Publications by authors named "Roman M Shapiro"

7 Publications

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Into the subcrypt zone: CD8 T cells in GI acute GVHD.

Blood 2021 Feb;137(5):587-588

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020008910DOI Listing
February 2021

Therapeutic options for steroid-refractory acute and chronic GVHD: an evolving landscape.

Expert Rev Hematol 2020 05 19;13(5):519-532. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Blood and Marrow Transplantation Program, Division of Hematologic Malignancies, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

: The traditional therapeutic modalities to manage SR-acute GVHD have focused on the inhibition of the alloreactive T-cell response, while in the setting of SR-chronic GVHD the focus has been on a combination of T-cell and B-cell targeting strategies. However, new therapeutic modalities have shown promise. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current treatment landscape of SR-acute and chronic GVHD.: A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and clinicaltrials.gov databases for published articles, abstracts, and clinical trials pertaining to available therapeutic modalities for SR-acute and SR-chronic GVHD was conducted. Also highlighted is a number of ongoing clinical trials in both SR-acute and SR-chronic GVHD with strategies targeting the JAK-1/2 pathway, the Treg:Tcon ratio, the immunomodulation mediated by mesenchymal stem cells, and the gut microbiome, among others. : Ruxolitinib has emerged as the preferred therapeutic modality for SR-acute GVHD, with alpha-1-antitrypsin and extracorporeal photophoresis (ECP) being reasonable alternatives. Ruxolitinib and Ibrutinib are among the preferred options for SR-chronic GVHD, with ECP being a viable alternative particularly if the skin is involved. A number of novel therapeutic modalities, including those enhancing the activity of regulatory T-cells have shown great promise in early phase trials of SR-chronic GVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474086.2020.1752175DOI Listing
May 2020

Key Aspects of the Immunobiology of Haploidentical Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Front Immunol 2020 14;11:191. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a haploidentical donor is increasingly used and has become a standard donor option for patients lacking an appropriately matched sibling or unrelated donor. Historically, prohibitive immunological barriers resulting from the high degree of HLA-mismatch included graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) and graft failure. These were overcome with increasingly sophisticated strategies to manipulate the sensitive balance between donor and recipient immune cells. Three different approaches are currently in clinical use: (a) T-cell depletion resulting in grafts with defined immune cell content (b) extensive immunosuppression with a T-cell replete graft consisting of G-CSF primed bone marrow and PBSC (GIAC) (c) T-cell replete grafts with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy). Intriguing studies have recently elucidated the immunologic mechanisms by which PTCy prevents GVHD. Each approach uniquely affects post-transplant immune reconstitution which is critical for the control of post-transplant infections and relapse. NK-cells play a key role in haplo-HCT since they do not mediate GVHD but can successfully mediate a graft-vs.-leukemia effect. This effect is in part regulated by KIR receptors that inhibit NK cell cytotoxic function when binding to the appropriate HLA-class I ligands. In the context of an HLA-class I mismatch in haplo-HCT, lack of inhibition can contribute to NK-cell alloreactivity leading to enhanced anti-leukemic effect. Emerging work reveals immune evasion phenomena such as copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity of the incompatible HLA alleles as one of the major mechanisms of relapse. Relapse and infectious complications remain the leading causes impacting overall survival and are central to scientific advances seeking to improve haplo-HCT. Given that haploidentical donors can typically be readily approached to collect additional stem- or immune cells for the recipient, haplo-HCT represents a unique platform for cell- and immune-based therapies aimed at further reducing relapse and infections. The rapid advancements in our understanding of the immunobiology of haplo-HCT are therefore poised to lead to iterative innovations resulting in further improvement of outcomes with this compelling transplant modality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7033970PMC
March 2021

Combination of the Centre for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Registry Risk Score and the Global Severity Score Enhances Prognostic Risk Stratification in Patients Receiving Frontline Therapy for Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 09 4;25(9):1761-1769. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Allogeneic Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

The Centre for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Registry (CIBMTR) score has been shown to be prognostic for overall survival (OS) and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) but has been shown in several single-center studies to classify a large proportion of patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) in the lower risk groups (RG1 to RG2), thereby limiting its prognostic utility for those patients. We evaluate the CIBMTR score, the Global Severity Score (GSS), and a novel risk score developed to improve on the limitations of the CIBMTR with respect to clinically relevant outcomes, including failure-free survival (FFS), in patients receiving frontline systemic treatment for cGVHD. We identified 277 patients between 2002 and 2012 at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre in Toronto, Canada, who developed cGVHD and were treated with at least 1 line of systemic therapy. cGVHD was graded by GSS, and patients were stratified by CIBMTR. We evaluated OS, NRM, relapse, and FFS within GSS grade groups, as well as CIBMTR RGs, and used a novel prognostic risk score. The median FFS duration was 164 days in the severe GSS group versus 238 days in the moderate-grade group and 304 days in mild-grade group (P= .001). The median FFS duration was 501 days in CIBMTR RG1 versus 291 days in RG2 and 166 days in RG3 to RG6 (P = .003). A novel risk score combining the GSS and CIBMTR scores was prognostic of OS, NRM, and FFS and was able to subdivide patients with cGVHD in CIBMTR RG1 to RG2 into distinct prognostic risk categories. The CIBMTR risk score and the GSS are well correlated with FFS, OS, and NRM following frontline systemic treatment for cGVHD. A new risk score model combining the CIBMTR risk score and the GSS could enhance risk stratification in the lower CIBMTR risk groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.05.029DOI Listing
September 2019

Next-generation sequencing-based minimal residual disease monitoring in patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome.

Curr Opin Hematol 2018 11;25(6):425-432

Allogeneic Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: The monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) has important clinical implications in both the pre and postallogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) setting in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a rapidly improving technology whose application to the monitoring of MRD is an active area of research. We aim to describe existing methods of MRD in AML and MDS, with a focus on the utility of NGS in patients undergoing SCT.

Recent Findings: Flow cytometry and quantitative PCR have been recommended by the European Leukemia Net as the preferred methods of MRD in AML and MDS, but these methods have limitations in cases without a disease-defining phenotype and genotype. Clinical trials are currently ongoing to assess the use of NGS in the setting of SCT for MDS and AML. Few studies have so far assessed the optimal method of MRD monitoring in the posttransplant setting.

Summary: The optimal method for the monitoring of MRD in AML and MDS both pre and post transplant may require more than one technology. NGS holds great promise for the monitoring of MRD, with prospective trials currently ongoing to evaluate its efficacy in this regard.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOH.0000000000000464DOI Listing
November 2018

Systematic review of azacitidine regimens in myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia.

BMC Hematol 2018 31;18. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

2Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Western University, London, ON Canada.

Background: 5-Azacitidine administered as a 7-day dosing regimen (7-0-0) is approved in high risk IPSS myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients. Alternative regimens such as a 5-day (5-0-0) or 7-day with a weekend break (5-2-2) are commonly used. No randomized controlled trial has been done directly comparing all three dosing regimens. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacies of the 5-0-0, 5-2-2, and 7-0-0 regimens in MDS and AML.

Methods: A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), observational prospective and retrospective studies. The primary clinical outcomes were Objective Response Rate (ORR) defined as the sum of complete response (CR), partial response (PR), and hematological improvement (HI) as defined by the IWG 2006 criteria. A meta-analysis of simple proportions was conducted using a random effects model with weights defined according to Laird and Mosteller. Comparisons between groups were not attempted due to the heterogeneity of study designs.

Results: The only RCT directly comparing alternative azacitidine regimens showed no difference in ORR between the 5-0-0 and 5-2-2 regimens. All other RCTs compared a dosing regimen to conventional care. The pooled proportion of ORR was 44.8% with 95% CI (42.8%, 45.5%) for 7-0-0, 41.2% with 95% CI (39.2%, 41.9%) for 5-0-0, and 45.8% with 95% CI (42.6%, 46.4%) for 5-2-2.

Conclusions: Indirect comparison of alternative azacitidine dosing regimens in MDS and AML shows a benefit for the 7-day regimen in attaining ORR. Additional RCTs are required to definitively address this comparison.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12878-017-0094-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5793426PMC
January 2018

Sepsis and persisting neutropenia in a drug addict.

Am J Hematol 2017 Mar 3;92(3):312-316. Epub 2017 Feb 3.

Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.24639DOI Listing
March 2017