with BE-valves compared with SE-valves. In contrast, patients treated with new-generation BE-valves more often suffered from major or life-threatening bleedings than patients with new-generation SE-valves. Mortality at 30-days was not statistically different in patients treated with BE-valves compared with SE-valves. This study was a propensity-matched analysis generated from observational data, accordingly current outcomes will have to be confirmed in a large scale randomized controlled trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehy805DOI Listing
February 2019

Elevated monocyte-specific type I interferon signalling correlates positively with cardiac healing in myocardial infarct patients but interferon alpha application deteriorates myocardial healing in rats.

Basic Res Cardiol 2018 11 12;114(1). Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Monocytes are involved in adverse left ventricular (LV) remodelling following myocardial infarction (MI). To provide therapeutic opportunities we aimed to identify gene transcripts in monocytes that relate to post-MI healing and evaluated intervention with the observed gene activity in a rat MI model. In 51 MI patients treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), the change in LV end-diastolic volume index (EDVi) from baseline to 4-month follow-up was assessed using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Circulating monocytes were collected at day 5 (Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 35:1066-1070, 2015; Cell Stem Cell 16:477-487, 2015; Curr Med Chem 13:1877-1893, 2006) after primary PCI for transcriptome analysis. Transcriptional profiling and pathway analysis revealed that patients with a decreased LV EDVi showed an induction of type I interferon (IFN) signalling (type I IFN pathway: P value < 0.001; false discovery rate < 0.001). We subsequently administered 15,000 Units of IFN-α subcutaneously in a rat MI model for three consecutive days following MI. Cardiac function was measured using echocardiography and infarct size/cardiac inflammation using (immuno)-histochemical analysis. We found that IFN-α application deteriorated ventricular dilatation and increased infarct size at day 28 post-MI. Moreover, IFN-α changed the peripheral monocyte subset distribution towards the pro-inflammatory monocyte subset whereas in the myocardium, the presence of the alternative macrophage subset was increased at day 3 post-MI. Our findings suggest that induction of type I IFN signalling in human monocytes coincides with adverse LV remodelling. In rats, however, IFN-α administration deteriorated post-MI healing. These findings underscore important but also contradictory roles for the type I IFN response during cardiac healing following MI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00395-018-0709-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6244641PMC
November 2018

Six months versus 12 months dual antiplatelet therapy after drug-eluting stent implantation in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (DAPT-STEMI): randomised, multicentre, non-inferiority trial.

BMJ 2018 Oct 2;363:k3793. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Thoraxcenter, Erasmus Medisch Centrum, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Objective: To show that limiting dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) to six months in patients with event-free ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) results in a non-inferior clinical outcome versus DAPT for 12 months.

Design: Prospective, randomised, multicentre, non-inferiority trial.

Setting: Patients with STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and second generation zotarolimus-eluting stent.

Participants: Patients with STEMI aged 18 to 85 that underwent a primary PCI with the implantation of second generation drug-eluting stents were enrolled in the trial. Patients that were event-free at six months after primary PCI were randomised at this time point.

Interventions: Patients that were taking DAPT and were event-free at six months were randomised 1:1 to single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) (ie, aspirin only) or to DAPT for an additional six months. All patients that were randomised were then followed for another 18 months (ie, 24 months after the primary PCI).

Main Outcome Measures: The primary endpoint was a composite of all cause mortality, any myocardial infarction, any revascularisation, stroke, and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction major bleeding at 18 months after randomisation.

Results: A total of 1100 patients were enrolled in the trial between 19 December 2011 and 30 June 2015. 870 were randomised: 432 to SAPT versus 438 to DAPT. The primary endpoint occurred in 4.8% of patients receiving SAPT versus 6.6% of patients receiving DAPT (hazard ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.41 to 1.27, P=0.26). Non-inferiority was met (P=0.004 for non-inferiority), as the upper 95% confidence interval of 1.27 was smaller than the prespecified non-inferiority margin of 1.66.

Conclusions: DAPT to six months was non-inferior to DAPT for 12 months in patients with event-free STEMI at six months after primary PCI with second generation drug-eluting stents.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01459627.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6167608PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k3793DOI Listing
October 2018

Premedication to reduce anxiety in patients undergoing coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention.

Open Heart 2018;5(2):e000833. Epub 2018 Sep 23.

Heart Center, Department of Clinical and Experimental Cardiology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Aims: In this study, we examined the effects of the routinely administration of benzodiazepines on reducing periprocedural anxiety versus no premedication.

Methods: In this open label study, we enrolled 1683 patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiograms (CAG) or percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Randomisation was simulated by systematically allocating patients in monthly rotational periods to lorazepam 1  mg/sl, oxazepam 10  mg/po, diazepam 5  mg/po, midazolam 7.5  mg/po or . Anxiety was measured at four different time points using the one-item Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety (VAS score) ranging from 0 to 10. The primary outcome was the difference in anxiety reduction (ΔVAS, preprocedure to postprocedure), between the different premedication strategies versus .

Results: Anxiety reduction was larger in patients premedicated with lorazepam (ΔVAS=-2.0, SE=1.6, P=0.007) or diazepam (ΔVAS=-2.0, SE=1.5, p=0.003) compared with patients without any premedication (ΔVAS=-1.4, SE=1.2). The use of midazolam or oxazepam did not lead to a significant reduction in anxiety compared with patients who did not receive premedication. Additionally, a high number of patients treated with midazolam (N=39, 19.8%) developed side effects.

Conclusions: In this study, the use of lorazepam or diazepam was associated with a significant, but modest anxiety reduction in patients undergoing CAG or PCI. This study does not support the standard use of oxazepam or midazolam as premedication to reduce anxiety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/openhrt-2018-000833DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6157563PMC
September 2018

The effect of revascularization of a chronic total coronary occlusion on electrocardiographic variables. A sub-study of the EXPLORE trial.

J Electrocardiol 2018 Sep - Oct;51(5):906-912. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Academic Medical Center - University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Chronic total coronary occlusions (CTOs) have been associated with a higher prevalence of ventricular arrhythmias compared to patients without a CTO. We evaluated the effect of CTO revascularization on electrocardiographic (ECG) variables.

Methods: We studied a selection of ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients with a concomitant CTO enrolled in the EXPLORE trial. ECG variables and cardiac function were analysed at baseline and at 4 months follow-up.

Results: Patients were randomized to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of their CTO (n = 77) or to no-CTO PCI (n = 81). At follow-up, median QT dispersion was significantly lower in the CTO PCI group compared to the no-CTO PCI group (46 ms [33-58] vs. 54 ms [37-68], P = 0.043). No independent association was observed between ECG variables and cardiac function.

Conclusion: Revascularization of a CTO after STEMI significantly shortened QT dispersion at 4 months follow-up. These findings support the hypothesis that CTO revascularization reduces the pro-arrhythmic substrate in CTO patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2018.07.012DOI Listing
October 2019

Impact of collateralisation to a concomitant chronic total occlusion in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a subanalysis of the EXPLORE randomised controlled trial.

Open Heart 2018;5(2):e000810. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: The impact on cardiac function of collaterals towards a concomitant chronic total coronary occlusion (CTO) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has not been investigated yet. Therefore, we have evaluated the impact of well-developed collaterals compared with poorly developed collaterals to a concomitant CTO in STEMI.

Methods And Results: In the EXPLORE trial, patients with STEMI and a concomitant CTO were randomised to either CTO percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or no-CTO PCI. Collateral grades were scored angiographically using the Rentrop grade classification. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) at 4 months were measured using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Well-developed collaterals (Rentrop grades 2-3) to the CTO were present in 162 (54%) patients; these patients had a significantly higher LVEF at 4 months (46.2±11.4% vs 42.1±12.7%, p=0.004) as well as a trend for a lower LVEDV (208.2±55.7 mL vs 222.6±68.5 mL, p=0.054) when compared with patients with poorly developed collaterals to the CTO. There was no significant difference in the total amount of scar in the two groups. Event rates were statistically comparable between patients with well-developed collaterals and poorly developed collaterals to the CTO at long-term follow-up.

Conclusions: In patients with STEMI and a concomitant CTO, the presence of well-developed collaterals to a concomitant CTO is associated with a better LVEF at 4 months. However, this effect on LVEF did not translate into improvement in clinical outcome. Therefore, the presence of well-developed collaterals is important, but should not solely guide in the clinical decision-making process regarding any additional revascularisation of a concomitant CTO in patients with STEMI.

Clinical Trial Registration: NTR1108.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/openhrt-2018-000810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6059304PMC
February 2021

Prolonged hematopoietic and myeloid cellular response in patients after an acute coronary syndrome measured with F-DPA-714 PET/CT.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2018 10 4;45(11):1956-1963. Epub 2018 May 4.

Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, PO Box 22660, 1100 DD, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: An acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is characterized by a multi-level inflammatory response, comprising activation of bone marrow and spleen accompanied by augmented release of leukocytes into the circulation. The duration of this response after an ACS remains unclear. Here, we assessed the effect of an ACS on the multi-level inflammatory response in patients both acutely and after 3 months.

Methods: We performed F-DPA-714 PET/CT acutely and 3 months post-ACS in eight patients and eight matched healthy controls. DPA-714, a PET tracer binding the TSPO receptor and highly expressed in myeloid cells, was used to assess hematopoietic activity. We also characterized circulating monocytes and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) by flow cytometry in 20 patients acutely and 3 months post-ACS and in 19 healthy controls.

Results: In the acute phase, patients displayed a 1.4-fold and 1.3-fold higher F-DPA-714 uptake in, respectively, bone marrow (p = 0.012) and spleen (p = 0.039) compared with healthy controls. This coincided with a 2.4-fold higher number of circulating HSPCs (p = 0.001). Three months post-ACS, F-DPA-714 uptake in bone marrow decreased significantly (p = 0.002), but no decrease was observed for F-DPA-714 uptake in the spleen (p = 0.67) nor for the number of circulating HSPCs (p = 0.75).

Conclusions: F-DPA-714 PET/CT reveals an ACS- triggered hematopoietic organ activation as initiator of a prolonged cellular inflammatory response beyond 3 months, characterized by a higher number of circulating leukocytes and their precursors. This multi-level inflammatory response may provide an attractive target for novel treatment options aimed at reducing the high recurrence rate post-ACS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-018-4038-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6132543PMC
October 2018

Evaluation of the Impact of a Chronic Total Coronary Occlusion on Ventricular Arrhythmias and Long-Term Mortality in Patients With Ischemic Cardiomyopathy and an Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (the eCTOpy-in-ICD Study).

J Am Heart Assoc 2018 05 2;7(10). Epub 2018 May 2.

Department of Cardiology, Heart Center, Academic Medical Center - University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Background: Previous studies report conflicting results about a higher incidence of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with a chronic total coronary occlusion (CTO). We aimed to investigate this association in a large cohort of implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients with long-term follow-up.

Methods And Results: All consecutive patients from 1992 onwards who underwent implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation for ischemic cardiomyopathy at the Leiden University Medical Center were evaluated. Coronary angiograms were reviewed for the presence of a CTO. The occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias and survival status at follow-up were compared between patients with and patients without a CTO. A total of 722 patients constitute the study cohort (age 66±11 years; 84% males; 74% primary prevention, median left ventricular ejection fraction 30% [first-third quartile: 25-37], 44% received a cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator). At baseline, 240 patients (33%) had a CTO, and the CTOs were present for at least 44 (2-127) months. The median follow-up duration was 4 (2-6) years. On long-term follow-up, CTO patients had a higher crude appropriate device therapy rate (37% versus 27%, =0.010) and a lower crude survival rate (51% versus 67%, <0.001) compared with patients without a CTO. Corrected for baseline characteristics including left ventricular ejection fraction, the presence of a CTO was an independent predictor for appropriate device therapy.

Conclusions: The presence of a CTO in implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients was associated with more appropriate device therapy and worse prognosis at long-term follow-up. Further investigation is warranted regarding a potential beneficial effect of CTO revascularization on the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.118.008609DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6015331PMC
May 2018
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