Publications by authors named "Roman Liscak"

105 Publications

Neurofibromatosis type 2-associated meningiomas: an international multicenter study of outcomes after Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery.

J Neurosurg 2021 Jun 18:1-6. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

1Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Objective: The management of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2)-associated meningiomas is challenging. The role of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) in the treatment of these tumors remains to be fully defined. In this study, the authors aimed to examine the role of GKRS in the treatment of NF2-associated meningiomas and to evaluate the outcomes and complications after treatment.

Methods: Seven international medical centers contributed data for this retrospective cohort. Tumor progression was defined as a ≥ 20% increase from the baseline value. The clinical features, treatment details, outcomes, and complications were studied. The median follow-up was 8.5 years (range 0.6-25.5 years) from the time of initial GKRS. Shared frailty Cox regression was used for analysis.

Results: A total of 204 meningiomas in 39 patients treated with GKRS were analyzed. Cox regression analysis showed that increasing the maximum dose (p = 0.02; HR 12.2, 95% CI 1.287-116.7) and a lower number of meningiomas at presentation (p = 0.03; HR 0.9, 95% CI 0.821-0.990) were predictive of better tumor control in both univariable and multivariable settings. Age at onset, sex, margin dose, location, and presence of neurological deficit were not predictive of tumor progression. The cumulative 10-year progression-free survival was 94.8%. Radiation-induced adverse effects were noted in 4 patients (10%); these were transient and managed medically. No post-GKRS malignant transformation was noted in 287 person-years of follow-up.

Conclusions: GKRS achieved effective tumor control with a low and generally acceptable rate of complications in NF2-associated meningiomas. There did not appear to be an appreciable risk of post-GKRS-induced malignancy in patients with NF2-treated meningiomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.12.JNS202814DOI Listing
June 2021

Radiosurgery: Fair Treatment Option for Inoperable Brain Vascular Lesions.

Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2021 Jun 17:1-2. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Radiology, Na Homolce Hospital, Prague, Czechia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000517107DOI Listing
June 2021

An International Multicenter Matched Cohort Analysis of Incidental Meningioma Progression During Active Surveillance or After Stereotactic Radiosurgery: The IMPASSE Study.

Neuro Oncol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Liverpool & The Walton Centre NHS Trust, Lower Lane, Liverpool, UK.

Background: The optimal management of patients with an incidental meningiomas remains unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize the radiologic and neurological outcomes of expectant and SRS management of asymptomatic meningioma patients.

Methods: Using data from 14 centers across 10 countries, the study compares SRS outcomes to active surveillance of asymptomatic meningiomas. Local tumor control of asymptomatic meningiomas and development of new neurological deficits attributable to the tumor were evaluated in the SRS and conservatively managed groups.

Results: In unmatched cohorts, 727 meningioma patients underwent SRS and were followed for a mean of 57.2 months. In the conservatively managed cohort, 388 patients were followed for a mean of 43.5 months. Tumor control was 99.0% of SRS and 64.2% of conservatively managed patients (p<0.001; OR 56.860 (95%CI 26.253-123.150))). New neurological deficits were 2.5% in the SRS and 2.8% of conservatively managed patients (p=0.764; OR 0.890 (95% CI 0.416-1.904)). After 1:1 propensity matching for patient age, tumor volume, location, and imaging follow-up, tumor control in the SRS and conservatively managed cohorts was 99.4% and 62.1%, respectively (p<0.001; OR 94.461 (95% CI 23.082-386.568)). In matched cohorts, new neurological deficits were noted in 2.3% of SRS treated and 3.2% of conservatively managed patients (p=0.475; OR 0.700 (95% CI 0.263-1.863)).

Conclusions: SRS affords superior radiologic tumor control compared to active surveillance without increasing the risk of neurological deficits in asymptomatic meningioma patients. While SRS and active surveillance are reasonable options, SRS appears to alter the natural history of asymptomatic meningiomas including tumor progression in the majority of patients treated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noab132DOI Listing
June 2021

Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Brain Metastases: An International, Multicenter Study.

Thyroid 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.

Brain metastases (BM) from differentiated thyroid cancer are rare. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is commonly used for the treatment of BMs; however, the experience with SRS for thyroid cancer BMs remains limited. The goal of this international, multi-centered study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SRS for thyroid cancer BMs. From 10 institutions participating in the International Radiosurgery Research Foundation, we pooled patients with established papillary or follicular thyroid cancer diagnosis who underwent SRS for histologically confirmed or radiologically suspected BMs. We investigated patient overall survival (OS), local tumor control, and adverse radiation events (AREs). We studied 42 (52% men) patients who underwent SRS for 122 papillary (83%) or follicular (17%) thyroid cancer BMs. The mean age at SRS was 59.86 ± 12.69 years. The mean latency from thyroid cancer diagnosis to SRS for BMs was 89.05 ± 105.49 months. The median number of BMs per patient was 2 (range: 1-10 BMs). The median SRS treatment volume was 0.79 cm (range: 0.003-38.18 cm), and the median SRS prescription dose was 20 Gy (range: 8-24 Gy). The median survival after SRS for BMs was 14 months (range: 3-58 months). The OS was significantly shorter in patients harboring ≥2 BMs, when compared with patients with one BM (Log-rank = 5.452,  = 0.02). Two or more BMs (odds ratio [OR] = 3.688; confidence interval [CI]: 1.143-11.904;  = 0.03) and lower Karnofsky performance score at the time of SRS (OR = 0.807; CI: 0.689-0.945;  = 0.008) were associated with shorter OS. During post-SRS imaging follow-up of 25.21 ± 30.49 months, local failure (progression and/or radiation necrosis) of BMs treated with SRS was documented in five (4%) BMs at 7.2 ± 7.3 months after the SRS. At the last imaging follow-up, the majority of patients with available imaging data had stable intracranial disease (33%) or achieved complete (26%) or partial (24%) response. There were no clinical AREs. Post-SRS peritumoral T2/fluid attenuated inversion recovery signal hyperintensity was noted in 7% BMs. The SRS allows durable local control of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer BMs in the vast majority of patients. Higher number of BMs and worse functional status at the time of SRS are associated with shorter OS in patients with thyroid cancer BMs. The SRS is safe and is associated with a low risk of AREs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2020.0947DOI Listing
May 2021

Widespread and sustained target engagement in Huntington's disease minipigs upon intrastriatal microRNA-based gene therapy.

Sci Transl Med 2021 Apr;13(588)

Department of Research and Development, uniQure biopharma B.V., Paasheuvelweg 25a, 1105 BP Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Huntingtin (HTT)-lowering therapies hold promise to slow down neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease (HD). Here, we assessed the translatability and long-term durability of recombinant adeno-associated viral vector serotype 5 expressing a microRNA targeting human (rAAV5-miHTT) administered by magnetic resonance imaging-guided convention-enhanced delivery in transgenic HD minipigs. rAAV5-miHTT (1.2 × 10 vector genome (VG) copies per brain) was successfully administered into the striatum (bilaterally in caudate and putamen), using age-matched untreated animals as controls. Widespread brain biodistribution of vector DNA was observed, with the highest concentration in target (striatal) regions, thalamus, and cortical regions. Vector DNA presence and transgene expression were similar at 6 and 12 months after administration. Expression of miHTT strongly correlated with vector DNA, with a corresponding reduction of mutant HTT (mHTT) protein of more than 75% in injected areas, and 30 to 50% lowering in distal regions. Translational pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic measures in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were largely in line with the effects observed in the brain. CSF miHTT expression was detected up to 12 months, with CSF mHTT protein lowering of 25 to 30% at 6 and 12 months after dosing. This study demonstrates widespread biodistribution, strong and durable efficiency of rAAV5-miHTT in disease-relevant regions in a large brain, and the potential of using CSF analysis to determine vector expression and efficacy in the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abb8920DOI Listing
April 2021

Gamma Knife Radiosurgery of Distal Aneurysm: A Case Series.

Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2021 Mar 17:1-6. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Stereotactic and Radiation Neurosurgery, Na Homolce Hospital, Prague, Czechia.

A series of 3 patients (35-60 years old) with bleeding distal aneurysm not associated with AVM who underwent radiosurgery by gamma knife are reported. One isocentre centralized over the aneurysm was used; peripheral dose 24-28.8 Gy was applied. Control angiography 20-36 months after gamma knife surgery (GKS) demonstrated obliteration of both the aneurysm and the feeding artery, without deterioration of the neurological symptoms. Our case series implies that GKS might serve as a safe mini-invasive technique in the treatment of selected distal aneurysms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000513956DOI Listing
March 2021

Large vestibular schwannomas: long-term outcomes after stereotactic radiosurgery.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2021 Jan;41(6):329-338

Department of Stereotactic and Radiation Neurosurgery, Center for Epilepsy, Na Homolce Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.

Objectives: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an established treatment option of small/medium-sized vestibular schwannomas (VSs). Concerning management of the large VSs, primary SRS remains a controversial option. Our retrospective study analyzes long-term radiological and clinical outcomes of SRS in large VSs.

Material And Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 73 patients with single large VS, treated with SRS. Inclusion criteria were: tumor volume >4 cm3, follow-up >2 years, radiological (3D-volumetric studies) and clinical follow-up. SRS was either primary (94.5%) or secondary (5.5%) treatment. The median marginal dose (50%-isodose line) was 12Gy (11.5-12Gy). Fisher exact test, t-test, ANOVA, Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models were performed when appropriate RESULTS: The median follow-up was 5.5 years. The median VS volume at SRS was 6.5 cm3 (range 4-14.2 cm3). The tumor control rates assessed from Kaplan-Meier curve were 88.3%, 82.4% and 74.7% 5.8 and 10 years after SRS, respectively. Tumor shrinkage was observed in 83.6% of patients (n=61), unchanged volume in 4.1% patients (n=3) and progression in 12.3% (n=9). The median tumor volume significantly decreased to 4.0 cm3, measured at 5-year follow-up (p<0.0001). Large cystic VSs responded better to SRS then homogeneous. Pre-SRS serviceable hearing was present in 37% of patients; 55% of these had hearing preserved after treatment. After SRS, new facial palsy (House-Brackmann gr. III-VI) appeared in 4.1% of patients; 9.6% of patients had transient brainstem/cranial nerves edema. For tumor progression, 8.2% of patients underwent resection, 2.8% of patients repeated SRS.

Conclusion: Our results are showing that SRS might be safe and effective primary treatment even in large VSs. However, long-term tumor control rates are lower in comparison with small/medium-sized VSs. Thus, closer follow-up should be applied.
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January 2021

Treatment of WHO Grade 2 Meningiomas With Stereotactic Radiosurgery: Identification of an Optimal Group for SRS Using RPA.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Jul 3;110(3):804-814. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Neurologic Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Purpose: This study assesses a large multi-institutional database to present the outcomes of World Health Organization grade 2 meningiomas treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). We also compare the 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) to that reported in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0539 phase 2 cooperative group meningioma trial.

Methods And Materials: From an international, multicenter group, data were collected for grade 2 meningioma patients treated with SRS for demonstrable tumor from 1994 to 2019. Statistical methods used included the Kaplan-Meier method, Cox proportional hazards analysis, and recursive partitioning analysis.

Results: Two hundred thirty-three patients treated at 12 institutions were included. Patients presented at a median age of 60 years (range, 13-90), and many had at least 2 prior resections (30%) or radiation therapy (22%). Forty-eight percent of patients had prior gross total resection. At SRS, the median treatment volume was 6.1 cm (0.1-97.6). A median 15 Gy (10-30) was delivered to a median percent isodose of 50 (30-80), most commonly in 1 fraction (95%). A model was developed using recursive partitioning analysis, with one point attributed to age >50 years, treatment volume >11.5 cm, and prior radiation therapy or multiple surgeries. The good-prognostic group (score, 0-1) had improved PFS (P < .005) and time to local failure (P < .005) relative to the poor-prognostic group (score, 2-3). Age >50 years (hazard ratio = 1.85 [95% confidence interval, 1.09-3.14]) and multiple prior surgeries (hazard ratio = 1.80 [1.09-2.99]) also portended reduced PFS in patients without prior radiation therapy. Two hundred eighteen of 233 patients in this study qualified for the high-risk group of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0539, and they demonstrated similar outcomes (3-year PFS: 53.9% vs 58.8%). The good-prognostic group of SRS patients demonstrated slightly improved outcomes (3-year PFS: 63.1% vs 58.8%).

Conclusions: SRS should be considered in carefully selected patients with atypical meningiomas. We suggest the use of our good-prognostic group to optimize patient selection, and we strongly encourage the initiation of a clinical trial to prospectively validate these outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.01.048DOI Listing
July 2021

Outcomes after stereotactic radiosurgery for schwannomas of the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves.

J Neurosurg 2021 Jan 22:1-7. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

1Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Université de Sherbrooke, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada.

Objective: Cranial nerve (CN) schwannomas are intracranial tumors that are commonly managed by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). There is a large body of literature supporting the use of SRS for vestibular schwannomas. Schwannomas of the oculomotor nerves (CNs III, IV, and VI) are rare skull base tumors, occurring close to the brainstem and often involving the cavernous sinus. Resection can cause significant morbidity, including loss of nerve function. As for other schwannomas, SRS can be used to manage these tumors, but only a handful of cases have been published so far, often among reports of other uncommon schwannoma locations.

Methods: The goal of this study was to collect retrospective multicenter data on tumor control, clinical evolution, and morbidity after SRS. This study was performed through the International Radiosurgery Research Foundation. Patients managed with single-session SRS for an oculomotor cranial nerve schwannoma (CN III, IV, or VI) were included. The diagnosis was based on diplopia or ptosis as the main presenting symptom and anatomical location on the trajectory of the presumed cranial nerve of origin, or prior resection confirming diagnosis. Demographic, SRS dose planning, clinical, and imaging data were collected from chart review of the treated patients. Chi-square and Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed.

Results: Seven institutions submitted data for a total of 25 patients. The median follow-up time was 41 months. The median age at the time of treatment was 52 years. There were 11 CN III schwannomas, 11 CN IV schwannomas, and 3 CN VI schwannomas. The median target volume was 0.74 cm3, and the median marginal dose delivered was 12.5 Gy. After SRS, only 2 patients (including the only patient with neurofibromatosis type 2) had continued tumor growth. Crude local control was 92% (23/25), and the 10-year actuarial control was 86%. Diplopia improved in the majority of patients (11/21), and only 3 had worsening following SRS, 2 of whom also had worsened ptosis, both in the context of tumor progression.

Conclusions: SRS for schwannomas of the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves is effective and provides tumor control rates similar to those for other cranial nerve schwannomas. SRS allows improvement of diplopia in the majority of patients. SRS should therefore be considered as a first-line treatment option for oculomotor nerve schwannomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.8.JNS20887DOI Listing
January 2021

Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Perioptic Meningiomas: An International, Multicenter Study.

Neurosurgery 2021 03;88(4):828-837

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado.

Background: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is increasingly used for management of perioptic meningiomas.

Objective: To study the safety and effectiveness of SRS for perioptic meningiomas.

Methods: From 12 institutions participating in the International Radiosurgery Research Foundation (IRRF), we retrospectively assessed treatment parameters and outcomes following SRS for meningiomas located within 3 mm of the optic apparatus.

Results: A total of 438 patients (median age 51 yr) underwent SRS for histologically confirmed (29%) or radiologically suspected (71%) perioptic meningiomas. Median treatment volume was 8.01 cm3. Median prescription dose was 12 Gy, and median dose to the optic apparatus was 8.50 Gy. A total of 405 patients (93%) underwent single-fraction SRS and 33 patients (7%) underwent hypofractionated SRS. During median imaging follow-up of 55.6 mo (range: 3.15-239 mo), 33 (8%) patients experienced tumor progression. Actuarial 5-yr and 10-yr progression-free survival was 96% and 89%, respectively. Prescription dose of ≥12 Gy (HR: 0.310; 95% CI [0.141-0.679], P = .003) and single-fraction SRS (HR: 0.078; 95% CI [0.016-0.395], P = .002) were associated with improved tumor control. A total of 31 (10%) patients experienced visual decline, with actuarial 5-yr and 10-yr post-SRS visual decline rates of 9% and 21%, respectively. Maximum dose to the optic apparatus ≥10 Gy (HR = 2.370; 95% CI [1.086-5.172], P = .03) and tumor progression (HR = 4.340; 95% CI [2.070-9.097], P < .001) were independent predictors of post-SRS visual decline.

Conclusion: SRS provides durable tumor control and quite acceptable rates of vision preservation in perioptic meningiomas. Margin dose of ≥12 Gy is associated with improved tumor control, while a dose to the optic apparatus of ≥10 Gy and tumor progression are associated with post-SRS visual decline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa544DOI Listing
March 2021

Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Atypical (World Health Organization II) and Anaplastic (World Health Organization III) Meningiomas: Results From a Multicenter, International Cohort Study.

Neurosurgery 2021 04;88(5):980-988

Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayfield Clinic, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Background: Atypical and anaplastic meningiomas have reduced progression-free/overall survival (PFS/OS) compared to benign meningiomas. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for atypical meningiomas (AMs) and anaplastic meningiomas (malignant meningiomas, MMs) has not been adequately described.

Objective: To define clinical/radiographic outcomes for patients undergoing SRS for AM/MMs.

Methods: An international, multicenter, retrospective cohort study was performed to define clinical/imaging outcomes for patients receiving SRS for AM/MMs. Tumor progression was assessed with response assessment in neuro-oncology (RANO) criteria. Factors associated with PFS/OS were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis and a Cox proportional hazards model.

Results: A total of 271 patients received SRS for AMs (n = 233, 85.9%) or MMs (n = 38, 14.0%). Single-fraction SRS was most commonly employed (n = 264, 97.4%) with a mean target dose of 14.8 Gy. SRS was used as adjuvant treatment (n = 85, 31.4%), salvage therapy (n = 182, 67.2%), or primary therapy (1.5%). The 5-yr PFS/OS rate was 33.6% and 77.0%, respectively. Increasing age (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.01, P < .05) and a Ki-67 index > 15% (HR = 1.66, P < .03) negatively correlated with PFS. MMs (HR = 3.21, P < .05), increased age (HR = 1.04, P = .04), and reduced KPS (HR = 0.95, P = .04) were associated with shortened OS. Adjuvant versus salvage SRS did not impact PFS/OS. A shortened interval between surgery and SRS improved PFS for AMs (HR = 0.99, P = .02) on subgroup analysis. Radiation necrosis occurred in 34 (12.5%) patients. Five-year rates of repeat surgery/radiation were 33.8% and 60.4%, respectively.

Conclusion: AM/MMs remain challenging tumors to treat. Elevated proliferative indices are associated with tumor recurrence, while MMs have worse survival. SRS can control AM/MMs in the short term, but the 5-yr PFS rates are low, underscoring the need for improved treatment options for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa553DOI Listing
April 2021

Stereotactic radiosurgery for treatment of radiation-induced meningiomas: a multiinstitutional study.

J Neurosurg 2021 Jan 1:1-9. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

1Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Objective: Radiation-induced meningiomas (RIMs) are associated with aggressive clinical behavior. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is sometimes considered for selected RIMs. The authors investigated the effectiveness and safety of SRS for the management of RIMs.

Methods: From 12 institutions participating in the International Radiosurgery Research Foundation, the authors pooled patients who had prior cranial irradiation and were subsequently clinically diagnosed with WHO grade I meningiomas that were managed with SRS.

Results: Fifty-two patients underwent 60 SRS procedures for histologically confirmed or radiologically suspected WHO grade I RIMs. The median ages at initial cranial radiation therapy and SRS for RIM were 5.5 years and 39 years, respectively. The most common reasons for cranial radiation therapy were leukemia (21%) and medulloblastoma (17%). There were 39 multiple RIMs (35%), the mean target volume was 8.61 ± 7.80 cm3, and the median prescription dose was 14 Gy. The median imaging follow-up duration was 48 months (range 4-195 months). RIM progressed in 9 patients (17%) at a median duration of 30 months (range 3-45 months) after SRS. Progression-free survival at 5 years post-SRS was 83%. Treatment volume ≥ 5 cm3 predicted progression (HR 8.226, 95% CI 1.028-65.857, p = 0.047). Seven patients (14%) developed new neurological symptoms or experienced SRS-related complications or T2 signal change from 1 to 72 months after SRS.

Conclusions: SRS is associated with durable local control of RIMs in the majority of patients and has an acceptable safety profile. SRS can be considered for patients and tumors that are deemed suboptimal, poor surgical candidates, and those whose tumor again progresses after removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.7.JNS202064DOI Listing
January 2021

Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Choroid Plexus Tumors: A Report of the International Radiosurgery Research Foundation.

Neurosurgery 2021 03;88(4):791-796

Department of Neurological Surgery and Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Background: Choroid plexus tumors (CPT) are rare epithelial tumors of the choroid plexus. Gross total resection (GTR) may be curative, but it is not always possible.

Objective: To evaluate the role of Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS) as either a primary or adjuvant management option for WHO grade I-III CPT through a multicenter project.

Methods: A total of 32 patients (20 females) with a total of 43 treated tumors were included in the analysis. A total of 25 patients (78%) had undergone initial surgical resection. The median total tumor volume was 2.2 cc, and the median margin and maximum doses were 13 and 25.5 Gy, respectively.

Results: Local tumor control was achieved in 69% of cases. Local tumor progression-free survival (PFS) rate for low-grade tumors at 1, 3, and 5 yr was 90%, 77%, 58%, respectively. The actuarial local tumor PFS rate for high-grade tumors at 1, 3, and 5 yr was 77%, 62%, and 62%, respectively. There was no significant difference in local tumor control rates between low- and high-grade CPT (P = .3). Gender, age, and degree of resection were not associated with treated tumor PFS. Distant intracranial spread developed in 6 patients at a median of 22 mo after initial SRS. Actuarial distant brain tumor PFS rate at 1, 2, 5, and 10 yr was 93%, 88%, 78%, and 65%, respectively. Three patients (9%) developed persistent symptomatic adverse radiation effects at a median of 11 mo after the procedure.

Conclusion: GKSRS represents a minimally invasive alternative management strategy for imaging defined or surgically recurrent low- and high-grade CPT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa538DOI Listing
March 2021

Neuropsychological outcome in refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder treated with anterior capsulotomy including repeated surgery.

Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2021 Mar 20;75(3):101-107. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Psychiatry, Na Homolce Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.

Aim: Anterior capsulotomy (AC) is one of the last therapeutic options for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) refractory to conservative treatments. Several forms of cognitive dysfunction have been identified after assessment of neuropsychological outcomes in OCD patients; however, few studies focused on cognitive changes in OCD patients after surgery. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of AC on cognitive performance and mood status in patients with refractory OCD.

Methods: A total of 12 patients underwent bilateral AC between 2012 and 2019 at our institution. The patients (n = 12, female : male 5:7; mean age 39.7 years; duration ≥5 years) were assessed before and 6 months after intervention. The diagnosis of treatment-refractory OCD was based on recommended criteria for surgical treatment. Patients were assessed using a neuropsychological battery and questionnaires focused on anxiety-depressive symptomatology. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was administered as a measure of severity of OCD symptoms.

Results: We detected a significant decrease of OCD, and anxiety and depressive symptomatology assessed by Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Beck Anxiety Inventory (P < 0.05) 6 months after AC in eight patients, and a partial decrease in four patients. Four patients underwent repeated AC with more pronounced improvement achieved after the first procedure. We did not detect decline in cognitive performance in any patients, but did find better visual memory performance (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: AC reduced OCD and anxiety-depressive symptoms, and did not appear to influence cognitive performance, even after repeated surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pcn.13190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7986670PMC
March 2021

Stereotactic radiosurgery with versus without prior Onyx embolization for brain arteriovenous malformations.

J Neurosurg 2020 Dec 11:1-9. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

14Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Objective: Investigations of the combined effects of neoadjuvant Onyx embolization and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) on brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) have not accounted for initial angioarchitectural features prior to neuroendovascular intervention. The aim of this retrospective, multicenter matched cohort study is to compare the outcomes of SRS with versus without upfront Onyx embolization for AVMs using de novo characteristics of the preembolized nidus.

Methods: The International Radiosurgery Research Foundation AVM databases from 1987 to 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were categorized based on AVM treatment approach into Onyx embolization (OE) and SRS (OE+SRS) or SRS alone (SRS-only) cohorts and then propensity score matched in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome was AVM obliteration. Secondary outcomes were post-SRS hemorrhage, all-cause mortality, radiological and symptomatic radiation-induced changes (RICs), and cyst formation. Comparisons were analyzed using crude rates and cumulative probabilities adjusted for competing risk of death.

Results: The matched OE+SRS and SRS-only cohorts each comprised 53 patients. Crude rates (37.7% vs 47.2% for the OE+SRS vs SRS-only cohorts, respectively; OR 0.679, p = 0.327) and cumulative probabilities at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years (33.7%, 44.1%, 57.5%, and 65.7% for the OE+SRS cohort vs 34.8%, 45.5%, 59.0%, and 67.1% for the SRS-only cohort, respectively; subhazard ratio 0.961, p = 0.896) of AVM obliteration were similar between the matched cohorts. The secondary outcomes of the matched cohorts were also similar. Asymptomatic and symptomatic embolization-related complication rates in the matched OE+SRS cohort were 18.9% and 9.4%, respectively.

Conclusions: Pre-SRS AVM embolization with Onyx does not appear to negatively influence outcomes after SRS. These analyses, based on de novo nidal characteristics, thereby refute previous studies that found detrimental effects of Onyx embolization on SRS-induced AVM obliteration. However, given the risks incurred by nidal embolization using Onyx, this neoadjuvant intervention should be used judiciously in multimodal treatment strategies involving SRS for appropriately selected large-volume or angioarchitecturally high-risk AVMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.7.JNS201731DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192588PMC
December 2020

Convexity Meningiomas in Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 2: Long-Term Outcomes After Gamma Knife Radiosurgery.

World Neurosurg 2021 Feb 3;146:e678-e684. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Convexity meningiomas are common tumors requiring treatment in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Although different therapeutic options are described for sporadic convexity meningioma, much less is known about these lesions in patients with NF2 despite their distinct biology and need for multiple treatments. We analyzed the value of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) as definitive treatment for convexity meningiomas in patients with NF2.

Methods: This international multicenter retrospective study was approved by the International Radiosurgery Research Foundation. Patients with NF2 with at least 1 convexity meningioma and 6-month follow-up after primary GKRS were included.

Results: Inclusion criteria were met by 18 patients with NF2. A total of 120 convexity meningiomas (median treatment volume, 0.66 cm [range, 0.10-21.20 cm]) were analyzed. Median follow-up after initial GKRS was 15.6 years (range, 0.6-25.5 years). Median age at GKRS was 32.5 years (range, 16-53 years). Median number of meningiomas per patient was 13 (range, 1-27), and median number of convexity lesions receiving GKRS per patient was 3.5 (range, 1-27). One case of tumor progression was reported 24 years after GKRS, leading to actuarial progression-free survival rates of 100% at 2, 5, and 10 years. No malignant transformation or death due to meningioma or radiosurgery was recorded.

Conclusions: GKRS is safe and effective as definitive treatment of small to medium-sized convexity meningiomas in patients with NF2. Despite concerns about the particular mutational burden of these tumors, no malignant transformation manifested after treatment. GKRS represents a minimally invasive option that offers long-term tumor control to this specific group of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.10.153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7988886PMC
February 2021

Stereotactic Radiosurgery With Versus Without Embolization for Brain Arteriovenous Malformations.

Neurosurgery 2021 01;88(2):313-321

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Prior comparisons of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) treated using stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with or without embolization were inherently flawed, due to differences in the pretreatment nidus volumes.

Objective: To compare the outcomes of embolization and SRS, vs SRS alone for AVMs using pre-embolization malformation features.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed International Radiosurgery Research Foundation AVM databases from 1987 to 2018. Patients were categorized into the embolization and SRS (E + SRS) or SRS alone (SRS-only) cohorts. The 2 cohorts were matched in a 1:1 ratio using propensity scores. Primary outcome was defined as AVM obliteration. Secondary outcomes were post-SRS hemorrhage, all-cause mortality, radiologic and symptomatic radiation-induced changes (RIC), and cyst formation.

Results: The matched cohorts each comprised 101 patients. Crude AVM obliteration rates were similar between the matched E + SRS vs SRS-only cohorts (48.5% vs 54.5%; odds ratio = 0.788, P = .399). Cumulative probabilities of obliteration at 3, 4, 5, and 6 yr were also similar between the E + SRS (33.0%, 46.4%, 56.2%, and 60.8%, respectively) and SRS-only (32.9%, 46.2%, 56.0%, and 60.6%, respectively) cohorts (subhazard ratio (SHR) = 1.005, P = .981). Cumulative probabilities of radiologic RIC at 3, 4, 5, and 6 yr were lower in the E + SRS (25.0%, 25.7%, 26.7%, and 26.7%, respectively) vs SRS-only (45.3%, 46.2%, 47.8%, and 47.8%, respectively) cohort (SHR = 0.478, P = .004). Symptomatic and asymptomatic embolization-related complication rates were 8.3% and 18.6%, respectively. Rates of post-SRS hemorrhage, all-cause mortality, symptomatic RIC, and cyst formation were similar between the matched cohorts.

Conclusion: This study refutes the prevalent notion that AVM embolization negatively affects the likelihood of obliteration after SRS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa418DOI Listing
January 2021

Combined treatment of a medulla oblongata hemangioblastoma via permanent cysto-cisternal drainage and (postponed) gamma knife radiosurgery: a case report and review of the literature.

Int J Neurosci 2020 Sep 9:1-5. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Stereotactic and Radiation Neurosurgery, Na Homolce Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: Hemangioblastomas are histologically benign tumors with a variable degree of morbidity and mortality based on various factors, including their anatomical location. The following paper illustrates a unique approach of combined therapy of a brainstem hemangioblastoma (HB) not associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHLd) located in the medulla oblongata.

Case Description: A 21-year-old preschool teacher presented with vertigo, followed by dysphagia, trouble coughing, tongue paresis and headache and vomiting. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large cystic lesion with a small intramural nodule located in the left anterolateral medulla oblongata directly behind the vertebral artery. The diagnosis of hemangioblastoma was supported by digital subtraction angiography.

Conclusion: Combined therapy consisted primarily of acute surgical fenestration and permanent drainage of the cystic portion of the tumor, due to symptomatic expansion. Follow-up stereotactic gamma knife radiosurgery was performed after 2 years for minor progression of the tumor nodule. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time such approach has been described in the literature for this pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207454.2020.1819267DOI Listing
September 2020

Embolization of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations With Versus Without Onyx Before Stereotactic Radiosurgery.

Neurosurgery 2021 01;88(2):366-374

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) using ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx) embolization may influence the treatment effects of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) differently than other embolysates.

Objective: To compare the outcomes of pre-SRS AVM embolization with vs without Onyx through a multicenter, retrospective matched cohort study.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed International Radiosurgery Research Foundation AVM databases from 1987 to 2018. Embolized AVMs treated with SRS were selected and categorized based on embolysate usage into Onyx embolization (OE + SRS) or non-Onyx embolization (NOE + SRS) cohorts. The 2 cohorts were matched in a 1:1 ratio using de novo AVM features for comparative analysis of outcomes.

Results: The matched cohorts each comprised 45 patients. Crude AVM obliteration rates were similar between the matched OE + SRS vs NOE + SRS cohorts (47% vs 51%; odds ratio [OR] = 0.837, P = .673). Cumulative probabilities of obliteration were also similar between the OE + SRS vs NOE + SRS cohorts (subhazard ratio = 0.992, P = .980). Rates of post-SRS hemorrhage, all-cause mortality, radiation-induced changes, cyst formation, and embolization-associated complications were similar between the matched cohorts. Sensitivity analysis for AVMs in the OE + SRS cohort embolized with Onyx alone revealed a higher rate of asymptomatic embolization-associated complications in this subgroup compared to the NOE + SRS cohort (36% vs 15%; OR = 3.297, P = .034), but the symptomatic complication rates were similar.

Conclusion: Nidal embolization using Onyx does not appear to differentially impact the outcomes of AVM SRS compared with non-Onyx embolysates. The embolic agent selected for pre-SRS AVM embolization should reflect both the experience of the neurointerventionalist and target of endovascular intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa370DOI Listing
January 2021

Effect of Anatomic Segment Involvement on Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Facial Nerve Schwannomas: An International Multicenter Cohort Study.

Neurosurgery 2020 12;88(1):E91-E98

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Virginia Medical Center, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Background: Facial nerve schwannomas are rare, challenging tumors to manage due to their nerve of origin. Functional outcomes after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) are incompletely defined.

Objective: To analyze the effect of facial nerve segment involvement on functional outcome for these tumors.

Methods: Patients who underwent single-session SRS for facial nerve schwannomas with at least 3 mo follow-up at 11 participating centers were included. Preoperative and treatment variables were recorded. Outcome measures included radiological tumor response and neurological function.

Results: A total of 63 patients (34 females) were included in the present study. In total, 75% had preoperative facial weakness. Mean tumor volume and margin dose were 2.0 ± 2.4 cm3 and 12.2 ± 0.54 Gy, respectively. Mean radiological follow-up was 45.5 ± 38.9 mo. Progression-free survival at 2, 5, and 10 yr was 98.1%, 87.2%, and 87.2%, respectively. The cumulative proportion of patients with regressing tumors at 2, 5, and 10 yr was 43.1%, 63.6%, and 63.6%, respectively. The number of involved facial nerve segments significantly predicted tumor progression (P = .04). Facial nerve function was stable or improved in 57 patients (90%). Patients with involvement of the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve were significantly more likely to have an improvement in facial nerve function after SRS (P = .03). Hearing worsened in at least 6% of patients. Otherwise, adverse radiation effects included facial twitching (3 patients), facial numbness (2 patients), and dizziness (2 patients).

Conclusion: SRS for facial nerve schwannomas is effective and spares facial nerve function in most patients. Some patients may have functional improvement after treatment, particularly if the labyrinthine segment is involved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa313DOI Listing
December 2020

Earlier radiosurgery leads to better pain relief and less medication usage for trigeminal neuralgia patients: an international multicenter study.

J Neurosurg 2020 Jul 3:1-8. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

1Department of Neurosurgery, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York.

Objective: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a chronic pain condition that is difficult to control with conservative management. Furthermore, disabling medication-related side effects are common. This study examined how stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) affects pain outcomes and medication dependence based on the latency period between diagnosis and radiosurgery.

Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with type I TN at 12 Gamma Knife treatment centers. SRS was the primary surgical intervention in all patients. Patient demographics, disease characteristics, treatment plans, medication histories, and outcomes were reviewed.

Results: Overall, 404 patients were included. The mean patient age at SRS was 70 years, and 60% of the population was female. The most common indication for SRS was pain refractory to medications (81%). The median maximum radiation dose was 80 Gy (range 50-95 Gy), and the mean follow-up duration was 32 months. The mean number of medications between baseline (pre-SRS) and the last follow-up decreased from 1.98 to 0.90 (p < 0.0001), respectively, and this significant reduction was observed across all medication categories. Patients who received SRS within 4 years of their initial diagnosis achieved significantly faster pain relief than those who underwent treatment after 4 years (median 21 vs 30 days, p = 0.041). The 90-day pain relief rate for those who received SRS ≤ 4 years after their diagnosis was 83.8% compared with 73.7% in patients who received SRS > 4 years after their diagnosis. The maximum radiation dose was the strongest predictor of a durable pain response (OR 1.091, p = 0.003). Early intervention (OR 1.785, p = 0.007) and higher maximum radiation dose (OR 1.150, p < 0.0001) were also significant predictors of being pain free (a Barrow Neurological Institute pain intensity score of I-IIIA) at the last follow-up visit. New sensory symptoms of any kind were seen in 98 patients (24.3%) after SRS. Higher maximum radiation dose trended toward predicting new sensory deficits but was nonsignificant (p = 0.075).

Conclusions: TN patients managed with SRS within 4 years of diagnosis experienced a shorter interval to pain relief with low risk. SRS also yielded significant decreases in adjunct medication utilization. Radiosurgery should be considered earlier in the course of treatment for TN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.4.JNS192780DOI Listing
July 2020

Stereotactic radiosurgery for central neurocytomas: an international multicenter retrospective cohort study.

J Neurosurg 2020 Apr 3:1-10. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

1Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Objective: Central neurocytomas (CNs) are uncommon intraventricular tumors, and their rarity renders the risk-to-benefit profile of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) unknown. The aim of this multicenter, retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the outcomes of SRS for CNs and identify predictive factors.

Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed a cohort of patients with CNs treated with SRS at 10 centers between 1994 and 2018. Tumor recurrences were classified as local or distant. Adverse radiation effects (AREs) and the need for a CSF shunt were also evaluated.

Results: The study cohort comprised 60 patients (median age 30 years), 92% of whom had undergone prior resection or biopsy and 8% received their diagnosis based on imaging alone. The median tumor volume and margin dose were 5.9 cm3 and 13 Gy, respectively. After a median clinical follow-up of 61 months, post-SRS tumor recurrence occurred in 8 patients (13%). The 5- and 10-year local tumor control rates were 93% and 87%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year progression-free survival rates were 89% and 80%, respectively. AREs were observed in 4 patients (7%), but only 1 was symptomatic (2%). Two patients underwent post-SRS tumor resection (3%). Prior radiotherapy was a predictor of distant tumor recurrence (p = 0.044). Larger tumor volume was associated with pre-SRS shunt surgery (p = 0.022).

Conclusions: Treatment of appropriately selected CNs with SRS achieves good tumor control rates with a reasonable complication profile. Distant tumor recurrence and dissemination were observed in a small proportion of patients, which underscores the importance of close post-SRS surveillance of CN patients. Patients with larger CNs are more likely to require shunt surgery before SRS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.1.JNS191515DOI Listing
April 2020

Early versus late Gamma Knife radiosurgery for Cushing's disease after prior resection: results of an international, multicenter study.

J Neurosurg 2020 Feb 21:1-9. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

1Department of Neurologic Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Objective: The optimal time to perform stereotactic radiosurgery after incomplete resection of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing pituitary adenoma in patients with Cushing's disease (CD) remains unclear. In patients with persistent CD after resection of ACTH-producing pituitary adenoma, the authors evaluated the association of the interval between resection and Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) with outcomes.

Methods: Pooled data from 10 institutions participating in the International Radiosurgery Research Foundation were used in this study.

Results: Data from 255 patients with a mean follow-up of 65.59 ± 49.01 months (mean ± SD) were analyzed. Seventy-seven patients (30%) underwent GKRS within 3 months; 46 (18%) from 4 to 6 months; 34 (13%) from 7 to 12 months; and 98 (38%) at > 12 months after the resection. Actuarial endocrine remission rates were higher in patients who underwent GKRS ≤ 3 months than when treatment was > 3 months after the resection (78% and 65%, respectively; p = 0.017). Endocrine remission rates were lower in patients who underwent GKRS at > 12 months versus ≤ 12 months after the resection (57% vs 76%, respectively; p = 0.006). In multivariate Cox regression analyses adjusted for clinical and treatment characteristics, early GKRS was associated with increased probability of endocrine remission (hazard ratio [HR] 1.518, 95% CI 1.039-2.218; p = 0.031), whereas late GKRS (HR 0.641, 95% CI 0.448-0.919; p = 0.015) was associated with reduced probability of endocrine remission. The incidence of some degree of new pituitary deficiency (p = 0.922), new visual deficits (p = 0.740), and other cranial nerve deficits (p = 0.610) was not significantly related to time from resection to GKRS.

Conclusions: Early GKRS is associated with an improved endocrine remission rate, whereas later GKRS is associated with a lower rate of endocrine remission after pituitary adenoma resection. Early GKRS should be considered for patients with CD after incomplete pituitary adenoma resection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.12.JNS192836DOI Listing
February 2020

Dose response and architecture in volume staged radiosurgery for large arteriovenous malformations: A multi-institutional study.

Radiother Oncol 2020 03 10;144:180-188. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

University of California - San Francisco School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, United States.

Background: Optimal treatment paradigm for large arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is controversial. Volume-staged stereotactic radiosurgery (VS-SRS) provides an effective option for these high-risk lesions, but optimizing treatment for these recalcitrant and rare lesions has proven difficult.

Methods: This is a multi-centered retrospective review of patients treated with a planned prospective volume staging approach to stereotactically treat the entire nidus of an AVM with volume stages separated by intervals of 3-6 months. A total of 9 radiosurgical centers treated 257 patients with VS-SRS between 1991 and 2016. We evaluated near complete response (nCR), obliteration, cure, and overall survival.

Results: With a median age of 33 years old at the time of first SRS volume stage, patients received 2-4 total volume stages and a median follow up of 5.7 years after VS-SRS. The median total AVM nidus volume was 23.25 cc (range: 7.7-94.4 cc) with a median margin dose per stage of 17 Gy (range: 12-20 Gy). Total AVM volume, margin dose per stage, compact nidus, lack of prior embolization, and lack of thalamic location involvement were all associated with improved outcomes. Dose >/= 17.5 Gy was strongly associated with improved rates of nCR, obliteration, and cure. With dose >/= 17.5 Gy, 5- and 10-year cure rates were 33.7% and 76.8% in evaluable patients compared to 23.7% and 34.7% of patients with 17 Gy and 6.4% and 20.6% with <17 Gy per volume-stage (p = 0.004). Obliteration rates in diffuse nidus architecture with <17 Gy were particularly poor with none achieving obliteration compared to 32.3% with doses >/= 17 Gy at 5 years (p = 0.007). Comparatively, lesions with a compact nidus architecture exhibited obliteration rates at 5 years were 10.7% vs 9.3% vs 26.6% for dose >17 Gy vs 17 Gy vs >/=17.5 Gy.

Conclusion: VS-SRS is an option for upfront treatment of large AVMs. Higher dose was associated with improved rates of nCR, obliteration, and cure suggesting that larger volumetric responses may facilitate salvage therapy and optimize the chance for cure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2019.09.019DOI Listing
March 2020

Outcomes of stereotactic radiosurgery for pilocytic astrocytoma: an international multiinstitutional study.

J Neurosurg 2019 Nov 29:1-9. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

13Rose-Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

Objective: The current standard initial therapy for pilocytic astrocytoma is maximal safe resection. Radiation therapy is considered for residual, recurrent, or unresectable pilocytic astrocytomas. However, the optimal radiation strategy has not yet been established. Here, the authors describe the outcomes of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for pilocytic astrocytoma in a large multiinstitutional cohort.

Methods: An institutional review board-approved multiinstitutional database of patients treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) between 1990 and 2016 was queried. Data were gathered from 9 participating International Radiosurgery Research Foundation (IRRF) centers. Patients with a histological diagnosis of pilocytic astrocytoma treated using a single session of GKRS and with at least 6 months of follow-up were included in the analysis.

Results: A total of 141 patients were analyzed in the study. The median patient age was 14 years (range 2-84 years) at the time of GKRS. The median follow-up was 67.3 months. Thirty-nine percent of patients underwent SRS as the initial therapy, whereas 61% underwent SRS as salvage treatment. The median tumor volume was 3.45 cm3. The tumor location was the brainstem in 30% of cases, with a nonbrainstem location in the remainder. Five- and 10-year overall survival rates at the last follow-up were 95.7% and 92.5%, respectively. Five- and 10-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 74.0% and 69.7%, respectively. On univariate analysis, an age < 18 years, tumor volumes < 4.5 cm3, and no prior radiotherapy or chemotherapy were identified as positive prognostic factors for improved PFS. On multivariate analysis, only prior radiotherapy was significant for worse PFS.

Conclusions: This represents the largest study of single-session GKRS for pilocytic astrocytoma to date. Favorable long-term PFS and overall survival were observed with GKRS. Further prospective studies should be performed to evaluate appropriate radiosurgery dosing, timing, and sequencing of treatment along with their impact on toxicity and the quality of life of patients with pilocytic astrocytoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.9.JNS191335DOI Listing
November 2019

Role of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery in Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Retrospective Study of the International Radiosurgery Research Foundation (IRRF).

Neurosurgery 2020 09;87(4):664-671

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Background: Despite a high incidence of brain metastases in patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), limited data exist on the use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), specifically Gamma Knife™ radiosurgery (Elekta AB), for SCLC brain metastases.

Objective: To provide a detailed analysis of SCLC patients treated with SRS, focusing on local failure, distant brain failure, and overall survival (OS).

Methods: A multi-institutional retrospective review was performed on 293 patients undergoing SRS for SCLC brain metastases at 10 medical centers from 1991 to 2017. Data collection was performed according to individual institutional review boards, and analyses were performed using binary logistic regression, Cox-proportional hazard models, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and competing risks analysis.

Results: Two hundred thirty-two (79%) patients received SRS as salvage following prior whole-brain irradiation (WBRT) or prophylactic cranial irradiation, with a median marginal dose of 18 Gy. At median follow-up after SRS of 6.4 and 18.0 mo for surviving patients, the 1-yr local failure, distant brain failure, and OS were 31%, 49%, and 28%. The interval between WBRT and SRS was predictive of improved OS for patients receiving SRS more than 1 yr after initial treatment (21%, <1 yr vs 36%, >1 yr, P = .01). On multivariate analysis, older age was the only significant predictor for OS (hazard ratio 1.63, 95% CI 1.16-2.29, P = .005).

Conclusion: SRS plays an important role in the management of brain metastases from SCLC, especially in salvage therapy following WBRT. Ongoing prospective trials will better assess the value of radiosurgery in the primary management of SCLC brain metastases and potentially challenge the standard application of WBRT in SCLC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyz428DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7780439PMC
September 2020

Safety and efficacy of repeat radiosurgery for acromegaly: an International Multi-Institutional Study.

J Neurooncol 2019 Nov 20;145(2):301-307. Epub 2019 Sep 20.

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Purpose: Surgical resection is the first line treatment for growth hormone (GH) secreting tumors. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is recommended for patients who do not achieve endocrine remission after resection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate safety and efficacy of repeat radiosurgery for acromegaly.

Methods: Three hundred and ninety-eight patients with acromegaly treated with the Gamma Knife radiosurgery (Elekta AB, Stockholm) were identified from the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation database. Among these, 21 patients underwent repeated SRS with sufficient endocrine follow-up and 18 patients had sufficient imaging follow-up. Tumor control was defined as lack of adenoma progression on imaging. Endocrine remission was defined as a normal IGF-1 concentration while off medical therapy.

Results: Median time from initial SRS to repeat SRS was 5.0 years. The median imaging and endocrine follow-up duration after repeat SRS was 3.4 and 3.8 years, respectively. The median initial marginal dose was 17 Gy, and the median repeat marginal dose was 23 Gy. Of the 18 patients with adequate imaging follow up, 15 (83.3%) patients had tumor control and of 21 patients with endocrine follow-up, 9 (42.9%) patients had endocrine remission at last follow-up visit. Four patients (19.0%) developed new deficits after repeat radiosurgery. Of these, 3 patients had neurologic deficits and 1 patient had endocrine deficit.

Conclusions: Repeat radiosurgery for persistent acromegaly offers a reasonable benefit to risk profile for this challenging patient cohort. Further studies are needed to identify patients best suited for this type of approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-019-03296-8DOI Listing
November 2019

Whole Sella vs Targeted Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Acromegaly: A Multicenter Matched Cohort Study.

Neurosurgery 2020 05;86(5):656-664

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Background: Targeted stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with sparing of the residual pituitary is the traditional radiosurgical method for pituitary adenomas. Whole-sella SRS is an alternative choice for radiologically indeterminate or large adenomas, the safety and efficacy of which has yet to be determined.

Objective: To determine if whole-sella SRS in acromegaly would have comparable radiographic and biochemical control to targeted SRS. We performed a multicenter, retrospective matched cohort study to compare outcomes between groups.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of acromegalic patients who underwent SRS from 1990 to 2016 at 10 centers participating in the International Radiosurgery Research Foundation. Whole-sella and targeted SRS patients were then matched in a 1:1 ratio.

Results: A total of 128 patients were eligible for inclusion. Whole-sella patients had a higher pre-SRS random serum growth hormone, larger treatment volume, and higher maximum point dose to the optic apparatus. The rates of initial/durable endocrine remission, new loss of pituitary function, and new cranial neuropathy were similar between groups. Mortality and new visual deficit were higher in the whole-sella cohort, though not statistically significant.

Conclusion: There was no difference in biochemical remission or recurrence between treatment groups. Although not statistically significant, the higher rates of tumor regression and lower rates of mortality and new visual deficit may suggest consideration of targeted SRS over whole-sella SRS in acromegaly treatment. Further research is needed to determine the association between visual deficits and mortality with whole-sella SRS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyz245DOI Listing
May 2020

The benefit and risk of stereotactic radiosurgery for prolactinomas: an international multicenter cohort study.

J Neurosurg 2019 Aug 2:1-10. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

1Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Objective: The most common functioning pituitary adenoma is prolactinoma. Patients with medically refractory or residual/recurrent tumors that are not amenable to resection can be treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The aim of this multicenter study was to evaluate the role of SRS for treating prolactinomas.

Methods: This retrospective study included prolactinomas treated with SRS between 1997 and 2016 at ten institutions. Patients' clinical and treatment parameters were investigated. Patients were considered to be in endocrine remission when they had a normal level of prolactin (PRL) without requiring dopamine agonist medications. Endocrine control was defined as endocrine remission or a controlled PRL level ≤ 30 ng/ml with dopamine agonist therapy. Other outcomes were evaluated including new-onset hormone deficiency, tumor recurrence, and new neurological complications.

Results: The study cohort comprised 289 patients. The endocrine remission rates were 28%, 41%, and 54% at 3, 5, and 8 years after SRS, respectively. Following SRS, 25% of patients (72/289) had new hormone deficiency. Sixty-three percent of the patients (127/201) with available data attained endocrine control. Three percent of patients (9/269) had a new visual complication after SRS. Five percent of the patients (13/285) were recorded as having tumor progression. A pretreatment PRL level ≤ 270 ng/ml was a predictor of endocrine remission (p = 0.005, adjusted HR 0.487). An increasing margin dose resulted in better endocrine control after SRS (p = 0.033, adjusted OR 1.087).

Conclusions: In patients with medically refractory prolactinomas or a residual/recurrent prolactinoma, SRS affords remarkable therapeutic effects in endocrine remission, endocrine control, and tumor control. New-onset hypopituitarism is the most common adverse event.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.4.JNS183443DOI Listing
August 2019

Hypopituitarism after Gamma Knife radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas: a multicenter, international study

J Neurosurg 2018 11 9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia

Objective: Recurrent or residual adenomas are frequently treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS). The most common complication after GKRS for pituitary adenomas is hypopituitarism. In the current study, the authors detail the timing and types of hypopituitarism in a multicenter, international cohort of pituitary adenoma patients treated with GKRS.

Methods: Seventeen institutions pooled clinical data obtained from pituitary adenoma patients who were treated with GKRS from 1988 to 2016. Patients who had undergone prior radiotherapy were excluded. A total of 1023 patients met the study inclusion criteria. The treated lesions included 410 nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), 262 cases of Cushing’s disease (CD), and 251 cases of acromegaly. The median follow-up was 51 months (range 6–246 months). Statistical analysis was performed using a Cox proportional hazards model to evaluate factors associated with the development of new-onset hypopituitarism.

Results: At last follow-up, 248 patients had developed new pituitary hormone deficiency (86 with NFPA, 66 with CD, and 96 with acromegaly). Among these patients, 150 (60.5%) had single and 98 (39.5%) had multiple hormone deficiencies. New hormonal changes included 82 cortisol (21.6%), 135 thyrotropin (35.6%), 92 gonadotropin (24.3%), 59 growth hormone (15.6%), and 11 vasopressin (2.9%) deficiencies. The actuarial 1-year, 3-year, 5-year, 7-year, and 10-year rates of hypopituitarism were 7.8%, 16.2%, 22.4%, 27.5%, and 31.3%, respectively. The median time to hypopituitarism onset was 39 months. In univariate analyses, an increased rate of new-onset hypopituitarism was significantly associated with a lower isodose line (p = 0.006, HR = 8.695), whole sellar targeting (p = 0.033, HR = 1.452), and treatment of a functional pituitary adenoma as compared with an NFPA (p = 0.008, HR = 1.510). In multivariate analyses, only a lower isodose line was found to be an independent predictor of new-onset hypopituitarism (p = 0.001, HR = 1.38).

Conclusions: Hypopituitarism remains the most common unintended effect of GKRS for a pituitary adenoma. Treating the target volume at an isodose line of 50% or greater and avoiding whole-sellar radiosurgery, unless necessary, will likely mitigate the risk of post-GKRS hypopituitarism. Follow-up of these patients is required to detect and treat latent endocrinopathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2018.5.JNS18509DOI Listing
November 2018