Publications by authors named "Roland Baron"

172 Publications

Characterization of unique functionalities in c-Src domains required for osteoclast podosome belt formation.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jan-Jun;296:100790. Epub 2021 May 18.

Division of Bone and Mineral Research, Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Endocrine Unit, MGH, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Electronic address:

Deletion of c-Src, a ubiquitously expressed tyrosine kinase, results in osteoclast dysfunction and osteopetrosis, in which bones harden into "stone." In contrast, deletion of the genes encoding other members of the Src family kinase (SFK) fails to produce an osteopetrotic phenotype. This suggests that c-Src performs a unique function in the osteoclast that cannot be compensated for by other SFKs. We aimed to identify the molecular basis of this unique role in osteoclasts and bone resorption. We found that c-Src, Lyn, and Fyn were the most highly expressed SFKs in WT osteoclasts, whereas Hck, Lck, Blk, and Fgr displayed low levels of expression. Formation of the podosome belt, clusters of unique actin assemblies, was disrupted in src osteoclasts; introduction of constitutively activated SFKs revealed that only c-Src and Fyn could restore this process. To identify the key structural domains responsible, we constructed chimeric Src-Hck and Src-Lyn constructs in which the unique, SH3, SH2, or catalytic domains had been swapped. We found that the Src unique, SH3, and kinase domains were each crucial to establish Src functionality. The SH2 domain could however be substituted with Lyn or Hck SH2 domains. Furthermore, we demonstrate that c-Src's functionality is, in part, derived from an SH3-proximal proline-rich domain interaction with c-Cbl, leading to phosphorylation of c-Cbl Tyr700. These data help clarify Src's unique functionality in the organization of the cytoskeleton in osteoclasts, required for efficient bone resorption and explain why c-Src cannot be replaced, in osteoclasts, by other SFKs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196221PMC
May 2021

RANKL regulates male reproductive function.

Nat Commun 2021 04 23;12(1):2450. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Growth and Reproduction and International Center for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Infertile men have few treatment options. Here, we demonstrate that the transmembrane receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) signaling system is active in mouse and human testis. RANKL is highly expressed in Sertoli cells and signals through RANK, expressed in most germ cells, whereas the RANKL-inhibitor osteoprotegerin (OPG) is expressed in germ and peritubular cells. OPG treatment increases wild-type mouse sperm counts, and mice with global or Sertoli-specific genetic suppression of Rankl have increased male fertility and sperm counts. Moreover, RANKL levels in seminal fluid are high and distinguishes normal from infertile men with higher specificity than total sperm count. In infertile men, one dose of Denosumab decreases RANKL seminal fluid concentration and increases serum Inhibin-B and anti-Müllerian-hormone levels, but semen quality only in a subgroup. This translational study suggests that RANKL is a regulator of male reproductive function, however, predictive biomarkers for treatment-outcome requires further investigation in placebo-controlled studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22734-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8065035PMC
April 2021

Synergistic roles of Wnt modulators R-spondin2 and R-spondin3 in craniofacial morphogenesis and dental development.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 12;11(1):5871. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Center for Regenerative Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Wnt signaling plays a critical role in craniofacial patterning, as well as tooth and bone development. Rspo2 and Rspo3 are key regulators of Wnt signaling. However, their coordinated function and relative requirement in craniofacial development and odontogensis are poorly understood. We showed that in zebrafish rspo2 and rspo3 are both expressed in osteoprogenitors in the embryonic craniofacial skeleton. This is in contrast to mouse development, where Rspo3 is expressed in osteoprogenitors while Rspo2 expression is not observed. In zebrafish, rspo2 and rspo3 are broadly expressed in the pulp, odontoblasts and epithelial crypts. However, in the developing molars of the mouse, Rspo3 is largely expressed in the dental follicle and alveolar mesenchyme while Rspo2 expression is restricted to the tooth germ. While Rspo3 ablation in the mouse is embryonic lethal, zebrafish rspo3-/- mutants are viable with modest decrease in Meckel's cartilage rostral length. However, compound disruption of rspo3 and rspo2 revealed synergistic roles of these genes in cartilage morphogenesis, fin development, and pharyngeal tooth development. Adult rspo3 zebrafish mutants exhibit a dysmorphic cranial skeleton and decreased average tooth number. This study highlights the differential functions of Rspo2 and Rspo3 in dentocranial morphogenesis in zebrafish and in mouse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85415-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7954795PMC
March 2021

Early B-cell Factor1 (Ebf1) promotes early osteoblast differentiation but suppresses osteoblast function.

Bone 2021 05 12;146:115884. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Department of Endocrinology, Division of Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

Early B cell factor 1 (Ebf1) is a transcription factor that regulates B cell, neuronal cell and adipocyte differentiation. We and others have shown that Ebf1 is expressed in osteoblasts and that global deletion of Ebf1 results in increased bone formation in vivo. However, as Ebf1 is expressed in multiple tissues and cell types, it has remained unclear, which of the phenotypic changes in bone are derived from bone cells. The aim of this study was to determine the cell-autonomous and differentiation stage-specific roles of Ebf1 in osteoblasts. In vitro, haploinsufficient Ebf1 calvarial cells showed impaired osteoblastic differentiation indicated by lower alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and reduced mRNA expression of osteoblastic genes, while overexpression of Ebf1 in wild type mouse calvarial cells led to enhanced osteoblast differentiation with increased expression of Osterix (Osx). We identified a putative Ebf1 binding site in the Osterix promoter by ChIP assay in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts and showed that Ebf1 was able to activate Osx-luc reporter construct that included this Ebf1 binding site, suggesting that Ebf1 indeed regulates osteoblast differentiation by inducing Osterix expression. To reconcile our previous data and that of others with our novel findings, we hypothesized that Ebf1 could have a dual role in osteoblast differentiation promoting early but inhibiting late stages of differentiation and osteoblast function. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we generated conditional Ebf1 knockout mice, in which Ebf1 deletion was targeted to early or late osteoblasts by crossing Ebf1 mice with Osx- or Osteocalcin (hOC)-Cre mouse lines, respectively. Deletion of Ebf1 in early Ebf1 osteoblasts resulted in significantly increased bone volume and trabecular number at 12 weeks by μCT analysis, while Ebf1 mice did not have a bone phenotype. To conclude, our data demonstrate that Ebf1 promotes early osteoblast differentiation by regulating Osterix expression. However, Ebf1 inhibits bone accrual in the Osterix expressing osteoblasts in vivo but it is redundant in the maintenance of mature osteoblast function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2021.115884DOI Listing
May 2021

Inhibition of longevity regulator PAPP-A modulates tissue homeostasis via restraint of mesenchymal stromal cells.

Aging Cell 2021 03 9;20(3):e13313. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Calico Life Sciences LLC, South San Francisco, CA, USA.

Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a secreted metalloprotease that increases insulin-like growth factor (IGF) availability by cleaving IGF-binding proteins. Reduced IGF signaling extends longevity in multiple species, and consistent with this, PAPP-A deletion extends lifespan and healthspan; however, the mechanism remains unclear. To clarify PAPP-A's role, we developed a PAPP-A neutralizing antibody and treated adult mice with it. Transcriptomic profiling across tissues showed that anti-PAPP-A reduced IGF signaling and extracellular matrix (ECM) gene expression system wide. The greatest reduction in IGF signaling occurred in the bone marrow, where we found reduced bone, marrow adiposity, and myelopoiesis. These diverse effects led us to search for unifying mechanisms. We identified mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) as the source of PAPP-A in bone marrow and primary responders to PAPP-A inhibition. Mice treated with anti-PAPP-A had reduced IGF signaling in MSCs and dramatically decreased MSC number. As MSCs are (1) a major source of ECM and the progenitors of ECM-producing fibroblasts, (2) the originating source of adult bone, (3) regulators of marrow adiposity, and (4) an essential component of the hematopoietic niche, our data suggest that PAPP-A modulates bone marrow homeostasis by potentiating the number and activity of MSCs. We found that MSC-like cells are the major source of PAPP-A in other tissues also, suggesting that reduced MSC-like cell activity drives the system-wide reduction in ECM gene expression due to PAPP-A inhibition. Dysregulated ECM production is associated with aging and drives age-related diseases, and thus, this may be a mechanism by which PAPP-A deficiency enhances longevity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acel.13313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7963332PMC
March 2021

The role of Zfp467 in mediating the pro-osteogenic and anti-adipogenic effects on bone and bone marrow niche.

Bone 2021 03 23;144:115832. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Maine Medical Center Research Institute, Maine Medical Center, Scarborough, ME 04074, USA. Electronic address:

Conditional deletion of the PTH receptor (Pth1r) in mesenchymal progenitors reduces osteoblast differentiation and bone mass while enhancing adipogenesis and bone marrow adipose tissue. Mechanistically, PTH suppresses the expression of Zfp467, a pro-adipogenic zinc finger transcription factor. Consequently, Pth1r deficiency in mesenchymal progenitors leads to increased Zfp467 expression. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that genetic loss of Zfp467 would lead to a shift in marrow progenitor cell fate towards osteogenesis and increased bone mass. To test this hypothesis, we generated Zfp467-/- mice. Zfp467-/- mice (-/-) were significantly smaller than Zfp467+/+ mice (+/+). μCT showed significantly higher trabecular bone and cortical bone area in -/- vs. +/+, and histomorphometry showed higher structural and dynamic formation parameters in -/- mice vs. +/+. Femoral gene expression including Alpl, Sp7, and Acp5 were increased in -/-mice, whereas Adiponectin, Cebpa, Lepr, and Ppraγ mRNA were lower in -/- mice. Similarly, Fabp4 and Lep in the inguinal depot were also decreased in -/- mice. Moreover, marrow adipocyte numbers were reduced in -/- vs +/+ mice (p<0.007). In vitro, COBs and BMSCs-/- showed more positive ALP and Alizarin Red staining and a decrease in ORO droplets. Pth1r mRNA and protein levels were increased in COBs and BMSCs from -/- mice vs +/+ (p<0.02 for each parameter, -/- vs. +/+). -/- cells also exhibited enhanced endogenous levels of cAMP vs. control cells. Moreover, in an ovariectomy (OVX) mouse model, Zfp467-/- mice had significantly lower fat mass but similar bone mass compared to OVX +/+ mice. In contrast, in a high fat diet (HFD) mouse model, in addition to reduced adipocyte volume and adipogenesis related gene expression in both peripheral and bone marrow fat tissue, greater osteoblast number and higher osteogenesis related gene expression were also observed in -/- HFD mice vs. +/+ HFD mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ZFP467 negatively influences skeletal homeostasis and favors adipogenesis. Global deletion of Zfp467 increases PTHR1, cAMP and bone turnover, hence its repression is a component of PTH signaling and its regulation. These data support a critical role for Zfp467 in early lineage allocation and provide a novel potential mechanism by which PTH acts in an anabolic manner on the bone remodeling unit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2020.115832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8175945PMC
March 2021

Abaloparatide treatment increases bone formation, bone density and bone strength without increasing bone resorption in a rat model of hindlimb unloading.

Bone 2021 03 16;144:115801. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Center for Advanced Orthopaedic Studies, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Endocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Disuse osteoporosis can result from prolonged bed rest, paralysis, casts, braces, fractures and other conditions. Abaloparatide (ABL) is a PTHrP analog that increases bone density and strength by stimulating osteogenesis with limited effects on bone resorption. We examined skeletal responses to abaloparatide in young adult male rats with normal weight-bearing and with hindlimb unloading via a pelvic harness. Rats were allocated to four groups (10-12 per group): normal weight-bearing plus vehicle treatment (CON-VEH), normal weight-bearing plus ABL treatment (CON-ABL), hindlimb-unloading plus vehicle (HLU-VEH), or hindlimb-unloading plus ABL (HLU-ABL). Rats received ABL (25 μg/kg/day, s.c.) or vehicle throughout the 28-day unloading period and were then sacrificed, at which time HLU-VEH rats exhibited reduced bone formation and significant deficits in tibial, femoral, and vertebral bone mass compared with CON-VEH. ABL treatment increased serum osteocalcin in CON and HLU animals while having no effect on the osteoclast marker TRACP-5b. Longitudinal peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) indicated that ABL increased trabecular and cortical bone mass in the tibia. ABL was also associated with improved trabecular and cortical bone mass and architectural parameters at the femur, tibia, and vertebrae by μCT. Tibial histomorphometry indicated increased trabecular and endocortical bone formation with HLU-ABL versus HLU-VEH and with CON-ABL versus CON-VEH, and ABL was also associated with lower trabecular and endocortical osteoclast surfaces. Vertebral finite element analysis indicated higher ultimate load and stiffness for CON-ABL versus CON-VEH and for HLU-ABL versus HLU-VEH. In summary, ABL was associated with improved trabecular and cortical bone density and architecture in normal weight-bearing and hindlimb-unloaded rats, with higher bone formation and no difference in bone resorption. ABL was also associated with improved bone biomechanical parameters. These results provide rationale for investigating the ability of abaloparatide to prevent or treat disuse osteoporosis in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2020.115801DOI Listing
March 2021

Irisin directly stimulates osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in vitro and in vivo.

Elife 2020 08 11;9. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Maine Medical Center Research Institute, Scarborough, United States.

Irisin, a skeletal-muscle secreted myokine, facilitates muscle-bone crosstalk and skeletal remodeling in part by its action on osteoblasts and osteocytes. In this study, we investigated whether irisin directly regulates osteoclasts. In vitro, irisin (2-10 ng/mL) increased osteoclast differentiation in C57BL/6J mouse bone marrow progenitors; however, this increase was blocked by a neutralizing antibody to integrin αβ. Irisin also increased bone resorption on several substrates in situ. RNAseq revealed differential gene expression induced by irisin including upregulation of markers for osteoclast differentiation and resorption, as well as osteoblast-stimulating 'clastokines'. Forced expression of the irisin precursor in transgenic C57BL/6J mice resulted in lower bone mass at three ages and greater in vitro osteoclastogenesis from -transgenic bone marrow progenitors. This study demonstrates that irisin acts directly on osteoclast progenitors to increase differentiation and promote bone resorption, supporting the tenet that irisin not only stimulates bone remodeling but may also be an important counter-regulatory hormone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.58172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7444909PMC
August 2020

Effects of abaloparatide and teriparatide on bone resorption and bone formation in female mice.

Bone Rep 2020 Dec 26;13:100291. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Radius Health Inc., Waltham, MA, USA.

Intermittent administration of PTH type 1 receptor (PTH1R) agonists increases bone remodeling, with greater stimulation of bone formation relative to bone resorption causing net gains in bone mass. This pharmacodynamic feature underlies the bone-building effects of teriparatide and abaloparatide, the only PTH1R agonists approved to reduce osteoporotic fracture risk in postmenopausal women. This study in 8-week-old female mice compared bone resorption and formation responses to these agents delivered at the same 10 μg/kg dose, and a 40 μg/kg abaloparatide dose was also included to reflect its 4-fold higher approved clinical dose. Peptides or vehicle were administered by daily supra-calvarial subcutaneous injection for 12 days, and local (calvarial) and systemic (L5 vertebral and tibial) responses were evaluated by histomorphometry. Terminal bone histomorphometry data indicated that calvarial resorption cavities were similar in both abaloparatide groups versus vehicle controls, whereas the teriparatide group had more calvarial resorption cavities compared with the vehicle or abaloparatide 40 μg/kg groups. The bone resorption marker serum CTX was significantly lower in the abaloparatide 40 μg/kg group and similar in the other two active treatment groups compared with vehicle controls. Both peptides increased trabecular bone formation rate (BFR) in L5 and proximal tibia versus vehicle, and L5 BFR was higher with abaloparatide 40 μg/kg versus teriparatide. At the tibial diaphysis, periosteal BFR was higher with abaloparatide 40 μg/kg versus vehicle or teriparatide, and endocortical BFR was higher with teriparatide but not with abaloparatide 10 or 40 μg/kg versus vehicle. Few differences in structural or microarchitectural bone parameters were observed with this brief duration of treatment. In summary, calvarial bone resorption cavity counts were higher in the teriparatide group versus the vehicle and abaloparatide 40 μg/kg groups, and the abaloparatide 40 μg/kg group had lower serum CTX versus vehicle. L5 and tibial trabecular bone formation indices were higher in all three active treatment groups versus vehicle. The abaloparatide 40 μg/kg group had higher L5 trabecular BFR and tibial periosteal BFR versus teriparatide, whereas tibial endocortical BFR was higher with teriparatide but not abaloparatide. Together, these findings in female mice indicate that an improved balance of bone formation versus bone resorption is established shortly after initiating treatment with abaloparatide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2020.100291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330158PMC
December 2020

Perivascular osteoprogenitors are associated with transcortical channels of long bones.

Stem Cells 2020 06 21;38(6):769-781. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Department of Reconstructive Sciences, UConn Health, Farmington, Connecticut, USA.

Bone remodeling and regeneration are dependent on resident stem/progenitor cells with the ability to replenish mature osteoblasts and repair the skeleton. Using lineage tracing approaches, we identified a population of Dmp1+ cells that reside within cortical bone and are distinct from osteocytes. Our aims were to characterize this stromal population of transcortical perivascular cells (TPCs) in their resident niche and evaluate their osteogenic potential. To distinguish this population from osteoblasts/osteocytes, we crossed mice containing inducible DMP1CreERT2/Ai9 Tomato reporter (iDMP/T) with Col2.3GFP reporter (ColGFP), a marker of osteoblasts and osteocytes. We observed iDMP/T+;ColGFP- TPCs within cortical bone following tamoxifen injection. These cells were perivascular and located within transcortical channels. Ex vivo bone outgrowth cultures showed TPCs migrated out of the channels onto the plate and expressed stem cell markers such as Sca1, platelet derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ), and leptin receptor. In a cortical bone transplantation model, TPCs migrate from their vascular niche within cortical bone and contribute to new osteoblast formation and bone tube closure. Treatment with intermittent parathyroid hormone increased TPC number and differentiation. TPCs were unable to differentiate into adipocytes in the presence of rosiglitazone in vitro or in vivo. Altogether, we have identified and characterized a novel stromal lineage-restricted osteoprogenitor that is associated with transcortical vessels of long bones. Functionally, we have demonstrated that this population can migrate out of cortical bone channels, expand, and differentiate into osteoblasts, therefore serving as a source of progenitors contributing to new bone formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stem.3159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7768989PMC
June 2020

Both NPY-Expressing and CART-Expressing Neurons Increase Energy Expenditure and Trabecular Bone Mass in Response to AP1 Antagonism, But Have Opposite Effects on Bone Resorption.

J Bone Miner Res 2020 06 26;35(6):1107-1118. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Endocrine Unit MGH, and Division of Bone and Mineral Metabolism, Department of Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Energy metabolism and bone homeostasis share several neuronal regulatory pathways. Within the ventral hypothalamus (VHT), the orexigenic neurons co-express Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) and the anorexigenic neurons co-express, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone derived from proopiomelanocortin (POMC), and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). These neurons regulate both processes, yet their relative contribution is unknown. Previously, using genetically targeted activator protein (AP1) alterations as a tool, we showed in adult mice that AgRP or POMC neurons are capable of inducing whole-body energy catabolism and bone accrual, with different effects on bone resorption. Here, we investigated whether co-residing neurons exert similar regulatory effects. We show that AP1 antagonists targeted to NPY-producing or CART-producing neurons in adult mice stimulate energy expenditure, reduce body weight gain and adiposity and promote trabecular bone formation and mass, yet again via different effects on bone resorption, as measured by serum level of carboxy-terminal collagen type I crosslinks (CTX). In addition, AP1 antagonists promote neurite expansion, increasing neurite number, length, and surface area in primary hypothalamic neuronal cultures. Overall, our data demonstrate that the orexigenic NPY and anorexigenic CART neurons both have the capacity to stimulate energy burning state and increase bone mass. © 2020 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3967DOI Listing
June 2020

Marrow aspiration in aged mice: intramedullary osteogenesis, reduced mechano-adaptation, increased marrow fat.

Connect Tissue Res 2019 Dec 22:1-15. Epub 2019 Dec 22.

Department of Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA.

With age, the number of adipocytes and osteoclasts increases, the number of osteoblasts decreases, and mechano-adaptation is impaired. Using marrow aspiration, which has a known osteogenic effect in young mice, we sought to recruit osteoblast progenitors to mediate the mechano-adaptive response to tibial loading. First, we assessed bone formation and marrow adiposity in the tibiae of old mice (>20 months) sacrificed 1, 2, and 4 weeks after unilateral marrow aspiration. Then, we examined the effects of marrow aspiration on mechano-adaptation in aged mice using tibial loading. Two weeks after aspiration, aspirated tibiae had more bone than contralateral tibiae due to the formation of bone in the medullary canal. Two weeks and four weeks after marrow aspiration, the volume of marrow adipose tissue was higher in the aspirated tibiae, compared to contralateral tibiae. Histomorphometry indicated that aspiration increased non-periosteal (endosteal, intracortical, intramedullary) bone formation, compared to the contralateral tibia.  Mice with marrow aspiration had reduced periosteal bone formation in the contralateral tibia, compared to mice that had loading alone. Loading-induced periosteal bone formation was higher in mice that had loading alone, compared to mice that had aspiration + loading, indicating that aspiration further reduced the mechano-adaptive response. These data demonstrate that, in old mice, bone forms in the medullary canal following aspiration. Adiposity is increased following marrow aspiration, and periosteal mechano-adaptation is reduced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03008207.2019.1698557DOI Listing
December 2019

Plectin stabilizes microtubules during osteoclastic bone resorption by acting as a scaffold for Src and Pyk2.

Bone 2020 03 20;132:115209. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Division of Molecular Signaling and Biochemistry, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental University, 2-6-1, Manazuru, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 8038580, Japan.

Osteoclasts are multinuclear cells which maintain bone homeostasis by resorbing bone. During bone resorption, osteoclasts attach to the bone matrix via a sealing zone formed by an actin ring. Rous sarcoma oncogene (Src) is essential for actin ring formation and bone resorption. Recently, we demonstrated that plectin, a cytolinker protein, is a Src-binding protein in osteoclasts. However, the function of plectin in osteoclasts remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that shRNA knockdown of plectin in RAW 264.7 cells resulted in tartrate resistant acid phosphatase positive multinuclear cells (TRAP (+) MNCs) with impaired actin ring formation and bone resorption activity. Moreover, we found that in plectin-silenced TRAP (+) MNCs, Src and protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta (Pyk2), two critical kinases in osteoclastic bone resorption, were inactivated and microtubule polarity was disturbed. These results suggest that plectin plays a critical role in osteoclast biology by acting as a scaffold to facilitate Src and Pyk2 activation during microtubule organization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2019.115209DOI Listing
March 2020

Increased Cellular Presence After Sciatic Neurectomy Improves the Bone Mechano-adaptive Response in Aged Mice.

Calcif Tissue Int 2019 09 26;105(3):316-330. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Department of Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

The mechano-adaptive response of bone to loading in the murine uniaxial tibial loading model is impaired in aged animals. Previous studies have shown that in aged mice, the amount of bone formed in response to loading is augmented when loads are applied following sciatic neurectomy. The synergistic effect of neurectomy and loading remains to be elucidated. We hypothesize that sciatic neurectomy increases cellular presence, thereby augmenting the response to load in aged mice. We examined bone adaptation in four groups of female C57BL/6J mice, 20-22 months old: (1) sham surgery + 9N loading; (2) sciatic neurectomy, sacrificed after 5 days; (3) sciatic neurectomy, sacrificed after 19 days; (4) sciatic neurectomy + 9N loading. We examined changes in bone cross sectional properties with micro-CT images, and static and dynamic histomorphometry with histological sections taken at the midpoint between tibiofibular junctions. The response to loading at 9N was not detectable with quantitative micro-CT data, but surface-specific histomorphometry captured an increase in bone formation in specific regions. 5 days following sciatic neurectomy, the amount of bone in the neurectomized leg was the same as the contralateral leg, but 19 days following sciatic neurectomy, there was significant bone loss in the neurectomized leg, and both osteoclasts and osteoblasts were recruited to the endosteal surfaces. When sciatic neurectomy and loading at 9N were combined, 3 out of 4 bone quadrants had increased bone formation, on the endosteal and periosteal surfaces (increased osteoid surface and mineralizing surface respectively). These data demonstrate that sciatic neurectomy increases cellular presence on the endosteal surface. With long-term sciatic-neurectomy, both osteoclasts and osteoblasts were recruited to the endosteal surface, which resulted in increased bone formation when combined with a sufficient mechanical stimulus. Controlled and localized recruitment of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts combined with appropriate mechanical loading could inform therapies for mechanically-directed bone formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00223-019-00572-7DOI Listing
September 2019

Sfrp4 repression of the Ror2/Jnk cascade in osteoclasts protects cortical bone from excessive endosteal resorption.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 07 25;116(28):14138-14143. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

Division of Bone and Mineral Research, Department of Oral Medicine, Infection, and Immunity, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA 02115;

Loss-of-function mutations in the Wnt inhibitor secreted frizzled receptor protein 4 (SFRP4) cause Pyle's disease (OMIM 265900), a rare skeletal disorder characterized by wide metaphyses, significant thinning of cortical bone, and fragility fractures. In mice, we have shown that the cortical thinning seen in the absence of is associated with decreased periosteal and endosteal bone formation and increased endocortical resorption. While the increase in Rankl/Opg in cortical bone of mice lacking suggests an osteoblast-dependent effect on endocortical osteoclast (OC) activity, whether Sfrp4 can cell-autonomously affect OCs is not known. We found that is expressed during bone marrow macrophage OC differentiation and that Sfrp4 significantly suppresses the ability of early and late OC precursors to respond to Rankl-induced OC differentiation. deletion in OCs resulted in activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin and noncanonical Wnt/Ror2/Jnk signaling cascades. However, while inhibition of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling did not alter the effect of on OCgenesis, blocking the noncanonical Wnt/Ror2/Jnk cascade markedly suppressed its regulation of OC differentiation in vitro. Importantly, we report that deletion of exclusively in OCs ( ) in null mice significantly reversed the increased number of endosteal OCs seen in these mice and reduced their cortical thinning. Altogether, these data show autocrine and paracrine effects of Sfrp4 in regulating OCgenesis and demonstrate that the increase in endosteal OCs seen in mice is a consequence of noncanonical Wnt/Ror2/Jnk signaling activation in OCs overriding the negative effect that activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling has on OCgenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1900881116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6628642PMC
July 2019

Cathepsin K-deficient osteocytes prevent lactation-induced bone loss and parathyroid hormone suppression.

J Clin Invest 2019 05 21;129(8):3058-3071. Epub 2019 May 21.

Division of Bone and Mineral Research, Department of Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Lactation induces bone loss to provide sufficient calcium in the milk, a process that involves osteoclastic bone resorption but also osteocytes and perilacunar resorption. The exact mechanisms by which osteocytes contribute to bone loss remain elusive. Osteocytes express genes required in osteoclasts for bone resorption, including cathepsin K (Ctsk), and lactation elevates their expression. We show that Ctsk deletion in osteocytes prevented the increase in osteocyte lacunar area seen during lactation, as well as the effects of lactation to increase osteoclast numbers and decrease trabecular bone volume, cortical thickness and mechanical properties. In addition, Ctsk deletion in osteocytes increased bone Parathyroid Hormone related Peptide (PTHrP), prevented the decrease in serum Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) induced by lactation, but amplified the increase in serum 1,25(OH)2D. The net result of these changes is to maintain serum and milk calcium levels in the normal range, ensuring normal offspring skeletal development. Our studies confirm the fundamental role of osteocytic perilacunar remodeling in physiological states of lactation and provides genetic evidence that osteocyte-derived Ctsk contributes not only to osteocyte perilacunar remodeling, but also to the regulation of PTH, PTHrP, 1,25-Dyhydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), osteoclastogenesis and bone loss in response to the high calcium demand associated with lactation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI122936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6668688PMC
May 2019

Abaloparatide improves cortical geometry and trabecular microarchitecture and increases vertebral and femoral neck strength in a rat model of male osteoporosis.

Bone 2019 07 30;124:148-157. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Radius Health, Waltham, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Androgen deficiency is a leading cause of male osteoporosis, with bone loss driven by an inadequate level of bone formation relative to the extent of bone resorption. Abaloparatide, an osteoanabolic PTH receptor agonist used to treat women with postmenopausal osteoporosis at high risk for fracture, increases bone formation and bone strength in estrogen-deficient animals without increasing bone resorption. This study examined the effects of abaloparatide on bone formation, bone mass, and bone strength in androgen-deficient orchiectomized (ORX) rats, a male osteoporosis model. Four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats underwent ORX or sham surgery. Eight weeks later, sham-operated rats received vehicle (saline; n = 10) while ORX rats (n = 10/group) received vehicle (Veh) or abaloparatide at 5 or 25 μg/kg (ABL5 or ABL25) by daily s.c. injection for 8 weeks, followed by sacrifice. Dynamic bone histomorphometry indicated that the tibial diaphysis of one or both abaloparatide groups had higher periosteal mineralizing surface, intracortical bone formation rate (BFR), endocortical BFR, and cortical thickness vs Veh controls. Vertebral trabecular BFR was also higher in both abaloparatide groups vs Veh, and the ABL25 group had higher trabecular osteoblast surface without increased osteoclast surface. By micro-CT, the vertebra and distal femur of both abaloparatide-groups had improved trabecular bone volume and micro-architecture, and the femur diaphysis of the ABL25 group had greater cortical thickness with no increase in porosity vs Veh. Biomechanical testing indicated that both abaloparatide-groups had stronger vertebrae and femoral necks vs Veh controls. These findings provide preclinical support for evaluating abaloparatide as an investigational treatment for male osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2019.04.025DOI Listing
July 2019

ΔFosB Requires Galanin, but not Leptin, to Increase Bone Mass via the Hypothalamus, but both are needed to increase Energy expenditure.

J Bone Miner Res 2019 09 30;34(9):1707-1720. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Endocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Division of Bone and Mineral Metabolism, Department of Oral Medicine, Infection, and Immunity, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Energy metabolism and bone homeostasis share several regulatory pathways. The AP1 transcription factor ΔFosB and leptin both regulate energy metabolism and bone, yet whether their pathways intersect is not known. Transgenic mice overexpressing ΔFosB under the control of the Enolase 2 (ENO2) promoter exhibit high bone mass, high energy expenditure, low fat mass, and low circulating leptin levels. Because leptin is a regulator of bone and ΔFosB acts on leptin-responsive ventral hypothalamic (VHT) neurons to induce bone anabolism, we hypothesized that regulation of leptin may contribute to the central actions of ΔFosB in the VHT. To address this question, we used adeno-associated virus (AAV) expression of ΔFosB in the VHT of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and genetic crossing of ENO2-ΔFosB with ob/ob mice. In both models, leptin deficiency prevented ΔFosB-triggered reduction in body weight, increase in energy expenditure, increase in glucose utilization, and reduction in pancreatic islet size. In contrast, leptin deficiency failed to prevent ΔFosB-triggered increase in bone mass. Unlike leptin deficiency, galanin deficiency blocked both the metabolic and the bone ΔFosB-induced effects. Overall, our data demonstrate that, while the catabolic energy metabolism effects of ΔFosB require intact leptin and galanin signaling, the bone mass-accruing effects of ΔFosB require galanin but are independent of leptin. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3741DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6744351PMC
September 2019

Zfp423 Regulates Skeletal Muscle Regeneration and Proliferation.

Mol Cell Biol 2019 04 2;39(8). Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Satellite cells (SCs) are skeletal muscle stem cells that proliferate in response to injury and provide myogenic precursors for growth and repair. Zfp423 is a transcriptional cofactor expressed in multiple immature cell populations, such as neuronal precursors, mesenchymal stem cells, and preadipocytes, where it regulates lineage allocation, proliferation, and differentiation. Here, we show that Zfp423 regulates myogenic progression during muscle regeneration. Zfp423 is undetectable in quiescent SCs but becomes expressed during SC activation. After expansion, Zfp423 is gradually downregulated as committed SCs terminally differentiate. Mice with satellite-cell-specific Zfp423 deletion exhibit severely impaired muscle regeneration following injury, with aberrant SC expansion, defective cell cycle exit, and failure to transition efficiently from the proliferative stage toward commitment. Consistent with a cell-autonomous role of Zfp423, shRNA-mediated knockdown of Zfp423 in myoblasts inhibits differentiation. Surprisingly, forced expression of Zfp423 in myoblasts induces differentiation into adipocytes and arrests myogenesis. Affinity purification of Zfp423 in myoblasts identified Satb2 as a nuclear partner of Zfp423 that cooperatively enhances Zfp423 transcriptional activity, which in turn affects myoblast differentiation. In conclusion, by controlling SC expansion and proliferation, Zfp423 is essential for muscle regeneration. Tight regulation of Zfp423 expression is essential for normal progression of muscle progenitors from proliferation to differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.00447-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447414PMC
April 2019

Mesenchymal Cell-Derived Juxtacrine Wnt1 Signaling Regulates Osteoblast Activity and Osteoclast Differentiation.

J Bone Miner Res 2019 06 7;34(6):1129-1142. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Human genetic evidence demonstrates that WNT1 mutations cause osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and early-onset osteoporosis, implicating WNT1 as a major regulator of bone metabolism. However, its main cellular source and mechanisms of action in bone remain elusive. We generated global and limb bud mesenchymal cell-targeted deletion of Wnt1 in mice. Heterozygous deletion of Wnt1 resulted in mild trabecular osteopenia due to decreased osteoblast function. Targeted deletion of Wnt1 in mesenchymal progenitors led to spontaneous fractures due to impaired osteoblast function and increased bone resorption, mimicking the severe OI phenotype in humans with homozygous WNT1 mutations. Importantly, we showed for the first time that Wnt1 signals strictly in a juxtacrine manner to induce osteoblast differentiation and to suppress osteoclastogenesis, in part via canonical Wnt signaling. In conclusion, mesenchymal cell-derived Wnt1, acting in short range, is an essential regulator of bone homeostasis and an intriguing target for therapeutic interventions for bone diseases. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3680DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6850336PMC
June 2019

Bone adaptation compensates resorption when sciatic neurectomy is followed by low magnitude induced loading.

Bone 2019 03 23;120:487-494. Epub 2018 Dec 23.

Department of Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

The uniaxial tibial loading model is commonly used to promote bone formation through mechanoadaptation in mice. Sciatic neurectomy on the other hand recruits osteoclasts, which results in bone loss. Previous studies have shown that combining sciatic neurectomy with high magnitude loading increases the amount of bone formed. Here we determine whether low-intensity loading (low magnitude and few cycles) is sufficient to maintain bone mass after sciatic neurectomy, either by promoting bone formation (balance between concurrent resorption and formation), or by preventing bone resorption altogether. We examined bone adaptation in 4 groups of female C57BL/6J mice, 19-22 weeks old: (1) sham surgery +10 N loading; (2) sham surgery +5 N loading; (3) sciatic neurectomy; (4) sciatic neurectomy +5 N loading. Left legs were kept intact as internal controls. We examined changes in bone cross sectional properties and marrow area with micro-CT images, and histomorphometric measures with histological sections at the midpoint between tibiofibular junctions. Loading at 10 N caused a significant increase in the amount of bone, but bone formation after 5 N of loading was not detectable in micro-CT images. There was significant bone loss in mice with sciatic neurectomy alone, but when combined with loading there was no significant bone loss. Histomorphometric analyses showed that loading at 5 N augmented bone formation periosteally on the lateral and posterior-medial surfaces, and reduced the number of endosteal osteoclasts on the posterior-medial surface compared to the contralateral leg. Combining sciatic neurectomy and loading at 5 N promoted faster mineral apposition on the periosteal lateral surface and augmented bone resorption on the endosteal posterior surface compared to the contralateral leg. These data demonstrate that low-intensity loading is sufficient to maintain bone mass after sciatic neurectomy, both by preventing recruitment of osteoclasts on the endosteal surface and by compensating endosteal resorption caused by disuse with periosteal formation promoted by loading. This has implications for the loading required to maintain bone mass after injury or prolonged bedrest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2018.12.017DOI Listing
March 2019

Irisin Mediates Effects on Bone and Fat via αV Integrin Receptors.

Cell 2018 12;175(7):1756-1768.e17

Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Cell Biology, Harvard University Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

Irisin is secreted by muscle, increases with exercise, and mediates certain favorable effects of physical activity. In particular, irisin has been shown to have beneficial effects in adipose tissues, brain, and bone. However, the skeletal response to exercise is less clear, and the receptor for irisin has not been identified. Here we show that irisin binds to proteins of the αV class of integrins, and biophysical studies identify interacting surfaces between irisin and αV/β5 integrin. Chemical inhibition of the αV integrins blocks signaling and function by irisin in osteocytes and fat cells. Irisin increases both osteocytic survival and production of sclerostin, a local modulator of bone remodeling. Genetic ablation of FNDC5 (or irisin) completely blocks osteocytic osteolysis induced by ovariectomy, preventing bone loss and supporting an important role of irisin in skeletal remodeling. Identification of the irisin receptor should greatly facilitate our understanding of irisin's function in exercise and human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2018.10.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6298040PMC
December 2018

Abaloparatide, a novel osteoanabolic PTHrP analog, increases cortical and trabecular bone mass and architecture in orchiectomized rats by increasing bone formation without increasing bone resorption.

Bone 2019 03 19;120:148-155. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Radius Health, Waltham, MA, USA.

Male osteoporosis can occur with advanced age and with hypogonadism, with increased bone resorption and/or inadequate bone formation contributing to reduced bone mass and increased fracture risk. Abaloparatide is a selective PTH receptor agonist that increases bone formation and bone mass in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and in estrogen-deficient animals. The current study evaluated the effects of abaloparatide in orchiectomized (ORX) rats, a model of male osteoporosis. Four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats underwent ORX or sham surgery; 8 weeks later the ORX groups exhibited relative osteopenia vs sham controls, based on dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and/or peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) assessments at the total body, lumbar spine, femur, and tibia. ORX rats (n = 10/group) were then injected daily (s.c.) for 8 weeks with vehicle or abaloparatide at 5 (ABL5) or 25 μg/kg/d (ABL25). Sham controls (n = 10) received s.c. vehicle. DXA and pQCT showed that one or both abaloparatide groups gained more areal and volumetric BMD at all sites analyzed compared with vehicle controls, leading to substantial or complete reversal of ORX-induced BMD deficits. pQCT also indicated greater gains in tibial cortical thickness in both abaloparatide groups versus vehicle controls. Tibial bone histomorphometry showed greater trabecular bone formation and bone volume and improved micro-architecture with abaloparatide, with no increase in osteoclasts. Abaloparatide also led to significant improvements in the balance of biochemical bone formation markers versus bone resorption markers, which correlated with BMD changes. These findings suggest that abaloparatide may have therapeutic benefits in men with osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2018.10.012DOI Listing
March 2019

Loss of Gsα in osteocytes leads to osteopenia due to sclerostin induced suppression of osteoblast activity.

Bone 2018 12 25;117:138-148. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Molecular and Cell Biology, Goldman School of Dental Medicine, Boston University, Boston, USA. Electronic address:

The stimulatory subunit of G-protein, Gsα, acts as a secondary messenger of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that primarily activates cAMP-induced signaling. GPCRs, such as the parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR), are critical regulators of bone formation as shown by number of genetic manipulation studies targeting early osteoblast lineage cells. In this study, we have examined the role of Gsα in osteocytes, the terminally differentiated and most abundant cells of the osteoblast lineage. Mice lacking the stimulatory subunit of G-proteins (Gsα) in osteocytes (DMP1-GsαKO) have significant decrease of both trabecular and cortical bone, as assessed by μCT. Histomorphometric analysis showed that the osteopenia was mostly driven by more than 90% decrease in osteoblast numbers and activity whereas osteoclasts were only slightly decreased. The decrease in osteoblast number was associated with a striking lack of endocortical osteoblasts. We have previously shown that loss of the stimulatory subunit of G-proteins (Gsα) in osteocytes in vitro or in vivo induces high expression of sclerostin. To determine if the increased sclerostin levels contributed to the decreased endosteal bone lining cells and osteopenia, we treated wild-type mice with recombinant sclerostin and the DMP1-GsαKO mice with anti-sclerostin antibody. Treatment of wild-type mice with 100 μg/kg sclerostin for 3-weeks significantly reduced the numbers of bone lining cells and led to osteopenia. Next, the DMP1-GsαKO and control littermates were treated with the anti-sclerostin antibody (25 mg/kg, 2 times per week) for 4-weeks. Upon the antibody treatment, the endocortical osteoblasts reappeared in the DMP1-GsαKO mice to a comparable level to that of the vehicle treated control littermates. In control mice, E11/gp38 positive osteocytes were observed in parallel with the endocortical osteoblasts with higher dendrite density towards the endocortical osteoblasts. In DMP1-GsαKO mice, E11/gp38 positive osteocytes were lacking dendrites and were randomly scattered throughout the bone matrix. After treatment with anti-sclerostin antibody, DMP1-GsαKO mice showed increased E11/gp38 positive osteocytes near the endosteal bone surface and endosteal osteoblasts. The anti-sclerostin antibody treatment proportionally increased the bone volume but it could not completely rescue the osteopenia in the DMP1-GsαKO mice. Taken together, this data suggests that Gsα signaling in osteocytes leads to osteopenia driven, at least in part, by increased secretion of sclerostin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2018.09.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6207374PMC
December 2018

PRMT5 inhibition promotes osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells and represses basal interferon stimulated gene expression.

Bone 2018 12 3;117:37-46. Epub 2018 Sep 3.

Department of Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Harvard University, Boston, USA.

Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) catalyze symmetric and asymmetric methylation on arginine residues of multiple protein targets including histones and have essential roles in organismal development and disease. PRMT5 mediates symmetric di-methylation (sDMA) of arginine 2 (H3R2me2s) and arginine 8 on histone 3 (H3R8me2s), arginine 3 on histones 2A and 4 (H2A/H4R3me2s) as well as several non-histone substrates like Sm proteins. Here, we found that selective inhibition of PRMT5 in mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) led to a reduction in colony forming units (CFUs) and increased osteoblast differentiation. PRMT5 inhibition blocked global symmetric dimethylation of H3R8 and H4R3 but not on H3R2. Genome-wide expression analysis by total RNA sequencing of mesenchymal stromal cells undergoing osteogenic differentiation revealed significant reduction in the intrinsic expression of several interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) upon PRMT5 inhibition. Effects of PRMT5 inhibition on basal ISG expression and osteogenic differentiation was effectively blocked by exogenous activation of type I IFN signaling. Together, these results indicate important functions for PRMT5 in the regulation of basal interferon gene expression in MSCs and in the control of differentiation potential of MSCs during osteogenic differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2018.08.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6317875PMC
December 2018

Functional Characterization of a GGPPS Variant Identified in Atypical Femoral Fracture Patients and Delineation of the Role of GGPPS in Bone-Relevant Cell Types.

J Bone Miner Res 2018 12 24;33(12):2091-2098. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Musculoskeletal Research Group, IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Fragilidad y Envejecimiento Saludable (CIBERFES), ISCIII, Barcelona, Spain.

Atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) are a rare but potentially devastating event, often but not always linked to bisphosphonate (BP) therapy. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying AFFs remain obscure, and there are no tests available that might assist in identifying those at high risk of AFF. We previously used exome sequencing to explore the genetic background of three sisters with AFFs and three additional unrelated AFF cases, all previously treated with BPs. We detected 37 rare mutations (in 34 genes) shared by the three sisters. Notably, we found a p.Asp188Tyr mutation in the enzyme geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, a component of the mevalonate pathway, which is critical to osteoclast function and is inhibited by N-BPs. In addition, the CYP1A1 gene, responsible for the hydroxylation of 17β-estradiol, estrone, and vitamin D, was also mutated in all three sisters and one unrelated patient. Here we present a detailed list of the variants found and report functional analyses of the GGPS1 p.Asp188Tyr mutation, which showed a severe reduction in enzyme activity together with oligomerization defects. Unlike BP treatment, this genetic mutation will affect all cells in the carriers. RNAi knockdown of GGPS1 in osteoblasts produced a strong mineralization reduction and a reduced expression of osteocalcin, osterix, and RANKL, whereas in osteoclasts, it led to a lower resorption activity. Taken together, the impact of the mutated GGPPS and the relevance of the downstream effects in bone cells make it a strong candidate for AFF susceptibility. We speculate that other genes such as CYP1A1 might be involved in AFF pathogenesis, which remains to be functionally proved. The identification of the genetic background for AFFs provides new insights for future development of novel risk assessment tools. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3580DOI Listing
December 2018

Cortical Bone Loss in a Spontaneous Murine Model of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

Calcif Tissue Int 2018 12 16;103(6):686-697. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Department of Physiology and Skeletal Disorders Research Unit, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by loss of T- and B-cell tolerance to autoantigens, are at increased risk for osteoporosis and fractures. Mice deficient in Fc gamma receptor IIb (FcγRIIB) exhibit spontaneous SLE and its restoration rescues the disease. To determine whether deleting FcγRIIB affects cortical bone mass and mechanical properties, we analyzed cortical bone phenotype of FcγRIIB knockouts at different ages. FACS analysis revealed that 6-month-old FcγRIIB mice had increased B220CD138 cells, markers of plasma cells, indicating active SLE disease. In contrast, 3-month-old FcγRIIB mice did not develop the active SLE disease. µCT analysis indicated that FcγRIIB deletion did not affect cortical bone in 3-month-old mutants. However, 6- and 10-month-old FcγRIIB males and females had osteopenic cortical bone and the severity of bone loss increased with disease duration. FcγRIIB deletion decreased cross-sectional area, cortical area, and marrow area in 6-month-old males. Cortical area and cortical thickness were decreased in 10-month-old FcγRIIB males. Lack of FcγRIIB decreased cortical thickness without affecting cortical area in females. However, deletion of a single FcγRIIB allele was insufficient to induce cortical bone loss. The bending strength was decreased in 6- and 10-month-old FcγRIIB-deficient males compared to WT controls. A microindentation analysis demonstrated significantly decreased hardness in both 10-month-old FcγRIIB males and females. Our data indicate that FcγRIIB contributes to the regulation of cortical bone homeostasis subsequent to SLE development and that deletion of FcγRIIB in mice leads to SLE-like disease associated with cortical bone loss and decreased bending strength and hardness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00223-018-0464-7DOI Listing
December 2018

Inhibition of microRNA-138 enhances bone formation in multiple myeloma bone marrow niche.

Leukemia 2018 08 20;32(8):1739-1750. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Myeloma bone disease is a devastating complication of multiple myeloma (MM) and is caused by dysregulation of bone remodeling processes in the bone marrow microenvironment. Previous studies showed that microRNA-138 (miR-138) is a negative regulator of osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and that inhibiting its function enhances bone formation in vitro. In this study, we explored the role of miR-138 in myeloma bone disease and evaluated the potential of systemically delivered locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified anti-miR-138 oligonucleotides in suppressing myeloma bone disease. We showed that expression of miR-138 was significantly increased in MSCs from MM patients (MM-MSCs) and myeloma cells compared to those from healthy subjects. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-138 resulted in enhanced osteogenic differentiation of MM-MSCs in vitro and increased the number of endosteal osteoblastic lineage cells (OBCs) and bone formation rate in mouse models of myeloma bone disease. RNA sequencing of the OBCs identified TRPS1 and SULF2 as potential miR-138 targets that were de-repressed in anti-miR-138-treated mice. In summary, these data indicate that inhibition of miR-138 enhances bone formation in MM and that pharmacological inhibition of miR-138 could represent a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of myeloma bone disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-018-0161-6DOI Listing
August 2018

Brain to bone: What is the contribution of the brain to skeletal homeostasis?

Bone 2018 10 16;115:31-42. Epub 2018 May 16.

Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Endocrine Unit MGH, Division of Bone and Mineral Metabolism, Department of Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

The brain, which governs most, if not all, physiological functions in the body, from the complexities of cognition, learning and memory, to the regulation of basal body temperature, heart rate and breathing, has long been known to affect skeletal health. In particular, the hypothalamus - located at the base of the brain in close proximity to the medial eminence, where the blood-brain-barrier is not as tight as in other regions of the brain but rather "leaky", due to fenestrated capillaries - is exposed to a variety of circulating body cues, such as nutrients (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids), and hormones (insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin) [1-3].Information collected from the body via these peripheral cues is integrated by hypothalamic sensing neurons and glial cells [4-7], which express receptors for these nutrients and hormones, transforming these cues into physiological outputs. Interestingly, many of the same molecules, including leptin, adiponectin and insulin, regulate both energy and skeletal homeostasis. Moreover, they act on a common set of hypothalamic nuclei and their residing neurons, activating endocrine and neuronal systems, which ultimately fine-tune the body to new physiological states. This review will focus exclusively on the brain-to-bone pathway, highlighting the most important anatomical sites within the brain, which are known to affect bone, but not covering the input pathways and molecules informing the brain of the energy and bone metabolic status, covered elsewhere [8-10]. The discussion in each section will present side by side the metabolic and bone-related functions of hypothalamic nuclei, in an attempt to answer some of the long-standing questions of whether energy is affected by bone remodeling and homeostasis and vice versa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2018.05.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6110971PMC
October 2018
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