Publications by authors named "Rolf Renne"

68 Publications

EBV miRNAs are potent effectors of tumor cell transcriptome remodeling in promoting immune escape.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 6;17(5):e1009217. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pathology, Tulane University School of Medicine, Tulane Cancer Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States of America.

The Epstein Barr virus (EBV) contributes to the tumor phenotype through a limited set of primarily non-coding viral RNAs, including 31 mature miRNAs. Here we investigated the impact of EBV miRNAs on remodeling the tumor cell transcriptome. Strikingly, EBV miRNAs displayed exceptionally abundant expression in primary EBV-associated Burkitt's Lymphomas (BLs) and Gastric Carcinomas (GCs). To investigate viral miRNA targeting, we used the high-resolution approach, CLASH in GC and BL cell models. Affinity constant calculations of targeting efficacies for CLASH hits showed that viral miRNAs bind their targets more effectively than their host counterparts, as did Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) miRNAs. Using public BL and GC RNA-seq datasets, we found that high EBV miRNA targeting efficacies translates to enhanced reduction of target expression. Pathway analysis of high efficacy EBV miRNA targets showed enrichment for innate and adaptive immune responses. Inhibition of the immune response by EBV miRNAs was functionally validated in vivo through the finding of inverse correlations between EBV miRNAs and immune cell infiltration and T-cell diversity in BL and GC datasets. Together, this study demonstrates that EBV miRNAs are potent effectors of the tumor transcriptome that play a role in suppressing host immune response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1009217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8130916PMC
May 2021

Cross-Linking Ligation and Sequencing of Hybrids (qCLASH) Reveals an Unpredicted miRNA Targetome in Melanoma Cells.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 4;13(5). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Luxembourg, 6, Avenue du Swing, L-4367 Belvaux, Luxembourg.

MicroRNAs are key post-transcriptional gene regulators often displaying aberrant expression patterns in cancer. As microRNAs are promising disease-associated biomarkers and modulators of responsiveness to anti-cancer therapies, a solid understanding of their targetome is crucial. Despite enormous research efforts, the success rates of available tools to reliably predict microRNAs (miRNA)-target interactions remains limited. To investigate the disease-associated miRNA targetome, we have applied modified cross-linking ligation and sequencing of hybrids (qCLASH) to BRAF-mutant melanoma cells. The resulting RNA-RNA hybrid molecules provide a comprehensive and unbiased snapshot of direct miRNA-target interactions. The regulatory effects on selected miRNA target genes in predicted vs. non-predicted binding regions was validated by miRNA mimic experiments. Most miRNA-target interactions deviate from the central dogma of miRNA targeting up to 60% interactions occur via non-canonical seed pairing with a strong contribution of the 3' miRNA sequence, and over 50% display a clear bias towards the coding sequence of mRNAs. miRNAs targeting the coding sequence can directly reduce gene expression (miR-34a/CD68), while the majority of non-canonical miRNA interactions appear to have roles beyond target gene suppression (miR-100/AXL). Additionally, non-mRNA targets of miRNAs (lncRNAs) whose interactions mainly occur via non-canonical binding were identified in melanoma. This first application of CLASH sequencing to cancer cells identified over 8 K distinct miRNA-target interactions in melanoma cells. Our data highlight the importance non-canonical interactions, revealing further layers of complexity of post-transcriptional gene regulation in melanoma, thus expanding the pool of miRNA-target interactions, which have so far been omitted in the cancer field.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13051096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7961530PMC
March 2021

A noncanonical microRNA derived from the snaR-A noncoding RNA targets a metastasis inhibitor.

RNA 2021 Jun 1;27(6):694-709. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

UF Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that function as critical posttranscriptional regulators in various biological processes. While most miRNAs are generated from processing of long primary transcripts via sequential Drosha and Dicer cleavage, some miRNAs that bypass Drosha cleavage can be transcribed as part of another small noncoding RNA. Here, we develop the arget-riented RNA iscovery (TOMiD) bioinformatic analysis method to identify Drosha-independent miRNAs from ronaute rossinking nd equencing of ybrids (Ago-CLASH) data sets. Using this technique, we discovered a novel miRNA derived from a primate specific noncoding RNA, the small NF90 associated RNA A (snaR-A). The miRNA derived from snaR-A (miR-snaR) arises independently of Drosha processing but requires Exportin-5 and Dicer for biogenesis. We identify that miR-snaR is concurrently up-regulated with the full snaR-A transcript in cancer cells. Functionally, miR-snaR associates with Ago proteins and targets NME1, a key metastasis inhibitor, contributing to snaR-A's role in promoting cancer cell migration. Our findings suggest a functional link between a novel miRNA and its precursor noncoding RNA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1261/rna.078694.121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8127991PMC
June 2021

Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus microRNA mutants modulate cancer hallmark phenotypic differences in human endothelial cells.

J Virol 2021 Feb 10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610

Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) results from the transformation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-infected endothelial cells. The contribution of the KSHV microRNAs (miRNAs) to the process of oncogenesis in endothelial cells has not been fully elucidated. To better understand the contributions of individual miRNAs to oncogenesis-related cellular phenotypes, we used KSHV miRNA knockout mutants, each one lacking one of the twelve miRNA genes. An additional mutant lacked all miRNAs. Since KSHV infection causes a variety of phenotypic changes in endothelial cells, we tested the mutants for their ability to effect such changes in Telomerase-Immortalized Vein Endothelial (TIVE) cells infected with each of the mutant viruses. Wild type- and mutant-infected as well as uninfected cells were evaluated for perturbations to proliferation, migration, tubule formation, and glycolysis. We found broad variation between the different viruses in these aspects. With respect to proliferation rate, ΔmiR-K12-3, ΔmiR-K12-8, and ΔmiR-K12-11 showed significant impairment. Cells infected with ΔmiR-K12-11 had reduced migration. In tubule formation, the ΔmiR-K12-5, -6, and -7 viruses were deficient. At the same time, cells infected with the ΔmiR-K12-10 virus showed dysregulated glycolysis. By combining these observations with previously published KSHV miRNA targetome lists from ribonomics data, we were able to functionally validate a number of new miRNA targets in specific pathways. As proof of concept, miR-K12-3 was shown to target Cathepsin D, a strong promoter of apoptosis. Taken together, the results demonstrate that KSHV miRNAs play different roles in inducing the phenotypic changes which are characteristic of transformed cells. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) causes Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). The contribution of KSHV microRNAs (miRNAs) to oncogenesis is not fully understood. This is particularly true for human endothelial cells, the cell type from which KS tumors are derived. Here we used a panel of KSHV miRNA knockout viruses in order to shed light on the roles of individual miRNAs in the process of transformation. Latently infected endothelial cells were studied for phenotypic changes related to cancer, including proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, glycolysis, and apoptosis. The mutant-infected cell lines displayed a wide range of phenotypes in these selected measures of oncogenesis which differed from wild type-infected cells and from each other. These results indicate that KSHV miRNAs contribute to different aspects of oncogenesis, and that each one has a unique role to play.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02022-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8092706PMC
February 2021

Age-Related Changes in miRNA Expression Influence GSTZ1 and Other Drug Metabolizing Enzymes.

Drug Metab Dispos 2020 07 1;48(7):563-569. Epub 2020 May 1.

Departments of Medicinal Chemistry (S.C.J., C.J.W., M.O.J.), Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research (T.Y.L.), Medicine (P.W.S.), Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (P.W.S.), and Molecular Genetics and Microbiology (L.A.G., R.R.), University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Previous work has shown that hepatic levels of human glutathione transferase zeta 1 (GSTZ1) protein, involved in tyrosine catabolism and responsible for metabolism of the investigational drug dichloroacetate, increase in cytosol after birth before reaching a plateau around age 7. However, the mechanism regulating this change of expression is still unknown, and previous studies showed that mRNA levels did not correlate with GSTZ1 protein expression. In this study, we addressed the hypothesis that microRNAs (miRNAs) could regulate expression of GSTZ1. We obtained liver samples from donors aged less than 1 year or older than 13 years and isolated total RNA for use in a microarray to identify miRNAs that were downregulated in the livers of adults compared with children. From a total of 2578 human miRNAs tested, 63 miRNAs were more than 2-fold down-regulated in adults, of which miR-376c-3p was predicted to bind to the 3' untranslated region of mRNA. There was an inverse correlation of miR-376c-3p and GSTZ1 protein expression in the liver samples. Using cell culture, we confirmed that miR-376c-3p could downregulate GSTZ1 protein expression. Our findings suggest that miR-376c-3p prevents production of GSTZ1 through inhibition of translation. These experiments further our understanding of GSTZ1 regulation. Furthermore, our array results provide a database resource for future studies on mechanisms regulating human hepatic developmental expression. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Hepatic glutathione transferase zeta 1 (GSTZ1) is responsible for metabolism of the tyrosine catabolite maleylacetoacetate as well as the investigational drug dichloroacetate. Through examination of microRNA (miRNA) expression in liver from infants and adults and studies in cells, we showed that expression of GSTZ1 is controlled by miRNA. This finding has application to the dosing regimen of the drug dichloroacetate. The miRNA expression profiles are provided and will prove useful for future studies of drug-metabolizing enzymes in infants and adults.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.120.090639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7289049PMC
July 2020

Human Cytomegalovirus Latency and Myelosuppression: A microRNA-Dependent Yin and Yang Regulatory Loop.

Cell Host Microbe 2020 01;27(1):8-10

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA; University of Florida Health Cancer Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA; University of Florida Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. Electronic address:

In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Hancock et al., 2020 show that latent HCMV infection, and specifically miR-US5-2, induces TGF-β secretion, which inhibits myelopoiesis in uninfected HPCs. They also show that HCMV-infected cells become resistant to TGF-β signaling through targeting of SMAD3 by miR-UL22-A-3p and -5p.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2019.12.008DOI Listing
January 2020

PDGFRA defines the mesenchymal stem cell Kaposi's sarcoma progenitors by enabling KSHV oncogenesis in an angiogenic environment.

PLoS Pathog 2019 12 27;15(12):e1008221. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Tumor Biology Program, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center and Miami Center for AIDS Research, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Miami, Florida, United States of America.

Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an AIDS-defining cancer caused by the KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Unanswered questions regarding KS are its cellular ontology and the conditions conducive to viral oncogenesis. We identify PDGFRA(+)/SCA-1(+) bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Pα(+)S MSCs) as KS spindle-cell progenitors and found that pro-angiogenic environmental conditions typical of KS are critical for KSHV sarcomagenesis. This is because growth in KS-like conditions generates a de-repressed KSHV epigenome allowing oncogenic KSHV gene expression in infected Pα(+)S MSCs. Furthermore, these growth conditions allow KSHV-infected Pα(+)S MSCs to overcome KSHV-driven oncogene-induced senescence and cell cycle arrest via a PDGFRA-signaling mechanism; thus identifying PDGFRA not only as a phenotypic determinant for KS-progenitors but also as a critical enabler for viral oncogenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6980685PMC
December 2019

Downregulation of the human peripheral myelin protein 22 gene by miR-29a in cellular models of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

Gene Ther 2019 12 27;26(12):455-464. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Department of Neuroscience, College of Medicine University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32610, USA.

The majority of hereditary neuropathies are caused by duplication of the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) gene. Therefore, mechanisms to suppress the expression of the PMP22 gene have high therapeutic significance. Here we asked whether the human PMP22 gene is a target for regulation by microRNA 29a (miR-29a). Using bioinformatics, we determined that the human PMP22 gene contains the conserved seed sequence of the miR-29a binding site and this regulatory motif is included in the duplicated region in neuropathic patients. Using luciferase reporter assays in HEK293 cells, we demonstrated that transient transfection of a miR-29a mimic is associated with reduction in PMP22 3'UTR reporter activity. Transfecting normal and humanized transgenic neuropathic mouse Schwann cells with a miR-29a expression plasmid effectively lowered both the endogenous mouse and the transgenic human PMP22 transcripts compared with control vector. In dermal fibroblasts derived from neuropathic patients, ectopic expression of miR-29a led to ~50% reduction in PMP22 mRNA, which corresponded to ~20% decrease in PMP22 protein levels. Significantly, miR-29a-mediated reduction in PMP22 mitigated the reduced mitotic capacity of the neuropathic cells. Together, these results support further testing of miR-29a and/or PMP22-targeting siRNAs as therapeutic agents for correcting the aberrant expression of PMP22 in neuropathic patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41434-019-0098-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6920087PMC
December 2019

Identification of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 miRNA-mRNA hybrids reveals miRNA target conservation among gammaherpesviruses including host translation and protein modification machinery.

PLoS Pathog 2019 08 8;15(8):e1007843. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Dept. of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, UF Health Cancer Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

Gammaherpesviruses, including the human pathogens Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), establish lifelong latent infection in B cells and are associated with a variety of tumors. In addition to protein coding genes, these viruses encode numerous microRNAs (miRNAs) within their genomes. While putative host targets of EBV and KSHV miRNAs have been previously identified, the specific functions of these miRNAs during in vivo infection are largely unknown. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) is a natural pathogen of rodents that is genetically related to both EBV and KSHV, and thus serves as an excellent model for the study of EBV and KSHV genetic elements such as miRNAs in the context of infection and disease. However, the specific targets of MHV68 miRNAs remain completely unknown. Using a technique known as qCLASH (quick crosslinking, ligation, and sequencing of hybrids), we have now identified thousands of Ago-associated, direct miRNA-mRNA interactions during lytic infection, latent infection and reactivation from latency. Validating this approach, detailed molecular analyses of specific interactions demonstrated repression of numerous host mRNA targets of MHV68 miRNAs, including Arid1a, Ctsl, Ifitm3 and Phc3. Notably, of the 1,505 MHV68 miRNA-host mRNA targets identified in B cells, 86% were shared with either EBV or KSHV, and 64% were shared among all three viruses, demonstrating significant conservation of gammaherpesvirus miRNA targeting. Pathway analysis of MHV68 miRNA targets further revealed enrichment of cellular pathways involved in protein synthesis and protein modification, including eIF2 Signaling, mTOR signaling and protein ubiquitination, pathways also enriched for targets of EBV and KSHV miRNAs. These findings provide substantial new information about specific targets of MHV68 miRNAs and shed important light on likely conserved functions of gammaherpesvirus miRNAs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6687095PMC
August 2019

Gammaherpesvirus RNAs Come Full Circle.

mBio 2019 04 2;10(2). Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Pathology, Tulane University School of Medicine, Tulane Cancer Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

After an adaptive immune response is mounted, gammaherpesviruses achieve persistence through the utilization of viral noncoding RNAs to craft a suitable host cell environment in an immunologically transparent manner. While gammaherpesvirus long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs have been recognized for some time and have been actively investigated, a recent spate of reports have now identified repertoires of the circular RNA (circRNA) class of noncoding RNAs in both the lymphocryptovirus and rhadinovirus genera of gammaherpesviruses. Despite the recent nature of these findings, the detection of circRNAs across viruses and viral gene expression programs, the conservation of some viral circRNAs, and their detection in the clinical setting already raises the spectrum of functional importance in gammaherpesvirus biology and associated malignancies. Here, we provide an overview of currently known gammaherpesvirus circular RNAs and discuss reported physical and contextual properties that may be germane to future functional studies. With the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) circRNAome being the most extensively studied to date, our discussions will be weighted toward EBV circRNAs while also addressing circRNAs discovered in the rhesus macaque lymphocryptovirus (rLCV), the Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), and the murid gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68). We hope that this will help set the stage for future investigations into the functions and relevance of this new class of viral noncoding RNAs in infection and disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00071-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445933PMC
April 2019

Comparative Analysis of Gammaherpesvirus Circular RNA Repertoires: Conserved and Unique Viral Circular RNAs.

J Virol 2019 03 5;93(6). Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Pathology, Tulane University School of Medicine, Tulane Cancer Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

Recent studies have identified circular RNAs (circRNAs) expressed from the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) human DNA tumor viruses. To gain initial insights into the potential relevance of EBV circRNAs in virus biology and disease, we assessed the circRNAome of the interspecies homologue rhesus macaque lymphocryptovirus (rLCV) in a naturally occurring lymphoma from a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque. This analysis revealed rLCV orthologues of the latency-associated EBV circular RNAs circRPMS1_E4_E3a and circEBNA_U. Also identified in two samples displaying unusually high lytic gene expression was a novel rLCV circRNA that contains both conserved and rLCV-specific RPMS1 exons and whose backsplice junctions flank an rLCV lytic origin of replication (OriLyt). Analysis of a lytic infection model for the murid herpesvirus 68 (MHV68) rhadinovirus identified a cluster of circRNAs near an MHV68 lytic origin of replication, with the most abundant of these, circM11_ORF69, spanning the OriLyt. Lastly, analysis of KSHV latency and reactivation models revealed the latency associated circRNA originating from the vIRF4 gene as the predominant viral circRNA. Together, the results of this study broaden our appreciation for circRNA repertoires in the and genera of gammaherpesviruses and provide evolutionary support for viral circRNA functions in latency and viral replication. Infection with oncogenic gammaherpesviruses leads to long-term viral persistence through a dynamic interplay between the virus and the host immune system. Critical for remodeling of the host cell environment after the immune responses are viral noncoding RNAs that modulate host signaling pathways without attracting adaptive immune recognition. Despite the importance of noncoding RNAs in persistent infection, the circRNA class of noncoding RNAs has only recently been identified in gammaherpesviruses. Accordingly, their roles in virus infection and associated oncogenesis are unknown. Here we report evolutionary conservation of EBV-encoded circRNAs determined by assessing the circRNAome in rLCV-infected lymphomas from an SIV-infected rhesus macaque, and we report latent and lytic circRNAs from KSHV and MHV68. These experiments demonstrate utilization of the circular RNA class of RNAs across 4 members of the gammaherpesvirus subfamily, and they identify orthologues and potential homoplastic circRNAs, implying conserved circRNA functions in virus biology and associated malignancies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01952-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6401440PMC
March 2019

Contemporary Ribonomics Methods for Viral microRNA Target Analysis.

Noncoding RNA 2018 Nov 9;4(4). Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

Numerous cellular processes are regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs), both cellular and viral. Elucidating the targets of miRNAs has become an active area of research. An important method in this field is cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP), where cultured cells or tissues are UV-irradiated to cross-link protein and nucleic acid, the RNA binding protein of interest is immunoprecipitated, and the RNAs pulled down with the protein are isolated, reverse-transcribed, and analyzed by sequencing. CLIP using antibody against Argonaute (Ago), which binds to both miRNA and mRNA as they interact in RISC, has allowed researchers to uncover a large number of miRNA targets. Coupled with high-throughput sequencing, CLIP has been useful for revealing miRNA targetomes for the γ-herpesviruses Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Variants on the CLIP protocol are described, with the benefits and drawbacks of each. In particular, the most recent methods involving RNA⁻RNA ligation to join the miRNA and its RNA target have aided in target identification. Lastly, data supporting biologically meaningful interactions between miRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are reviewed. In summary, ribonomics-based miRNA targetome analysis has expanded our understanding of miRNA targeting and has provided a rich resource for EBV and KSHV research with respect to pathogenesis and tumorigenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ncrna4040031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316675PMC
November 2018

Connivance, Complicity, or Collusion? The Role of Noncoding RNAs in Promoting Gammaherpesvirus Tumorigenesis.

Trends Cancer 2018 11 10;4(11):729-740. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, UF Health Cancer Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. Electronic address:

EBV and KSHV are etiologic agents of multiple types of lymphomas and carcinomas. The frequency of EBV or KSHV malignancies arising in immunocompromised individuals reflects the intricate evolutionary balance established between these viruses and their immunocompetent hosts. However, the specific mechanisms by which these pathogens drive tumorigenesis remain poorly understood. In recent years an enormous array of cellular and viral noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been discovered, and host ncRNAs have been revealed as contributory factors to every single cancer hallmark cellular process. As new evidence emerges that gammaherpesvirus ncRNAs also alter host processes and viral factors dysregulate host ncRNA expression, and as novel viral ncRNAs continue to be discovered, we examine the contribution of small, non-miRNA ncRNAs and long ncRNAs to gammaherpesvirus tumorigenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trecan.2018.09.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6317380PMC
November 2018

The Epstein Barr virus circRNAome.

PLoS Pathog 2018 08 6;14(8):e1007206. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Department of Pathology, Tulane University School of Medicine, Tulane Cancer Center, New Orleans, LA, United States of America.

Our appreciation for the extent of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) transcriptome complexity continues to grow through findings of EBV encoded microRNAs, new long non-coding RNAs as well as the more recent discovery of over a hundred new polyadenylated lytic transcripts. Here we report an additional layer to the EBV transcriptome through the identification of a repertoire of latent and lytic viral circular RNAs. Utilizing RNase R-sequencing with cell models representing latency types I, II, and III, we identified EBV encoded circular RNAs expressed from the latency Cp promoter involving backsplicing from the W1 and W2 exons to the C1 exon, from the EBNA BamHI U fragment exon, and from the latency long non-coding RPMS1 locus. In addition, we identified circular RNAs expressed during reactivation including backsplicing from exon 8 to exon 2 of the LMP2 gene and a highly expressed circular RNA derived from intra-exonic backsplicing within the BHLF1 gene. While expression of most of these circular RNAs was found to depend on the EBV transcriptional program utilized and the transcription levels of the associated loci, expression of LMP2 exon 8 to exon 2 circular RNA was found to be cell model specific. Altogether we identified over 30 unique EBV circRNAs candidates and we validated and determined the structural features, expression profiles and nuclear/cytoplasmic distributions of several predominant and notable viral circRNAs. Further, we show that two of the EBV circular RNAs derived from the RPMS1 locus are detected in EBV positive clinical stomach cancer specimens. This study increases the known EBV latency and lytic transcriptome repertoires to include viral circular RNAs and it provides an essential foundation and resource for investigations into the functions and roles of this new class of EBV transcripts in EBV biology and diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6095625PMC
August 2018

Computational analysis of ribonomics datasets identifies long non-coding RNA targets of γ-herpesviral miRNAs.

Nucleic Acids Res 2018 09;46(16):8574-8589

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

Ribonomics experiments involving crosslinking and immuno-precipitation (CLIP) of Ago proteins have expanded the understanding of the miRNA targetome of several organisms. These techniques, collectively referred to as CLIP-seq, have been applied to identifying the mRNA targets of miRNAs expressed by Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). However, these studies focused on identifying only those RNA targets of KSHV and EBV miRNAs that are known to encode proteins. Recent studies have demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are also targeted by miRNAs. In this study, we performed a systematic re-analysis of published datasets from KSHV- and EBV-driven cancers. We used CLIP-seq data from lymphoma cells or EBV-transformed B cells, and a crosslinking, ligation and sequencing of hybrids dataset from KSHV-infected endothelial cells, to identify novel lncRNA targets of viral miRNAs. Here, we catalog the lncRNA targetome of KSHV and EBV miRNAs, and provide a detailed in silico analysis of lncRNA-miRNA binding interactions. Viral miRNAs target several hundred lncRNAs, including a subset previously shown to be aberrantly expressed in human malignancies. In addition, we identified thousands of lncRNAs to be putative targets of human miRNAs, suggesting that miRNA-lncRNA interactions broadly contribute to the regulation of gene expression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gky459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6144796PMC
September 2018

Visualization of molecular biology: The LANA tether.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 05 24;115(19):4816-4818. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610;

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1804797115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5949013PMC
May 2018

Modified Cross-Linking, Ligation, and Sequencing of Hybrids (qCLASH) Identifies Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus MicroRNA Targets in Endothelial Cells.

J Virol 2018 04 28;92(8). Epub 2018 Mar 28.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA

Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) tumors are derived from endothelial cells and express Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) microRNAs (miRNAs). Although miRNA targets have been identified in B cell lymphoma-derived cells and epithelial cells, little has been done to characterize the KSHV miRNA targetome in endothelial cells. A recent innovation in the identification of miRNA targetomes, cross-linking, ligation, and sequencing of hybrids (CLASH), unambiguously identifies miRNAs and their targets by ligating the two species while both species are still bound within the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). We developed a streamlined quick CLASH (qCLASH) protocol that requires a lower cell input than the original method and therefore has the potential to be used on patient biopsy samples. Additionally, we developed a fast-growing, KSHV-negative endothelial cell line derived from telomerase-immortalized vein endothelial long-term culture (TIVE-LTC) cells. qCLASH was performed on uninfected cells and cells infected with either wild-type KSHV or a mutant virus lacking miR-K12-11/11*. More than 1,400 cellular targets of KSHV miRNAs were identified. Many of the targets identified by qCLASH lacked a canonical seed sequence match. Additionally, most target regions in mRNAs originated from the coding DNA sequence (CDS) rather than the 3' untranslated region (UTR). This set of genes includes some that were previously identified in B cells and some new genes that warrant further study. Pathway analysis of endothelial cell targets showed enrichment in cell cycle control, apoptosis, and glycolysis pathways, among others. Characterization of these new targets and the functional consequences of their repression will be important in furthering our understanding of the role of KSHV miRNAs in oncogenesis. KS lesions consist of endothelial cells latently infected with KSHV. Cells that make up these lesions express KSHV miRNAs. Identification of the targets of KSHV miRNAs will help us understand their role in viral oncogenesis. The cross-linking and sequencing of hybrids (CLASH) protocol is a method for unambiguously identifying miRNA targetomes. We developed a streamlined version of CLASH, called quick CLASH (qCLASH). qCLASH requires a lower initial input of cells than for its parent protocol. Additionally, a new fast-growing KSHV-negative endothelial cell line, named TIVE-EX-LTC cells, was established. qCLASH was performed on TIVE-EX-LTC cells latently infected with wild-type (WT) KSHV or a mutant virus lacking miR-K12-11/11*. A number of novel targets of KSHV miRNAs were identified, including targets of miR-K12-11, the ortholog of the cellular oncogenic miRNA (oncomiR) miR-155. Many of the miRNA targets were involved in processes related to oncogenesis, such as glycolysis, apoptosis, and cell cycle control.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02138-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5874430PMC
April 2018

microRNA dependent and independent deregulation of long non-coding RNAs by an oncogenic herpesvirus.

PLoS Pathog 2017 Jul 17;13(7):e1006508. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a highly prevalent cancer in AIDS patients, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of KS and other cancers like Primary Effusion Lymphoma (PEL). In KS and PEL, all tumors harbor latent KSHV episomes and express latency-associated viral proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs). The exact molecular mechanisms by which latent KSHV drives tumorigenesis are not completely understood. Recent developments have highlighted the importance of aberrant long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression in cancer. Deregulation of lncRNAs by miRNAs is a newly described phenomenon. We hypothesized that KSHV-encoded miRNAs deregulate human lncRNAs to drive tumorigenesis. We performed lncRNA expression profiling of endothelial cells infected with wt and miRNA-deleted KSHV and identified 126 lncRNAs as putative viral miRNA targets. Here we show that KSHV deregulates host lncRNAs in both a miRNA-dependent fashion by direct interaction and in a miRNA-independent fashion through latency-associated proteins. Several lncRNAs that were previously implicated in cancer, including MEG3, ANRIL and UCA1, are deregulated by KSHV. Our results also demonstrate that KSHV-mediated UCA1 deregulation contributes to increased proliferation and migration of endothelial cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5531683PMC
July 2017

The SH3BGR/STAT3 Pathway Regulates Cell Migration and Angiogenesis Induced by a Gammaherpesvirus MicroRNA.

PLoS Pathog 2016 04 29;12(4):e1005605. Epub 2016 Apr 29.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.

Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a gammaherpesvirus etiologically associated with KS, a highly disseminated angiogenic tumor of hyperproliferative spindle endothelial cells. KSHV encodes 25 mature microRNAs but their roles in KSHV-induced tumor dissemination and angiogenesis remain unknown. Here, we investigated KSHV-encoded miR-K12-6-3p (miR-K6-3p) promotion of endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis, which are the underlying mechanisms of tumor dissemination and angiogenesis. We found that ectopic expression of miR-K6-3p promoted endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. Mass spectrometry, bioinformatics and luciferase reporter analyses revealed that miR-K6-3p directly targeted sequence in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of SH3 domain binding glutamate-rich protein (SH3BGR). Overexpression of SH3BGR reversed miR-K6-3p induction of cell migration and angiogenesis. Mechanistically, miR-K6-3p downregulated SH3BGR, hence relieved STAT3 from SH3BGR direct binding and inhibition, which was required for miR-K6-3p maximum activation of STAT3 and induction of cell migration and angiogenesis. Finally, deletion of miR-K6 from the KSHV genome abrogated its effect on the SH3BGR/STAT3 pathway, and KSHV-induced migration and angiogenesis. Our results illustrated that, by inhibiting SH3BGR, miR-K6-3p enhances cell migration and angiogenesis by activating the STAT3 pathway, and thus contributes to the dissemination and angiogenesis of KSHV-induced malignancies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005605DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851422PMC
April 2016

A Gammaherpesvirus Noncoding RNA Is Essential for Hematogenous Dissemination and Establishment of Peripheral Latency.

mSphere 2016 Apr 2;1(2). Epub 2016 Mar 2.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and UF Health Cancer Center, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Recent intense investigations have uncovered important functions for a diverse array of novel noncoding RNA (ncRNA) species, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs. Not surprisingly, viruses from multiple families have evolved to encode their own regulatory RNAs; however, the specific functions of these ncRNAs are largely unknown. The human gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) are highly ubiquitous pathogens that are associated with the development of a wide range of malignancies, including Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and Kaposi's sarcoma. Like EBV and KSHV, murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) establishes lifelong latency in B cells and is associated with lymphoproliferative disease and lymphoma. Similar to the EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER)-1 and -2, MHV68 encodes eight 200- to 250-nucleotide polymerase III-transcribed ncRNAs called TMERs (tRNA-miRNA-encoded RNAs), which are highly expressed in latently infected cells and lymphoproliferative disease. To define the contribution of TMERs to MHV68 biology, we generated a panel of individual TMER mutant viruses. Through comprehensive analyses, we identified TMER4 as a key mediator of virus dissemination. The TMER4 mutant virus replicated normally in lungs and spread with normal kinetics and distribution to lung-draining lymph nodes, but it was significantly attenuated for infection of circulating blood cells and for latency establishment at peripheral sites. Notably, TMER4 stem-loops but not miRNAs were essential for wild-type TMER4 activity. Thus, these findings revealed a crucial miRNA-independent function of the TMER4 ncRNA in MHV68 hematogenous dissemination and latency establishment.

Importance: Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) represent an intriguing and diverse class of molecules that are now recognized for their participation in a wide array of cellular processes. Viruses from multiple families have evolved to encode their own such regulatory RNAs; however, the specific functions of these ncRNAs are largely unknown. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) are ubiquitous human pathogens that are associated with the development of numerous malignancies. Like EBV and KSHV, murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) establishes lifelong latency in B cells and is associated with lymphomagenesis. The work described here reveals that the MHV68 ncRNA TMER4 acts at a critical bottleneck in local lymph nodes to facilitate hematogenous dissemination of the virus and establishment of latency at peripheral sites.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00105-15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4838037PMC
April 2016

A KSHV microRNA enhances viral latency and induces angiogenesis by targeting GRK2 to activate the CXCR2/AKT pathway.

Oncotarget 2016 May;7(22):32286-305

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, P. R. China.

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). Most tumor cells in these malignancies are latently infected by KSHV. Thus, viral latency is critical for the development of tumor and induction of tumor-associated angiogenesis. KSHV encodes more than two dozens of miRNAs but their roles in KSHV-induced angiogenesis remains unknown. We have recently shown that miR-K12-3 (miR-K3) promoted cell migration and invasion by targeting GRK2/CXCR2/AKT signaling (PLoS Pathog, 2015;11(9):e1005171). Here, we further demonstrated a role of miR-K3 and its induced signal pathway in KSHV latency and KSHV-induced angiogenesis. We found that overexpression of miR-K3 not only promoted viral latency by inhibiting viral lytic replication, but also induced angiogenesis. Further, knockdown of GRK2 inhibited KSHV replication and enhanced KSHV-induced angiogenesis by enhancing the CXCR2/AKT signals. As a result, blockage of CXCR2 or AKT increased KSHV replication and decreased angiogenesis induced by PEL cells in vivo. Finally, deletion of miR-K3 from viral genome reduced KSHV-induced angiogenesis and increased KSHV replication. These findings indicate that the miR-K3/GRK2/CXCR2/AKT axis plays an essential role in KSHV-induced angiogenesis and promotes KSHV latency, and thus may be a potential therapeutic target of KSHV-associated malignancies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.8591DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5078013PMC
May 2016

A Toolbox for Herpesvirus miRNA Research: Construction of a Complete Set of KSHV miRNA Deletion Mutants.

Viruses 2016 Feb 19;8(2). Epub 2016 Feb 19.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes 12 viral microRNAs (miRNAs) that are expressed during latency. Research into KSHV miRNA function has suffered from a lack of genetic systems to study viral miRNA mutations in the context of the viral genome. We used the Escherichia coli Red recombination system together with a new bacmid background, BAC16, to create mutants for all known KSHV miRNAs. The specific miRNA deletions or mutations and the integrity of the bacmids have been strictly quality controlled using PCR, restriction digestion, and sequencing. In addition, stable viral producer cell lines based on iSLK cells have been created for wildtype KSHV, for 12 individual miRNA knock-out mutants (ΔmiR-K12-1 through -12), and for mutants deleted for 10 of 12 (ΔmiR-cluster) or all 12 miRNAs (ΔmiR-all). NGS, in combination with SureSelect technology, was employed to sequence the entire latent genome within all producer cell lines. qPCR assays were used to verify the expression of the remaining viral miRNAs in a subset of mutants. Induction of the lytic cycle leads to efficient production of progeny viruses that have been used to infect endothelial cells. Wt BAC16 and miR mutant iSLK producer cell lines are now available to the research community.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v8020054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4776209PMC
February 2016

Role of heme oxygenase-1 in the pathogenesis and tumorigenicity of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

Oncotarget 2016 Mar;7(9):10459-71

Research Center for Translational Medicine and Key Laboratory of Arrhythmias, East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of several malignancies, including Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS), which preferentially arise in immunocompromised patients such as HIV+ subpopulation and lack effective therapeutic options. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been reported as an important regulator of endothelial cell cycle control, proliferation and angiogenesis. HO-1 has also been found to be highly expressed in KSHV-infected endothelial cells and oral AIDS-KS lesions. We previously demonstrate that the multifunctional glycoprotein CD147 is required for KSHV/LANA-induced endothelial cell invasiveness. During the identification of CD147 controlled downstream genes by microarray analysis, we found that the expression of HO-1 is significantly elevated in both CD147-overexpressing and KSHV-infected HUVEC cells when compared to control cells. In the current study, we further identify the regulation of HO-1 expression and mediated cellular functions by both CD147 and KSHV-encoded LANA proteins. Targeting HO-1 by either RNAi or the chemical inhibitor, SnPP, effectively induces cell death of KSHV-infected endothelial cells (the major cellular components of KS) through DNA damage and necrosis process. By using a KS-like nude mouse model, we found that SnPP treatment significantly suppressed KSHV-induced tumorigenesis in vivo. Taken together, our data demonstrate the important role of HO-1 in the pathogenesis and tumorigenesis of KSHV-infected endothelial cells, the underlying regulatory mechanisms for HO-1 expression and targeting HO-1 may represent a promising therapeutic strategy against KSHV-related malignancies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.7227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4891132PMC
March 2016

Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells of Diverse Origins Support Persistent Infection with Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus and Manifest Distinct Angiogenic, Invasive, and Transforming Phenotypes.

mBio 2016 Jan 26;7(1):e02109-15. Epub 2016 Jan 26.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA

Unlabelled: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a highly angiogenic and invasive tumor often involving different organ sites, including the oral cavity, is caused by infection with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Diverse cell markers have been identified on KS tumor cells, but their origin remains an enigma. We previously showed that KSHV could efficiently infect, transform, and reprogram rat primary mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into KS-like tumor cells. In this study, we showed that human primary MSCs derived from diverse organs, including bone marrow (MSCbm), adipose tissue (MSCa), dental pulp, gingiva tissue (GMSC), and exfoliated deciduous teeth, were permissive to KSHV infection. We successfully established long-term cultures of KSHV-infected MSCa, MSCbm, and GMSC (LTC-KMSCs). While LTC-KMSCs had lower proliferation rates than the uninfected cells, they expressed mixtures of KS markers and displayed differential angiogenic, invasive, and transforming phenotypes. Genetic analysis identified KSHV-derived microRNAs that mediated KSHV-induced angiogenic activity by activating the AKT pathway. These results indicated that human MSCs could be the KSHV target cells in vivo and established valid models for delineating the mechanism of KSHV infection, replication, and malignant transformation in biologically relevant cell types.

Importance: Kaposi's sarcoma is the most common cancer in AIDS patients. While KSHV infection is required for the development of Kaposi's sarcoma, the origin of KSHV target cells remains unclear. We show that KSHV can efficiently infect human primary mesenchymal stem cells of diverse origins and reprogram them to acquire various degrees of Kaposi's sarcoma-like cell makers and angiogenic, invasive, and transforming phenotypes. These results indicate that human mesenchymal stem cells might be the KSHV target cells and establish models for delineating the mechanism of KSHV-induced malignant transformation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02109-15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4742711PMC
January 2016

Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) Induces the Oncogenic miR-17-92 Cluster and Down-Regulates TGF-β Signaling.

PLoS Pathog 2015 6;11(11):e1005255. Epub 2015 Nov 6.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

KSHV is a DNA tumor virus that causes Kaposi's sarcoma. Upon KSHV infection, only a limited number of latent genes are expressed. We know that KSHV infection regulates host gene expression, and hypothesized that latent genes also modulate the expression of host miRNAs. Aberrant miRNA expression contributes to the development of many types of cancer. Array-based miRNA profiling revealed that all six miRNAs of the oncogenic miR-17-92 cluster are up-regulated in KSHV infected endothelial cells. Among candidate KSHV latent genes, we found that vFLIP and vCyclin were shown to activate the miR-17-92 promoter, using luciferase assay and western blot analysis. The miR-17-92 cluster was previously shown to target TGF-β signaling. We demonstrate that vFLIP and vCyclin induce the expression of the miR-17-92 cluster to strongly inhibit the TGF-β signaling pathway by down-regulating SMAD2. Moreover, TGF-β activity and SMAD2 expression were fully restored when antagomirs (inhibitors) of miR-17-92 cluster were transfected into cells expressing either vFLIP or vCyclin. In addition, we utilized viral genetics to produce vFLIP or vCyclin knock-out viruses, and studied the effects in infected TIVE cells. Infection with wildtype KSHV abolished expression of SMAD2 protein in these endothelial cells. While single-knockout mutants still showed a marked reduction in SMAD2 expression, TIVE cells infected by a double-knockout mutant virus were fully restored for SMAD2 expression, compared to non-infected TIVE cells. Expression of either vFLIP or vCycIin was sufficient to downregulate SMAD2. In summary, our data demonstrate that vFLIP and vCyclin induce the oncogenic miR-17-92 cluster in endothelial cells and thereby interfere with the TGF-β signaling pathway. Manipulation of the TGF-β pathway via host miRNAs represents a novel mechanism that may be important for KSHV tumorigenesis and angiogenesis, a hallmark of KS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005255DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4636184PMC
April 2016

A KSHV microRNA Directly Targets G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 to Promote the Migration and Invasion of Endothelial Cells by Inducing CXCR2 and Activating AKT Signaling.

PLoS Pathog 2015 Sep 24;11(9):e1005171. Epub 2015 Sep 24.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, P. R. China; Key Laboratory Of Pathogen Biology Of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, P. R. China; Department of Microbiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, P. R. China.

Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a highly disseminated angiogenic tumor of endothelial cells linked to infection by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). KSHV encodes more than two dozens of miRNAs but their roles in KSHV-induced tumor dissemination and metastasis remain unknown. Here, we found that ectopic expression of miR-K12-3 (miR-K3) promoted endothelial cell migration and invasion. Bioinformatics and luciferase reporter analyses showed that miR-K3 directly targeted G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase 2 (GRK2, official gene symbol ADRBK1). Importantly, overexpression of GRK2 reversed miR-K3 induction of cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, the chemokine receptor CXCR2, which was negatively regulated by GRK2, was upregulated in miR-K3-transduced endothelial cells. Knock down of CXCR2 abolished miR-K3-induced cell migration and invasion. Moreover, miR-K3 downregulation of GRK2 relieved its direct inhibitory effect on AKT. Both CXCR2 induction and the release of AKT from GRK2 were required for miR-K3 maximum activation of AKT and induction of cell migration and invasion. Finally, deletion of miR-K3 from the KSHV genome abrogated its effect on the GRK2/CXCR2/AKT pathway and KSHV-induced migration and invasion. Our data provide the first-line evidence that, by repressing GRK2, miR-K3 facilitates cell migration and invasion via activation of CXCR2/AKT signaling, which likely contribute to the dissemination of KSHV-induced tumors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4581863PMC
September 2015

A unifying gene signature for adenoid cystic cancer identifies parallel MYB-dependent and MYB-independent therapeutic targets.

Oncotarget 2014 Dec;5(24):12528-42

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. Genetics & Genomics Graduate Program, Genetics Institute, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

MYB activation is proposed to underlie development of adenoid cystic cancer (ACC), an aggressive salivary gland tumor with no effective systemic treatments. To discover druggable targets for ACC, we performed global mRNA/miRNA analyses of 12 ACC with matched normal tissues, and compared these data with 14 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC) and 11 salivary adenocarcinomas (ADC). We detected a unique ACC gene signature of 1160 mRNAs and 22 miRNAs. MYB was the top-scoring gene (18-fold induction), however we observed the same signature in ACC without detectable MYB gene rearrangements. We also found 4 ACC tumors (1 among our 12 cases and 3 from public databases) with negligible MYB expression that retained the same ACC mRNA signature including over-expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes. Integration of this signature with somatic mutational analyses suggests that NOTCH1 and RUNX1 participate with MYB to activate ECM elements including the VCAN/HAPLN1 complex. We observed that forced MYB-NFIB expression in human salivary gland cells alters cell morphology and cell adhesion in vitro and depletion of VCAN blocked tumor cell growth of a short-term ACC tumor culture. In summary, we identified a unique ACC signature with parallel MYB-dependent and independent biomarkers and identified VCAN/HAPLN1 complexes as a potential target.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4350357PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.2985DOI Listing
December 2014

Suppression of transforming growth factor β receptor 2 and Smad5 is associated with high levels of microRNA miR-155 in the oral mucosa during chronic simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

J Virol 2015 Mar 24;89(5):2972-8. Epub 2014 Dec 24.

Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Chronic human immunodeficiency virus and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV and SIV) infections are characterized by mucosal inflammation in the presence of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as transforming growth factor β (TGFβ). The mechanisms for refractiveness to TGFβ are not clear. Here we show that the expression of microRNA miR-155 was significantly upregulated in the oropharyngeal mucosa during chronic SIV infection and was coincident with downregulation of TGFβ receptor 2 (TGFβ-R2) and SMAD5, key TGFβ signaling genes that harbor putative target sites for miR-155. Ectopic expression of miR-155 in vitro was found to significantly downregulate TGFβ-R2 and Smad5 expression, suggesting a role for miR-155 in the suppression of TGFβ-R2 and SMAD5 genes in vivo. The downregulation of TGFβ signaling genes by miR-155 likely contributes to the nonresponsiveness to TGFβ during SIV infection and may inadvertently aid in increased immune activation during HIV and SIV infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.03248-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4325739PMC
March 2015

Identification of the physiological gene targets of the essential lytic replicative Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF57 protein.

J Virol 2015 Feb 19;89(3):1688-702. Epub 2014 Nov 19.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA George E. Wahlen Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA

Unlabelled: The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) ORF57 gene product is essential for lytic KSHV replication and virion production. Recombinant ORF57-null mutants fail to accumulate several lytic cycle mRNAs at wild-type levels, leading to decreased production of lytic proteins necessary for efficient replication. Several mechanisms by which ORF57 may enhance expression of lytic KSHV mRNAs have been proposed, including mRNA stabilization, mRNA nuclear export, increased polyadenylation, and transcriptional activation. ORF57 activity is also gene specific, with some genes being highly dependent on ORF57, whereas others are relatively independent. Most experiments have utilized transfection models for ORF57 and have not systematically examined the gene specificity and potential mechanisms of action of ORF57 in the context of KSHV-infected cells. In this study, the KSHV genes that are most highly upregulated by ORF57 during KSHV lytic replication were identified by a combination of high-throughput deep RNA sequencing, quantitative PCR, Northern blotting, and rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Comparison of gene expression from a ΔORF57 KSHV recombinant, a rescued ΔORF57 KSHV recombinant, and wild-type KSHV revealed that two clusters of lytic genes are most highly dependent on ORF57 for efficient expression. Despite contiguous location in the genome and shared polyadenylation of several of the ORF57-dependent genes, ORF57 regulation was promoter and polyadenylation signal independent, suggesting that the mRNAs are stabilized by ORF57. The eight genes identified to critically require ORF57 belong to both early and late lytic temporal classes, and seven are involved in DNA replication, virion assembly, or viral infectivity, explaining the essential role of ORF57 in infectious KSHV production.

Importance: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a human herpesvirus involved in the causation of several human cancers. The KSHV ORF57 protein is required for KSHV to replicate and produce infectious virus. We have identified several KSHV genes whose expression is highly dependent on ORF57 and shown that ORF57 increases expression of these genes specifically. These genes code for proteins that are required for the virus to replicate its DNA and to infect other cells. Identifying the targets and mechanism of action of ORF57 provides further approaches to discover antiviral therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02663-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4300733PMC
February 2015

High-throughput RNA sequencing-based virome analysis of 50 lymphoma cell lines from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia project.

J Virol 2015 Jan 29;89(1):713-29. Epub 2014 Oct 29.

Tulane Health Sciences Center and Tulane Cancer Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

Unlabelled: Using high-throughput RNA sequencing data from 50 common lymphoma cell culture models from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia project, we performed an unbiased global interrogation for the presence of a panel of 740 viruses and strains known to infect human and other mammalian cells. This led to the findings of previously identified infections by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). In addition, we also found a previously unreported infection of one cell line (DEL) with a murine leukemia virus. High expression of murine leukemia virus (MuLV) transcripts was observed in DEL cells, and we identified four transcriptionally active integration sites, one being in the TNFRSF6B gene. We also found low levels of MuLV reads in a number of other cell lines and provided evidence suggesting cross-contamination during sequencing. Analysis of HTLV-1 integrations in two cell lines, HuT 102 and MJ, identified 14 and 66 transcriptionally active integration sites with potentially activating integrations in immune regulatory genes, including interleukin-15 (IL-15), IL-6ST, STAT5B, HIVEP1, and IL-9R. Although KSHV and EBV do not typically integrate into the genome, we investigated a previously identified integration of EBV into the BACH2 locus in Raji cells. This analysis identified a BACH2 disruption mechanism involving splice donor sequestration. Through viral gene expression analysis, we detected expression of stable intronic RNAs from the EBV BamHI W repeats that may be part of long transcripts spanning the repeat region. We also observed transcripts at the EBV vIL-10 locus exclusively in the Hodgkin's lymphoma cell line, Hs 611.T, the expression of which were uncoupled from other lytic genes. Assessment of the KSHV viral transcriptome in BCP-1 cells showed expression of the viral immune regulators, K2/vIL-6, K4/vIL-8-like vCCL1, and K5/E2-ubiquitin ligase 1 that was significantly higher than expression of the latency-associated nuclear antigen. Together, this investigation sheds light into the virus composition across these lymphoma model systems and provides insights into common viral mechanistic principles.

Importance: Viruses cause cancer in humans. In lymphomas the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 are major contributors to oncogenesis. We assessed virus-host interactions using a high throughput sequencing method that facilitates the discovery of new virus-host associations and the investigation into how the viruses alter their host environment. We found a previously unknown murine leukemia virus infection in one cell line. We identified cellular genes, including cytokine regulators, that are disrupted by virus integration, and we determined mechanisms through which virus integration causes deregulation of cellular gene expression. Investigation into the KSHV transcriptome in the BCP-1 cell line revealed high-level expression of immune signaling genes. EBV transcriptome analysis showed expression of vIL-10 transcripts in a Hodgkin's lymphoma that was uncoupled from lytic genes. These findings illustrate unique mechanisms of viral gene regulation and to the importance of virus-mediated host immune signaling in lymphomas.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02570-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4301145PMC
January 2015