Publications by authors named "Ronak B Patel"

13 Publications

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Practitioner Approaches to Measuring Community Resilience: The Analysis of the Resilience of Communities to Disasters Toolkit.

Int J Disaster Risk Reduct 2020 Nov 23;50. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Harvard University, USA.

To be useful for operational programs, measures of resilience must not just be valid, but be easy to use and useful. Unfortunately, while resilience measurement techniques have progressed tremendously over the past decade, most progress has been on improving validity rather than utility and ease of use. In this article we present a new tool for measuring community resilience that incorporates issues of utility and ease of use, the Analysis of Resilience of Communities to Disasters (ARC-D) toolkit. The toolkit was developed over the course of ten years by the international humanitarian and development organization GOAL to enable aid organizations to measure community resilience in a way that supports resilience building interventions. It offers an approach to measurement that is cognizant of the resilience policy landscape, including the Sendai Framework, approaches to data collection and measurement uses relevant to aid agencies. We first present the core tenants of community resilience measurement before describing the toolkit, which consists of 30 measures, a guidebook, and an online platform. To illustrate its use, we a case study of a resilience building program in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. By developing one of the first resilience toolkits focused beyond validity and providing a description of how such an assessment works, this article has implications for resilience researchers and practitioners.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101714DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7386397PMC
November 2020

'To minimise that risk, there are some costs we incur': Examining the impact of gender-based violence on the urban poor.

Glob Public Health 2020 05 23;15(5):734-748. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Urban environments marked by violence create fear that can have real impacts on the urban poor, particularly women and girls. Any efforts to tackle poverty and promote health must address the impacts to their access to livelihoods and education, healthcare, markets, and social support that underlie wellbeing. This study aimed to elucidate specific impacts that violence and fear have on the very poor in rapidly growing cities and the coping strategies employed. This multi-country qualitative study was conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh, Port-au-Prince, Haiti; and Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Participants in all three cities employed similar tactics to avoid violence. People adjusted how, when, and where they travel and how they interact with people who threaten them. These coping strategies led participants to spend more money on goods and to restrict access to livelihood opportunities, education, healthcare, and social activities. Women are impacted more than men in all spheres and city specific differences are highlighted. Residents of urban slums, particularly women, in these three cities cope with urban violence in many ways, suffering consequences in a range of categories - leading to significant impacts to their own health and well-being and their families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2020.1716036DOI Listing
May 2020

Anticoagulants and Surgery: So Many Agents, So Many Taking Them.

Adv Surg 2019 09 24;53:235-251. Epub 2019 May 24.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Stony Brook University Hospital, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yasu.2019.04.011DOI Listing
September 2019

Precision Health in Disaster Medicine and Global Public Health.

Authors:
Ronak B Patel

Prehosp Disaster Med 2018 Dec;33(6):565-566

Director,Urbanization and Resilience Program, Harvard Humanitarian Initiative,Cambridge,Massachusetts USA;Department of Emergency Medicine,Brigham and Women's Hospital,Harvard Medical School,Boston,MassachusettsUSA.

Current debates about precision medicine take different perspectives on its relevance and value in global health. The term has not yet been applied to disaster medicine or humanitarian health, but it may hold significant value. An interpretation of the term for global public health and disaster medicine is presented here for application to vulnerable populations. Embracing the term may drive more efficient use and targeting of limited resources while encouraging innovation and adopting the new approaches advocated in current humanitarian discourse. PatelRB. Precision health in disaster medicine and global public health. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(6):565-566.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X18001061DOI Listing
December 2018

To Do No Harm: Humanitarian Aid in Conflict Demands Political Engagement.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2018 10 19;12(5):567-568. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

4Stanford University School of Medicine,Stanford,California.

Humanitarian aid in settings of conflict has always been fraught with challenges. In the absence of political engagement, however, manipulation by state authorities, however, have the potential to pervert aid intervention to inflict harm. South Sudan exemplifies how states may abuse the humanitarian response to retreat from public responsibility, divert funds to further violence and conflict and dictate the distribution of aid. Recent trends toward nationalist policies in the West that favor disengagement and limited military strikes have the very effect of allowing this abuse to transform humanitarian aid into a tool for harm. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:567-568).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2017.133DOI Listing
October 2018

Health outcomes of crisis driven urban displacement: A conceptual framework.

Disaster Health 2014 Apr-Jun;2(2):92-96. Epub 2015 Jan 7.

Harvard Humanitarian Initiative; Harvard Medical School; Department of Emergency Medicine; Brigham and Women's Hospital; Boston, MA USA; Division of Emergency Medicine; Deptartment of Surgery; Stanford University School of Medicine; Stanford, CA USA.

With urbanisation, cities are increasingly home to greater proportions of the world's population. As this transition has significant implications on human health, the epidemiology of diseases among relatively stable urban populations is growing. As humanitarian crises increasingly drive people to urban centers rather than traditional refugee camps, however, rapid and massive urban displacements will increase in frequency. This paper explores the idea that such urban displacements combine epidemiological features of forced migration, slum conditions and humanitarian disaster contexts. This paper highlights the lack of primary data and the consequent paucity of solid epidemiological literature in the aftermath of rapid massive urban displacements. A framework of health outcomes in urban displacement drawing from the above 3 phenomenon is presented and avenues for improved epidemiologic work described.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/21665044.2014.990306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5314915PMC
January 2015

Microfinance: untapped potential for global health.

Authors:
Ronak B Patel

J Health Care Poor Underserved 2014 Nov;25(4):1718-22

Microfinance has recently come under criticism for not meeting its potential for poverty reduction and its exploitation by for-profit entities. Access to finance still remains limited for many of the world’s poor. This re-examination of microfinance should not impede its proliferation and development into a tool to improve health for the underserved. There are significant returns on microfinance investments in health at the household level. Microfinance that allows the consumption of goods and services that can improve health can also lead to increased savings and productivity making it a financially viable and powerful tool for both health improvement and development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/hpu.2014.0169DOI Listing
November 2014

The high cost of diarrhoeal illness for urban slum households-a cost-recovery approach: a cohort study.

BMJ Open 2013 3;3(4). Epub 2013 Apr 3.

Departments of Emergency Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Objectives: Rapid urbanisation has often meant that public infrastructure has not kept pace with growth leading to urban slums with poor access to water and sanitation and high rates of diarrhoea with greater household costs due to illness. This study sought to determine the monetary cost of diarrhoea to urban slum households in Kaula Bandar slum in Mumbai, India. The study also tested the hypotheses that the cost of water and sanitation infrastructure may be surpassed by the cumulative costs of diarrhoea for households in an urban slum community.

Design: A cohort study using a baseline survey of a random sample followed by a systematic longitudinal household survey. The baseline survey was administered to a random sample of households. The systematic longitudinal survey was administered to every available household in the community with a case of diarrhoea for a period of 5 weeks.

Participants: Every household in Kaula Bandar was approached for the longitudinal survey and all available and consenting adults were included.

Results: The direct cost of medical care for having at least one person in the household with diarrhoea was 205 rupees. Other direct costs brought total expenses to 291 rupees. Adding an average loss of 55 rupees per household from lost wages and monetising lost productivity from homemakers gave a total loss of 409 rupees per household. During the 5-week study period, this community lost an estimated 163 600 rupees or 3635 US dollars due to diarrhoeal illness.

Conclusions: The lack of basic water and sanitation infrastructure is expensive for urban slum households in this community. Financing approaches that transfer that cost to infrastructure development to prevent illness may be feasible. These findings along with the myriad of unmeasured benefits of preventing diarrhoeal illness add to pressing arguments for investment in basic water and sanitation infrastructure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3641490PMC
April 2013

Rapid urbanization and the growing threat of violence and conflict: a 21st century crisis.

Prehosp Disaster Med 2012 Apr 17;27(2):194-7. Epub 2012 May 17.

Program on Urbanization and Humanitarian Emergencies, Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, Cambridge, MA, USA.

As the global population is concentrated into complex environments, rapid urbanization increases the threat of conflict and insecurity. Many fast-growing cities create conditions of significant disparities in standards of living, which set up a natural environment for conflict over resources. As urban slums become a haven for criminal elements, youth gangs, and the arms trade, they also create insecurity for much of the population. Specific populations, such as women, migrants, and refugees, bear the brunt of this lack of security, with significant impacts on their livelihoods, health, and access to basic services. This lack of security and violence also has great costs to the general population, both economic and social. Cities have increasingly become the battlefield of recent conflicts as they serve as the seats of power and gateways to resources. International agencies, non-governmental organizations, and policy-makers must act to stem this tide of growing urban insecurity. Protecting urban populations and preventing future conflict will require better urban planning, investment in livelihood programs for youth, cooperation with local communities, enhanced policing, and strengthening the capacity of judicial systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X12000568DOI Listing
April 2012

Urbanization and Humanitarian Access Working Group: a blueprint for the development of prevention and preparedness indicators for urban humanitarian crises.

Prehosp Disaster Med 2011 Dec;26(6):460-3

Harvard Affiliated Emergency Medicine Residency, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital. Boston, Massachusetts USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X12000106DOI Listing
December 2011

Human trafficking in the emergency department.

West J Emerg Med 2010 Dec;11(5):402-4

Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, Department of Emergency Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital.

Human trafficking continues to persist, affecting up to 200 million people worldwide. As clinicians in emergency departments commonly encounter victims of intimate partner violence, some of these encounters will be with trafficking victims. These encounters provide a rare opportunity for healthcare providers to intervene and help. This case report of a human trafficking patient from a teaching hospital illustrates the complexity in identifying these victims. Clinicians can better identify potential trafficking cases by increasing their awareness of this phenomenon, using qualified interpreters, isolating potential victims by providing privacy and using simple clear reassuring statements ensuring security. A multidisciplinary approach can then be mobilized to help these patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3027426PMC
December 2010

Urbanization--an emerging humanitarian disaster.

N Engl J Med 2009 Aug;361(8):741-3

Harvard Affiliated Emergency Medicine Residency, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp0810878DOI Listing
August 2009

Escitalopram Versus Citalopram and Sertraline: A Double-Blind Controlled, Multi-centric Trial in Indian Patients with Unipolar Major Depression.

Indian J Psychiatry 2004 Oct;46(4):333-41

Department of Clinical Research, Torrent Research Centre, Village Bhat, Dist. Gandhinagar-382 428.

The present randomized, double blind, parallel group, controlled, multi-centric trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram in comparison with citalopram and sertraline in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Outpatients (N=214) with an ongoing/newly diagnosed ICD-10 major depressive episode and a Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) score of > 18 were randomly assigned to citalopram, 20-40 mg/day (74 patients), escitalopram, 10-20 mg/day (69 patients) and sertraline, 50-150 mg/day (71 patients), for a 4-week double-blind treatment period, with dosage adjustment (after 2 weeks of treatment) according to the response to treatment. Clinical response was evaluated by the 17 items HAM-D and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scales, which were recorded at baseline and at weekly intervals. Tolerability was evaluated by observed/spontaneously reported adverse changes in laboratory parameters (baseline and after 4 weeks). Response rate was defined as a decrease in HAM-D score by 50% from baseline and remission rate was defined as a HAM-D score of < 8. Response rate at the end of two week were 58% for escitalopram (10mg/day), 49% for citalopram (20mg/day) and 52% for sertraline (50-100mg/day). Response rate at the end of four week were 90% for escitalopram (10-20mg/day), 86% for citalopram (20-40mg/day) and 97% for sertraline (100-150mg/day). The Remission rates at the end of four weeks were 74% for escitalopram, 65% for citalopram and 77% for sertraline. Adverse experiences were reported by 45% of patients in escitalopram group, 58% patients in citalopram and 56% patients in the sertraline group. Additionally, there were lesser dropouts and lesser requirement for dose escalation in escitalopram than in citalopram and sertraline group. In conclusion Escitalopram, the Senantiomer of the citalopram is a safe and effective antidepressant in the Indian population. It has potentially superior efficacy than citalopram and a comparable efficacy to sertraline with fewer side effects than both citalopram and sertraline.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2950952PMC
October 2004