Publications by authors named "Rolf Fronczek"

55 Publications

The tuberomamillary nucleus in neuropsychiatric disorders.

Handb Clin Neurol 2021 ;180:389-400

Department Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, an Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN) is located within the posterior part of the hypothalamus. The histamine neurons in it synthesize histamine by means of the key enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and from the TMN, innervate a large number of brain areas, such as the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, amygdala as well as the thalamus, hypothalamus, and basal ganglia. Brain histamine is reduced to an inactivated form, tele-methylhistamine (t-MeHA), by histamine N-methyltransferase (HMT). In total, there are four types of histamine receptors (HRs) in the brain, all of which are G-protein coupled. The histaminergic system controls several basal physiological functions, including the sleep-wake cycle, energy and endocrine homeostasis, sensory and motor functions, and cognitive functions such as attention, learning, and memory. Histaminergic dysfunction may contribute to clinical disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, narcolepsy type 1, schizophrenia, Tourette syndrome, and autism spectrum disorder. In the current chapter, we focus on the role of the histaminergic system in these neurological/neuropsychiatric disorders. For each disorder, we first discuss human data, including genetic, postmortem brain, and cerebrospinal fluid studies. Then, we try to interpret the human changes by reviewing related animal studies and end by discussing, if present, recent progress in clinical studies on novel histamine-related therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-820107-7.00024-0DOI Listing
July 2021

The orexin/hypocretin system in neuropsychiatric disorders: Relation to signs and symptoms.

Handb Clin Neurol 2021 ;180:343-358

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands; Sleep Wake Centre SEIN, Heemstede, The Netherlands.

Hypocretin-1 and 2 (or orexin A and B) are neuropeptides exclusively produced by a group of neurons in the lateral and dorsomedial hypothalamus that project throughout the brain. In accordance with this, the two different hypocretin receptors are also found throughout the brain. The hypocretin system is mainly involved in sleep-wake regulation, but also in reward mechanisms, food intake and metabolism, autonomic regulation including thermoregulation, and pain. The disorder most strongly linked to the hypocretin system is the primary sleep disorder narcolepsy type 1 caused by a lack of hypocretin signaling, which is most likely due to an autoimmune process targeting the hypocretin-producing neurons. However, the hypocretin system may also be affected, but to a lesser extent and less specifically, in various other neurological disorders. Examples are neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Huntington's and Parkinson's disease, immune-mediated disorders such as multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, and anti-Ma2 encephalitis, and genetic disorders such as type 1 diabetus mellitus and Prader-Willi Syndrome. A partial hypocretin deficiency may contribute to the sleep features of these disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-820107-7.00021-5DOI Listing
July 2021

Genetic Susceptibility Loci in Genomewide Association Study of Cluster Headache.

Ann Neurol 2021 Aug 14;90(2):203-216. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Objective: Identifying common genetic variants that confer genetic risk for cluster headache.

Methods: We conducted a case-control study in the Dutch Leiden University Cluster headache neuro-Analysis program (LUCA) study population (n = 840) and unselected controls from the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity Study (NEO; n = 1,457). Replication was performed in a Norwegian sample of 144 cases from the Trondheim Cluster headache sample and 1,800 controls from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT). Gene set and tissue enrichment analyses, blood cell-derived RNA-sequencing of genes around the risk loci and linkage disequilibrium score regression were part of the downstream analyses.

Results: An association was found with cluster headache for 4 independent loci (r  < 0.1) with genomewide significance (p < 5 × 10 ), rs11579212 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.33-1.72 near RP11-815 M8.1), rs6541998 (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.37-1.74 near MERTK), rs10184573 (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.26-1.61 near AC093590.1), and rs2499799 (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.54-0.73 near UFL1/FHL5), collectively explaining 7.2% of the variance of cluster headache. SNPs rs11579212, rs10184573, and rs976357, as proxy SNP for rs2499799 (r  = 1.0), replicated in the Norwegian sample (p < 0.05). Gene-based mapping yielded ASZ1 as possible fifth locus. RNA-sequencing indicated differential expression of POLR1B and TMEM87B in cluster headache patients.

Interpretation: This genomewide association study (GWAS) identified and replicated genetic risk loci for cluster headache with effect sizes larger than those typically seen in complex genetic disorders. ANN NEUROL 2021;90:203-216.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.26146DOI Listing
August 2021

Repeated greater occipital nerve injections with corticosteroids in medically intractable chronic cluster headache: a retrospective study.

Neurol Sci 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA, Leiden, Netherlands.

Introduction: Current prophylactic drugs for cluster headache are associated with limited efficacy, serious side effects and poor tolerability. Greater occipital nerve injection (GON-injection) has been proven effective and safe as a single, one-time injection in episodic (ECH), and to a lesser extent, chronic cluster headache (CCH). We aim to analyse the effectiveness and safety of repeated GON-injections in medically intractable chronic cluster headache (MICCH).

Methods: Clinical data of all cluster headache patients who had received at least one GON-injection between 2014 and 2018 in our tertiary headache centre were retrieved from patients' medical records. Clinical history was taken as part of routine care shortly before and 6 weeks after GON-injection.

Results: We identified 47 MICCH patients (79 injections), and compared results with 22 non-MI CCH patients (30 injections) and 50 ECH patients (63 injections). Nineteen MICCH patients received repeated injections (32 in total, range 2-8). Rates of clinical relevant improvement to a first injection were similar in all groups (MICCH: 60%, non-MICCH 73%, ECH 76%; attack freedom: MICCH: 30%, non-MICCH 32%, ECH 43%). Furthermore, no difference in response to the first and second injection was shown between groups (all p > 0.29). Median effect duration in MICCH was 6 weeks (IQR 2.8-12 weeks). Side effects were only mild and local.

Conclusion: In this retrospective analysis, first and repeated GON-injections were well-tolerated and equally effective in MICCH as in non-MICCH, and ECH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-021-05399-5DOI Listing
June 2021

Awakening to sleep disorders in Europe: Survey on education, knowledge and treatment competence of European residents and neurologists.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Institute of Immunology, Clinical Sleep and Neuroimmunology, and Center for Biomedical Education and Research, University Witten/Herdecke, Witten, Germany.

Objectives: Sleep-wake disorders are common in the general population and in most neurological disorders but are often poorly recognized. With the hypothesis that neurologists do not get sufficient training during their residency, the Young European Sleep Neurologist Association (YESNA) of the European Academy of Neurology (EAN) performed a survey on postgraduate sleep education.

Methods: A 16-item questionnaire was developed and distributed among neurologists and residents across European countries. Questions assessed demographic, training and learning preferences in sleep disorders, as well as a self-evaluation of knowledge based on five basic multiple-choice questions (MCQs) on sleep-wake disorders.

Results: The questionnaire was completed by 568 participants from 20 European countries. The mean age of participants was 31.9 years (SD 7.4 years) and was composed mostly of residents (73%). Three-quarters of the participants reported undergraduate training in sleep medicine, while fewer than 60% did not receive any training on sleep disorders during their residencies. Almost half of the participants (45%) did not feel prepared to treat neurological patients with sleep problems. Only one-third of the participants correctly answered at least three MCQs. Notably, 80% of participants favoured more education on sleep-wake disorders during the neurology residency.

Conclusions: Education and knowledge on disorders in European neurological residents is generally insufficient, despite a strong interest in the topic. The results of our study may be useful for improving the European neurology curriculum and other postgraduate educational programmes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.14954DOI Listing
June 2021

Vigilance: discussion of related concepts and proposal for a definition.

Sleep Med 2021 07 4;83:175-181. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.

We reviewed current definitions of vigilance to propose a definition, applicable in sleep medicine. As previous definitions contained terms such as attention, alertness, and arousal, we addressed these concepts too. We defined alertness as a quantitative measure of the mind state governing sensitivity to stimuli. Arousal comprises a stimulus-induced upward change in alertness, irrespective of the subsequent duration of the increased level of alertness. Vigilance is defined as the capability to be sensitive to potential changes in one's environment, ie the capability to reach a level of alertness above a threshold for a certain period of time rather than the state of alertness itself. It has quantitative and temporal dimensions. Attention adds direction towards a stimulus to alertness, requiring cognitive control: it involves being prepared to process stimuli coming from an expected direction. Sustained attention corresponds to a state in which some level of attention is purposefully maintained, adding a time factor to the definition of attention. Vigilance differs from sustained attention in that the latter in addition implies a direction to which attention is cognitively directed as well as a specification of duration. Attempts to measure vigilance, however, are often in fact measurements of sustained attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2021.04.038DOI Listing
July 2021

Changes of Hypocretin (Orexin) System in Schizophrenia: From Plasma to Brain.

Schizophr Bull 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Psychiatry, the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Hypocretin (also called orexin) regulates various functions, such as sleep-wake rhythms, attention, cognition, and energy balance, which show significant changes in schizophrenia (SCZ). We aimed to identify alterations in the hypocretin system in SCZ patients. We measured plasma hypocretin-1 levels in SCZ patients and healthy controls and found significantly decreased plasma hypocretin-1 levels in SCZ patients, which was mainly due to a significant decrease in female SCZ patients compared with female controls. In addition, we measured postmortem hypothalamic hypocretin-1-immunoreactivity (ir), ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 levels, and hypocretin receptor (Hcrt-R) mRNA expression in the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) in SCZ patients and controls We observed a significant decrease in the amount of hypothalamic hypocretin-1 ir in SCZ patients, which was due to decreased amounts in female but not male patients. Moreover, Hcrt-R2 mRNA in the SFG was decreased in female SCZ patients compared with female controls, while male SCZ patients showed a trend of increased Hcrt-R1 mRNA and Hcrt-R2 mRNA expression compared with male controls. We conclude that central hypocretin neurotransmission is decreased in SCZ patients, especially female patients, and this is reflected in the plasma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbab042DOI Listing
May 2021

E-diary use in clinical headache practice: A prospective observational study.

Cephalalgia 2021 May 2:3331024211010306. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Aim: To determine whether our E-diary can be used to diagnose migraine and provide more reliable migraine-related frequency numbers compared to patients' self-reported estimates.

Methods: We introduced a self-developed E-diary including automated algorithms differentiating headache and migraine days, indicating whether a patient has migraine. Reliability of the E-diary diagnosis in combination with two previously validated E-questionnaires was compared to a physician's diagnosis as gold standard in headache patients referred to the Leiden Headache Clinic (n = 596). In a subset of patients with migraine (n = 484), self-estimated migraine-related frequencies were compared to diary-based results.

Results: The first migraine screening approach including an E-headache questionnaire, and the E-diary revealed a sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 17%. In the second approach, an E-migraine questionnaire was added, resulting in a sensitivity of 79% and specificity of 69%. Mean self-estimated monthly migraine days, non-migrainous headache days and days with acute medication use were different from E-diary-based results (absolute mean difference ± standard deviation respectively 4.7 ± 5.0, 6.2 ± 6.6 and 4.3 ± 4.8).

Conclusion: The E-diary including algorithms differentiating headache and migraine days showed usefulness in diagnosing migraine. The use emphasised the need for E-diaries to obtain reliable information, as patients do not reliably recall numbers of migraine days and acute medication intake. Adding E-diaries will be helpful in future headache telemedicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03331024211010306DOI Listing
May 2021

Fatigue in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and neuropsychiatric symptoms is associated with anxiety and depression rather than inflammatory disease activity.

Lupus 2021 Jun 28;30(7):1124-1132. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Introduction: We aimed to investigate risk factors for fatigue in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and neuropsychiatric symptoms in order to identify potential interventional strategies.

Methods: Patients visiting the neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) clinic of the Leiden University Medical Center between 2007-2019 were included. In a multidisciplinary consensus meeting, SLE patients were classified as having neuropsychiatric symptoms of inflammatory origin (inflammatory phenotype) or other origin (non-inflammatory phenotype). Fatigue was assessed with the SF-36 vitality domain (VT) since 2007 and the multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI) and visual analogue scale (VAS) since 2011. Patients with a score on the SF-36 VT ≥1 standard deviation (SD) away from the mean of age-related controls of the general population were classified as fatigued; patients ≥2 SD away were classified as extremely fatigued. Disease activity was measured using the SLE disease activity index-2000. The influence of the presence of an inflammatory phenotype, disease activity and symptoms of depression and anxiety as measured by the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) was analyzed using multiple regression analyses corrected for age, sex and education.

Results: 348 out of 371 eligible patients filled in questionnaires and were included in this study . The majority was female (87%) and the mean age was 43 ± 14 years. 72 patients (21%) had neuropsychiatric symptoms of an inflammatory origin. Fatigue was present in 78% of all patients and extreme fatigue was present in 50% of patients with an inflammatory phenotype vs 46% in the non-inflammatory phenotype. Fatigue was similar in patients with an inflammatory phenotype compared to patients with a non-inflammatory phenotype on the SF-36 VT (β: 0.8 (95% CI -4.8; 6.1) and there was less fatigue in patients with an inflammatory phenotype on the MFI and VAS (β: -3.7 (95% CI: -6.9; -0.5) and β: -1.0 (95% CI -1.6; -0.3)). There was no association between disease activity and fatigue, but symptoms of anxiety and depression (HADS) associated strongly with all fatigue measurements.

Conclusion: This study suggests that intervention strategies to target fatigue in (NP)SLE patients may need to focus on symptoms of anxiety and depression rather than immunosuppressive treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09612033211005014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120630PMC
June 2021

Orexin-A measurement in narcolepsy: A stability study and a comparison of LC-MS/MS and immunoassays.

Clin Biochem 2021 Apr 1;90:34-39. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

HUS Diagnostic Center, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Orexin-A and -B are neuropeptides involved in sleep-wake regulation. In human narcolepsy type 1, this cycle is disrupted due to loss of orexin-producing neurons in the hypothalamus. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) orexin-A measurement is used in the diagnosis of narcolepsy type 1. Currently available immunoassays may lack specificity for accurate orexin quantification. We developed and validated a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry assay (LC-MS/MS) for CSF orexin-A and B.

Methods: We used CSF samples from narcolepsy type 1 (n = 22) and type 2 (n = 6) and non-narcoleptic controls (n = 44). Stable isotope-labeled orexin-A and -B internal standards were added to samples before solid-phase extraction and quantification by LC-MS/MS. The samples were also assayed by commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA, n = 42) and enzymatic immunoassay (EIA, n = 72) kits. Stability of orexins in CSF was studied for 12 months.

Results: Our assay has a good sensitivity (10 pmol/L = 35 pg/mL) and a wide linear range (35-3500 pg/mL). Added orexin-A and -B were stable in CSF for 12 and 3 months, respectively, when frozen. The median orexin-A concentration in CSF from narcolepsy type 1 patients was <35 pg/mL (range < 35-131 pg/mL), which was lower than that in CSF from control individuals (98 pg/mL, range < 35-424 pg/mL). Orexin-A concentrations determined using our LC-MS/MS assay were five times lower than those measured with a commercial RIA. Orexin-B concentrations were undetectable.

Conclusions: Orexin-A concentrations measured by our LC-MS/MS assay were lower in narcolepsy type 1 patients as compared to controls. RIA yielded on average higher concentrations than LC-MS/MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2021.01.009DOI Listing
April 2021

Suspected Transverse Myelitis with Normal MRI and CSF Findings in a Patient with Lupus: What to Do? A Case Series and Systematic Review.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2020 22;16:3173-3186. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC), Leiden, the Netherlands.

Purpose: To evaluate the use of immunosuppressive treatment, clinical outcome and diagnostic strategy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) presenting with clinical features of transverse myelitis (TM), but normal MRI of the spinal cord (sMRI) and normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) assessment, and to suggest a clinical guideline.

Patients And Methods: All patients with SLE and clinical features compatible with (sub)acute TM visiting the NPSLE clinic of the LUMC between 2007 and 2020 were included. Information on baseline characteristics, investigations, treatment and outcomes was collected from electronic medical records. In addition, a systematic review of individual participant data was performed up to April 2020 in PubMed, Embase and Web of Science, identifying all patients with TM, SLE and sMRI assessment. Data regarding sMRI, CSF analysis, treatment and outcome were extracted, and outcome was compared between patients with normal sMRI and CSF (sMRI-/CSF-) and patients with abnormalities.

Results: Twelve SLE patients with a clinical diagnosis of TM were identified: four sMRI-/CSF- and one sMRI- with CSF not available. All patients received immunosuppressive treatment, but outcome in sMRI-/CSF- patients was worse: no recovery (n=1) or partial recovery (n=3) compared to partial recovery (n=4) and (nearly) complete recovery (n=3) in MRI+ patients. The systematic literature review yielded 146 articles eligible for inclusion, 90% case reports. A total of 427 SLE patients with TM were identified, of which only four cases were sMRI-/CSF- (1%), showing no improvement (n=1), partial improvement (n=2) and complete recovery (n=1) after immunosuppressive treatment.

Conclusion: Outcome in SLE patients presenting with clinically suspected TM with normal sMRI and CSF is less favorable, despite treatment with immunosuppressive therapy. Taking a functional neurological disorder into consideration may be helpful in order to start other therapeutic strategies. We suggest prescribing immunosuppressive treatment for a restricted period of time to evaluate its effect in cases where a functional disorder initially is considered unlikely.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S267000DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7764958PMC
December 2020

Mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and neuropsychiatric involvement: A retrospective analysis from a tertiary referral center in the Netherlands.

Lupus 2020 Dec 20;29(14):1892-1901. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Objective: We aimed to evaluate all-cause and cause-specific mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and neuropsychiatric (NP) symptoms in the Netherlands between 2007-2018.

Methods: Patients visiting the tertiary referral NPSLE clinic of the Leiden University Medical Center were included. NP symptoms were attributed to SLE requiring treatment (major NPSLE) or to other and mild causes (minor/non-NPSLE). Municipal registries were checked for current status (alive/deceased). Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using data from the Dutch population. Rate ratio (RR) and 95% CI were calculated using direct standardization to compare mortality between major NPSLE and minor/non-NPSLE.

Results: 351 patients were included and 149 patients were classified as major NPSLE (42.5%). Compared with the general population, mortality was increased in major NPSLE (SMR 5.0 (95% CI: 2.6-8.5)) and minor/non-NPSLE patients (SMR 3.7 (95% CI: 2.2-6.0)). Compared with minor/non-NPSLE, mortality was similar in major NPSLE patients (RR: 1.0 (95% CI: 0.5-2.0)). Cause-specific mortality rates demonstrated an increased risk of death due to infections in both groups, whereas death due to cardiovascular disease was only increased in minor/non-NPSLE patients.

Conclusion: Mortality was increased in both major NPSLE and minor/non-NPSLE patients in comparison with the general population. There was no difference in mortality between major NPSLE and minor/non-NPSLE patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0961203320963815DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7684795PMC
December 2020

New 2013 incidence peak in childhood narcolepsy: more than vaccination?

Sleep 2021 02;44(2)

Center for Sleep Medicine, Sleep Research and Epileptology, Clinic Barmelweid AG, Barmelweid, Switzerland.

Increased incidence rates of narcolepsy type-1 (NT1) have been reported worldwide after the 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic (pH1N1). While some European countries found an association between the NT1 incidence increase and the H1N1 vaccination Pandemrix, reports from Asian countries suggested the H1N1 virus itself to be linked to the increased NT1 incidence. Using robust data-driven modeling approaches, that is, locally estimated scatterplot smoothing methods, we analyzed the number of de novo NT1 cases (n = 508) in the last two decades using the European Narcolepsy Network database. We confirmed the peak of NT1 incidence in 2010, that is, 2.54-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]: [2.11, 3.19]) increase in NT1 onset following 2009-2010 pH1N1. This peak in 2010 was found in both childhood NT1 (2.75-fold increase, 95% CI: [1.95, 4.69]) and adulthood NT1 (2.43-fold increase, 95% CI: [2.05, 2.97]). In addition, we identified a new peak in 2013 that is age-specific for children/adolescents (i.e. 2.09-fold increase, 95% CI: [1.52, 3.32]). Most of these children/adolescents were HLA DQB1*06:02 positive and showed a subacute disease onset consistent with an immune-mediated type of narcolepsy. The new 2013 incidence peak is likely not related to Pandemrix as it was not used after 2010. Our results suggest that the increased NT1 incidence after 2009-2010 pH1N1 is not unique and our study provides an opportunity to develop new hypotheses, for example, considering other (influenza) viruses or epidemiological events to further investigate the pathophysiology of immune-mediated narcolepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsaa172DOI Listing
February 2021

Conventional autoantibodies against brain antigens are not routinely detectable in serum and CSF of narcolepsy type 1 and 2 patients.

Sleep Med 2020 11 7;75:188-191. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Neurology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital and University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; Neurology Department, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.

Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NT1) is a chronic hypothalamic disorder with a presumed immune-mediated etiology leading to a loss of hypocretin neurons. Previous studies reported conflicting results in terms of presence of auto-antibodies involved in narcolepsy pathophysiology. A total of 86 patients with primary/idiopathic narcolepsy (74 NT1, 12 NT2) and 23 control patients with excessive daytime sleepiness due to other causes were tested for the presence of a wide range of anti-neuronal antibodies in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Anti-neuronal antibodies were rarely found in patients with narcolepsy (n = 2) and in controls (n = 1). Our results are in line with previous reports. We can therefore support the current evidence, that conventional anti-neuronal antibodies are not routinely detected during the workup of NT1 and other CDH patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2020.08.001DOI Listing
November 2020

The Sustained Attention to Response Task Shows Lower Cingulo-Opercular and Frontoparietal Activity in People with Narcolepsy Type 1: An fMRI Study on the Neural Regulation of Attention.

Brain Sci 2020 Jul 1;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Sleep-Wake Centre SEIN, Achterweg 2, 2103SW Heemstede, Noord-Holland, The Netherlands.

Vigilance complaints often occur in people with narcolepsy type 1 and severely impair effective daytime functioning. We tested the feasibility of a three-level sustained attention to response task (SART) paradigm within a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) environment to understand brain architecture underlying vigilance regulation in individuals with narcolepsy type 1. Twelve medication-free people with narcolepsy type 1 and 11 matched controls were included. The SART included four repetitions of a baseline block and two difficulty levels requiring moderate and high vigilance. Outcome measures were between and within-group performance indices on error rates and reaction times, and functional MRI (fMRI) parameters: mean activity during the task and between-group activity differences across the three conditions and related to changes in activation over time (time-on-task) and error-related activity. Patients-but not controls-made significantly more mistakes with increasing difficulty. The modified SART is a feasible MRI vigilance task showing similar task-positive brain activity in both groups within the cingulo-opercular, frontoparietal, arousal, motor, and visual networks. During blocks of higher vigilance demand, patients had significantly lower activation in these regions than controls. Patients had lower error-related activity in the left pre- and postcentral gyrus. The time-on-task activity differences between groups suggest that those with narcolepsy are insufficiently capable of activating attention- and arousal-related regions when transitioning from attention initiation to stable attention, specifically when vigilance demand is high. They also show lower inhibitory motor activity in relation to errors, suggesting impaired executive functioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10070419DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7408461PMC
July 2020

Role of Brown Adipose Tissue in Adiposity Associated With Narcolepsy Type 1.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 16;11:145. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.

Narcolepsy type 1 is a neurological sleep-wake disorder caused by the destruction of orexin (hypocretin)-producing neurons. These neurons are particularly located in the lateral hypothalamus and have widespread projections throughout the brain, where they are involved, e.g., in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle and appetite. Interestingly, a higher prevalence of obesity has been reported in patients with narcolepsy type 1 compared to healthy controls, despite a normal to decreased food intake and comparable physical activity. This suggests the involvement of tissues implicated in total energy expenditure, including skeletal muscle, liver, white adipose tissue (WAT), and brown adipose tissue (BAT). Recent evidence from pre-clinical studies with orexin knock-out mice demonstrates a crucial role for the orexin system in the functionality of brown adipose tissue (BAT), probably through multiple pathways. Since BAT is a highly metabolically active organ that combusts fatty acids and glucose toward heat, thereby contributing to energy metabolism, this raises the question of whether BAT plays a role in the development of obesity and related metabolic diseases in narcolepsy type 1. BAT is densely innervated by the sympathetic nervous system that activates BAT, for instance, following cold exposure. The sympathetic outflow toward BAT is mainly mediated by the dorsomedial, ventromedial, arcuate, and paraventricular nuclei in the hypothalamus. This review focuses on the current knowledge on the role of the orexin system in the control of energy balance, with specific focus on BAT metabolism and adiposity in both preclinical and clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.00145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176868PMC
March 2021

To split or to lump? Classifying the central disorders of hypersomnolence.

Sleep 2020 08;43(8)

Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA.

The classification of the central disorders of hypersomnolence has undergone multiple iterations in an attempt to capture biologically meaningful disease entities in the absence of known pathophysiology. Accumulating data suggests that further refinements may be necessary. At the 7th International Symposium on Narcolepsy, a group of clinician-scientists evaluated data in support of keeping or changing classifications, and as a result suggest several changes. First, idiopathic hypersomnia with long sleep durations appears to be an identifiable and meaningful disease subtype. Second, idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time and narcolepsy without cataplexy share substantial phenotypic overlap and cannot reliably be distinguished with current testing, and so combining them into a single disease entity seems warranted at present. Moving forward, it is critical to phenotype patients across a wide variety of clinical and biological features, to aid in future refinements of disease classification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsaa044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7420691PMC
August 2020

HLA associations in narcolepsy type 1 persist after the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

J Neuroimmunol 2020 Mar 4;342:577210. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, 2300, RC, Leiden, The Netherlands; Sleep Wake Centre, Stichting Epilepsie Instellingen Nederland (SEIN), Achterweg 5, 2103, SW, Heemstede, The Netherlands.

We aimed to compare HLA-DQB1-associations in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) patients with disease onset before and after the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in a large Dutch cohort. 525 NT1 patients and 1272 HLA-DQB1*06:02-positive healthy controls were included. Because of the discussion that has arisen on the existence of sporadic and post-H1N1 NT1, HLA-DQB1-associations in pre- and post-H1N1 NT1 patients were compared. The associations between HLA-DQB1 alleles and NT1 were not significantly different between pre- and post-H1N1 NT1 patients. Both HLA-DQB1-associations with pre- and -post H1N1 NT1 reported in recent smaller studies were replicated. Our findings combine the results of studies in pre- and post-H1N1 NT1 and argue against considering post-H1N1 NT1 as a different entity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2020.577210DOI Listing
March 2020

Pharmacotherapy for Cluster Headache.

CNS Drugs 2020 02;34(2):171-184

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Cluster headache is characterised by attacks of excruciating unilateral headache or facial pain lasting 15 min to 3 h and is seen as one of the most intense forms of pain. Cluster headache attacks are accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic symptoms such as ptosis, miosis, redness or flushing of the face, nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, peri-orbital swelling and/or restlessness or agitation. Cluster headache treatment entails fast-acting abortive treatment, transitional treatment and preventive treatment. The primary goal of prophylactic and transitional treatment is to achieve attack freedom, although this is not always possible. Subcutaneous sumatriptan and high-flow oxygen are the most proven abortive treatments for cluster headache attacks, but other treatment options such as intranasal triptans may be effective. Verapamil and lithium are the preventive drugs of first choice and the most widely used in first-line preventive treatment. Given its possible cardiac side effects, electrocardiogram (ECG) is recommended before treating with verapamil. Liver and kidney functioning should be evaluated before and during treatment with lithium. If verapamil and lithium are ineffective, contraindicated or discontinued because of side effects, the second choice is topiramate. If all these drugs fail, other options with lower levels of evidence are available (e.g. melatonin, clomiphene, dihydroergotamine, pizotifen). However, since the evidence level is low, we also recommend considering one of several neuromodulatory options in patients with refractory chronic cluster headache. A new addition to the preventive treatment options in episodic cluster headache is galcanezumab, although the long-term effects remain unknown. Since effective preventive treatment can take several weeks to titrate, transitional treatment can be of great importance in the treatment of cluster headache. At present, greater occipital nerve injection is the most proven transitional treatment. Other options are high-dose prednisone or frovatriptan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40263-019-00696-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7018790PMC
February 2020

Widespread white matter connectivity abnormalities in narcolepsy type 1: A diffusion tensor imaging study.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 29;24:101963. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, Amsterdam UMC (Location VUmc), Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Narcolepsy type 1 is caused by a selective loss of hypothalamic hypocretin-producing neurons, resulting in severely disturbed sleep-wake control and cataplexy. Hypocretin-producing neurons project widely throughout the brain, influencing different neural networks. We assessed the extent of microstructural white matter organization and brain-wide structural connectivity abnormalities in a homogeneous group of twelve drug-free patients with narcolepsy type 1 and eleven matched healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging with multimodal analysis techniques. First, tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was carried out using fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean, axial and radial diffusivity (MD, AD, RD). Second, quantitative analyses of mean FA, MD, AD and RD were conducted in predefined regions-of-interest, including sleep-wake regulation-related, limbic and reward system areas. Third, we performed hypothalamus-seeded tractography towards the thalamus, amygdala and midbrain. TBSS analyses yielded brain-wide significantly lower FA and higher RD in patients. Localized significantly lower FA and higher RD in the left ventral diencephalon and lower AD in the midbrain, were seen in patients. Lower FA was also found in patients in left hypothalamic fibers connecting with the midbrain. No significant MD and AD differences nor a correlation with disease duration were found. The brain-wide, localized ventral diencephalon (comprising the hypothalamus and different sleep- and motor-related nuclei) and hypothalamic connectivity differences clearly show a heretofore underestimated direct and/or indirect effect of hypocretin deficiency on microstructural white matter composition, presumably resulting from a combination of lower axonal density, lower myelination and/or greater axon diameter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101963DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6698319PMC
September 2020

Chronobiology and Sleep in Cluster Headache.

Headache 2019 07 31;59(7):1032-1041. Epub 2019 May 31.

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background: Cluster headache attacks follow a striking circadian rhythm with an intriguing influence of sleep. We aim to investigate differences in sleep quality, chronotype, and the ability to alter individual sleep rhythms in episodic and chronic cluster headache patients vs controls.

Methods: Cluster headache patients and non-headache controls from the Dutch Leiden University Cluster headache neuro-Analysis program aged 18 and above completed web-based questionnaires in a cross-sectional study.

Results: A total of 478 episodic, 147 chronic cluster headache patients and 367 controls participated. Chronic cluster headache patients had more often early chronotypes than controls, as measured by mid-sleep phase (P = .021 adjusted B -15.85 minutes CI -29.30; -2.40). Compared to controls, chronic cluster headache participants were less able to alter their sleep rhythms (P < .001 adjusted B -1.65 CI -2.55; 0.74), while episodic cluster headache participants reported more difficulty in coping with reduced sleep (P = .025 adjusted B 0.75 CI 0.09; 1.40). Sleep quality was reduced in both types of cluster headache compared to controls ("poor sleepers": 71.4% (105/147) in chronic and 48.3% (235/367) in episodic cluster headache vs 25.6% (94/367) in controls; both P < .001; episodic adjusted B -1.71 CI 0.10; 0.32; chronic adjusted B -0.93 CI 0.24; 0.65).

Conclusion: Sleep quality is decreased in both episodic and chronic cluster headache, most likely caused by cluster headache attacks that strike during the night. Episodic cluster headache patients report more difficulty in coping with reduced sleep, while chronic patients are less able to alter their sleep rhythm. Although not directly proven, cluster headache patients will likely benefit from a structured, regular daily schedule.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/head.13567DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6771706PMC
July 2019

The biological clock in cluster headache: A review and hypothesis.

Cephalalgia 2019 Dec 29;39(14):1855-1866. Epub 2019 May 29.

Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Objective: To review and discuss the putative role of light, sleep, and the biological clock in cluster headache.

Discussion: Cluster headache attacks are believed to be modulated in the hypothalamus; moreover, the severe pain and typical autonomic cranial features associated with cluster headache are caused by abnormal activity of the trigeminal-autonomic reflex. The temporal pattern of cluster headache attacks suggests involvement of the biological clock, and the seasonal pattern is influenced by the number of daylight hours. Although sleep is often reported as a trigger for cluster headache attacks, to date no clear correlation has been established between these attacks and sleep stage.

Conclusions: We hypothesize that light, sleep, and the biological clock can change the brain's state, thereby lowering the threshold for activating the trigeminal-autonomic reflex, resulting in a cluster headache attack. Understanding the mechanisms that contribute to the daily and seasonal fluctuations in cluster headache attacks may provide new therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0333102419851815DOI Listing
December 2019

High sensitivity and specificity of 4D-CTA in the detection of cranial arteriovenous shunts.

Eur Radiol 2019 Nov 14;29(11):5961-5970. Epub 2019 May 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, Utrecht University Medical Center, Internal Postage G03.124, PO-box 85500, 3584 CX, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Purpose: In a prospective cohort study, we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of time-resolved CT angiography (4D-CTA) compared to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for detecting cranial arteriovenous shunts.

Material And Methods: Patients were enrolled if a DSA had been ordered querying either a dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) or a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (bAVM). After enrolment, both a DSA and a 4D-CTA were performed. Both studies were evaluated using a standardized form. If a dAVF or bAVM was found, its classification, angioarchitectural details, and treatment options were recorded.

Results: Ninety-eight patients were enrolled and 76 full datasets were acquired. DSA demonstrated a shunting lesion in 28 out of 76 cases (prevalence 37%). 4D-CTA demonstrated all but two of these lesions (sensitivity of 93%) and produced one false positive (specificity of 98%). These numbers yielded a positive predictive value (PPV) of 96% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 96%. Significant doubt regarding the 4D-CTA diagnosis was reported in 6.6% of all cases and both false-negative 4D-CTA results were characterized by such doubt.

Conclusions: 4D-CTA has very high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of intracranial arteriovenous shunts. Based on these results, 4D-CTA may replace DSA imaging as a first modality in the diagnostic workup in a large number of patients suspected of a cranial dAVF or bAVM, especially if there is no doubt regarding the 4D-CTA diagnosis.

Key Points: • 4D-CTA was shown to have a high diagnostic accuracy and is an appropriate, less invasive replacement for DSA as a diagnostic tool for cranial arteriovenous shunts in the majority of suspected cases. • Doubt regarding the 4D-CTA result should prompt additional DSA imaging, as it is associated with false negatives. • False-positive 4D-CTA results are rare, but do exist.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-019-06234-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6795637PMC
November 2019

Increased use of illicit drugs in a Dutch cluster headache population.

Cephalalgia 2019 04 5;39(5):626-634. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

1 Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Introduction: Many patients with cluster headache report use of illicit drugs. We systematically assessed the use of illicit drugs and their effects in a well-defined Dutch cluster headache population.

Methods: In this cross-sectional explorative study, 756 people with cluster headache received a questionnaire on lifetime use and perceived effects of illicit drugs. Results were compared with age and sex-matched official data from the Dutch general population.

Results: Compared to the data from the general population, there were more illicit drug users in the cluster headache group (31.7% vs. 23.8%; p < 0.01). Reduction in attack frequency was reported by 56% (n = 22) of psilocybin mushroom, 60% (n = 3) of lysergic acid diethylamide and 50% (n = 2) of heroin users, and a decreased attack duration was reported by 46% (n = 18) of PSI, 50% (n = 2) of heroin and 36% (n = 8) of amphetamine users.

Conclusion: In the Netherlands, people with cluster headache use illicit drugs more often than the general population. The question remains whether this is due to an actual alleviatory effect, placebo response, conviction, or common pathophysiological background between cluster headache and addictive behaviours such as drug use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0333102418804160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6484703PMC
April 2019

Exploring the clinical features of narcolepsy type 1 versus narcolepsy type 2 from European Narcolepsy Network database with machine learning.

Sci Rep 2018 Jul 13;8(1):10628. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Neurology Service, Multidisciplinary Sleep Unit, Hospital Clínic of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERNED, Barcelona, Spain.

Narcolepsy is a rare life-long disease that exists in two forms, narcolepsy type-1 (NT1) or type-2 (NT2), but only NT1 is accepted as clearly defined entity. Both types of narcolepsies belong to the group of central hypersomnias (CH), a spectrum of poorly defined diseases with excessive daytime sleepiness as a core feature. Due to the considerable overlap of symptoms and the rarity of the diseases, it is difficult to identify distinct phenotypes of CH. Machine learning (ML) can help to identify phenotypes as it learns to recognize clinical features invisible for humans. Here we apply ML to data from the huge European Narcolepsy Network (EU-NN) that contains hundreds of mixed features of narcolepsy making it difficult to analyze with classical statistics. Stochastic gradient boosting, a supervised learning model with built-in feature selection, results in high performances in testing set. While cataplexy features are recognized as the most influential predictors, machine find additional features, e.g. mean rapid-eye-movement sleep latency of multiple sleep latency test contributes to classify NT1 and NT2 as confirmed by classical statistical analysis. Our results suggest ML can identify features of CH on machine scale from complex databases, thus providing 'ideas' and promising candidates for future diagnostic classifications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-28840-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6045630PMC
July 2018

Coexisting narcolepsy (with and without cataplexy) and multiple sclerosis : Six new cases and a literature review.

J Neurol 2018 Sep 4;265(9):2071-2078. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Leiden Medical University Center and University of Leiden, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: There are increasing data suggesting the involvement of the immune system in narcolepsy. The co-occurrence of narcolepsy with other autoimmune disorders (including multiple sclerosis, MS) is rare.

Patients And Methods: International multicenter sleep center survey and literature review on narcolepsy with (NC) and without (NwC) cataplexy.

Results: A total of 26 patients (pts), 6 in the survey and 20 in the literature were found. Two different types of association were identified: (1) Symptomatic type (5 pts): MS preceding the onset of narcolepsy, which was always without cataplexy (NwC); sleep onset REM episodes (SOREM) and hypocretin deficiency were observed in some, and lesions in the hypothalamus in all patients. (2) Coexisting type (18 pts): MS preceding or following the appearance of NC with SOREM, hypocretin deficiency but no lesions in the hypothalamus. A positive effect of steroids, immunoglobulins or natalizumab on narcolepsy symptoms was observed in four patients.

Discussion: Narcolepsy and MS are rarely associated. In addition to NwC secondary to hypothalamic demyelination, some patients present a coexistence of MS with NC without detectable hypothalamic lesions. The rarity of reports on this association probably reflects underrecognition. The elucidation of underlying genetic and immune mechanisms needs further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-018-8949-xDOI Listing
September 2018

Opiates increase the number of hypocretin-producing cells in human and mouse brain and reverse cataplexy in a mouse model of narcolepsy.

Sci Transl Med 2018 06;10(447)

Neuropsychiatric Institute and Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

The changes in brain function that perpetuate opiate addiction are unclear. In our studies of human narcolepsy, a disease caused by loss of immunohistochemically detected hypocretin (orexin) neurons, we encountered a control brain (from an apparently neurologically normal individual) with 50% more hypocretin neurons than other control human brains that we had studied. We discovered that this individual was a heroin addict. Studying five postmortem brains from heroin addicts, we report that the brain tissue had, on average, 54% more immunohistochemically detected neurons producing hypocretin than did control brains from neurologically normal subjects. Similar increases in hypocretin-producing cells could be induced in wild-type mice by long-term (but not short-term) administration of morphine. The increased number of detected hypocretin neurons was not due to neurogenesis and outlasted morphine administration by several weeks. The number of neurons containing melanin-concentrating hormone, which are in the same hypothalamic region as hypocretin-producing cells, did not change in response to morphine administration. Morphine administration restored the population of detected hypocretin cells to normal numbers in transgenic mice in which these neurons had been partially depleted. Morphine administration also decreased cataplexy in mice made narcoleptic by the depletion of hypocretin neurons. These findings suggest that opiate agonists may have a role in the treatment of narcolepsy, a disorder caused by hypocretin neuron loss, and that increased numbers of hypocretin-producing cells may play a role in maintaining opiate addiction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aao4953DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8235614PMC
June 2018

Decreased body mass index during treatment with sodium oxybate in narcolepsy type 1.

J Sleep Res 2019 06 4;28(3):e12684. Epub 2018 Mar 4.

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Narcolepsy type 1 is characterised by an increase in body weight after disease onset, frequently leading to obesity. It was suggested that this weight gain may be counteracted by treatment with sodium oxybate. We here provide longitudinal body mass index data of patients with narcolepsy type 1 after starting treatment with sodium oxybate, compared with patients in whom treatment with modafinil was initiated. Eighty-one individuals with narcolepsy type 1 fulfilled the entry criteria for this retrospective study: 59 had newly started treatment with sodium oxybate and 22 had newly started modafinil. Gender-specific differences between both treatment groups were compared using Student's t tests and mixed effect modeling. Patients using sodium oxybate lost weight, with a mean body mass index decrease of 2.56 kg/m between the first and last measurement (women; p = .001) and 0.84 kg/m (men; p = .006). Patients using modafinil, however, gained weight, with a mean body mass index increase of 0.57 kg/m (women; p = .033) and 0.67 kg/m (men; p = .122). Medication (p = .006) and baseline body mass index (p = .032) were predictors for body mass index decrease. In conclusion, treatment with sodium oxybate is associated with a body mass index reduction in narcolepsy type 1, whereas modafinil treatment is not. This effect is most pronounced in those who already have a higher baseline body mass index.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsr.12684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7378953PMC
June 2019

Sexually Dimorphic Changes of Hypocretin (Orexin) in Depression.

EBioMedicine 2017 Apr 31;18:311-319. Epub 2017 Mar 31.

Department of Neurobiology, Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of Ministry of Health of China, Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Mental Disorder's Management, Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, PR China; Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, an Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Meibergdreef 47, 1105 BA Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Neurophysiological and behavioral processes regulated by hypocretin (orexin) are severely affected in depression. However, alterations in hypocretin have so far not been studied in the human brain. We explored the hypocretin system changes in the hypothalamus and cortex in depression from male and female subjects.

Methods: We quantified the differences between depression patients and well-matched controls, in terms of hypothalamic hypocretin-1 immunoreactivity (ir) and hypocretin receptors (Hcrtr-receptors)-mRNA in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In addition, we determined the alterations in the hypocretin system in a frequently used model for depression, the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rat.

Results: i) Compared to control subjects, the amount of hypocretin-immunoreactivity (ir) was significantly increased in female but not in male depression patients; ii) hypothalamic hypocretin-ir showed a clear diurnal fluctuation, which was absent in depression; iii) male depressive patients who had committed suicide showed significantly increased ACC Hcrt-receptor-2-mRNA expression compared to male controls; and iv) female but not male CUMS rats showed a highly significant positive correlation between the mRNA levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone and prepro-hypocretin in the hypothalamus, and a significantly increased Hcrt-receptor-1-mRNA expression in the frontal cortex compared to female control rats.

Conclusions: The clear sex-related change found in the hypothalamic hypocretin-1-ir in depression should be taken into account in the development of hypocretin-targeted therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2017.03.043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5405188PMC
April 2017
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