Publications by authors named "Roghayeh Pakdel"

10 Publications

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Regulatory effect of vitamin D on pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-oxidative enzymes dysregulations due to chronic mild stress in the rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortical area.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

Background: Chronic stress increases the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in the brain, which underlay cognitive and psychological problems. In addition to the anti-depressants, vitamin D is known to act as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. This study investigates the specific effects of vitamin D in protecting hippocampus and pre-frontal cortex (PFC) against chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and decreasing the activation of anti-oxidative enzymes super oxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx).

Methods And Results: Rats were exposed to CMS for 3 weeks. Two groups of rats received vitamin D (5 and 10 μg/kg) and another received fluoxetine (5 mg/kg) along with CMS. Control groups were not exposed to CMS, but received treatments similar to CMS groups. Serum corticosterone and IL-6, TNF-α and SOD and GPx levels in the hippocampus and PFC were measured at the end of three weeks. CMS significantly increased corticosterone, IL-6, TNF-α and decreased SOD and GPx levels (P < 0.0001) in hippocampus and PFC. Vitamin D treatment reduced corticosterone levels (P < 0.01), increased SOD (P < 0.0001) and GPx (P < 0.01) and decreased IL-6 and TNF-α (P < 0.0001) levels in the hippocampus and PFC compared to rats treated with vitamin D vehicle. Vitamin D-10 regulation of SOD and IL-6 levels was more effective than fluoxetine (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.01, respectively, in hippocampus).

Conclusion: This study suggests that vitamin D effectively protects the key regions of the brain related to cognition and affective behavior, against the inflammation and oxidative stress caused by the chronic stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06810-2DOI Listing
October 2021

Comparing the effects of seed hydro-alcoholic extract, valsartan, and vitamin E on hemodynamic changes, oxidative stress parameters and cardiac hypertrophy in thyrotoxic rats.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2019 Aug 15:1-8. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

d Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences , Mashhad , Iran.

The present study compared the effects of ( seed hydro-alcoholic extract, valsartan, and vitamin E on hemodynamic changes, oxidative stress markers and cardiac hypertrophy in a model of thyrotoxicosis. The hyperthyroid state was induced by intraperitoneal injection of levothyroxine (100 µg/kg) for 4 weeks in male adult rats. After 2 weeks, vitamin E (20 mg/kg), valsartan (8 mg/kg), and seed extract (400 mg/kg) were administered in three groups of thyrotoxic rats. The control group was given a daily injection of normal saline. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured on three occasions with tail cuff. At the end of the fourth week, the animals were scarified and serum samples and heart tissue were collected for biochemical and histological studies. The levothyroxine increased heart rate and systolic blood pressure. A lower heart rate and reduced systolic blood pressure were observed in groups receiving valsartan and extract. The heart weight/body weight ratio increased in groups treated with levothyroxine, but in a microscopic study, cardiomyocyte width was not different between the groups. Levothyroxine increased the level of malondyaldehide and NO metabolite but reduced the thiol concentration, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities. However, treatment with vitamin E and extract increased the thiol concentration, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities while decreasing malondyaldehide level. In addition, treatment with extract and valsartan decreased NO metabolite level. Treatment with extract improved levothyroxine induced oxidative stress and hemodynamic changes. These effects may be for antioxidant components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2019.1651330DOI Listing
August 2019

Beneficial Effects of Physical Activity and Crocin Against Adolescent Stress Induced Anxiety or Depressive-Like Symptoms and Dendritic Morphology Remodeling in Prefrontal Cortex in Adult Male Rats.

Neurochem Res 2019 Apr 17;44(4):917-929. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Laboratory of Learning and Memory, Research Center of Physiology, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, 15131-38111, Semnan, Iran.

Increasing evidence suggests that exposure to chronic stress during adolescent period may lead to behavioral and neuronal morphology deficits in adulthood. This study examined whether crocin, the main active saffron constituent, and voluntary exercise, alone or combined, could prevent the detrimental influences of chronic restraint stress during adolescent (postnatal days, PND, 30-40) on behavioral and morphological deficits in adult (PND60) male rats. Results showed that plasma corticosterone levels increased at PND40, but not PND60 in stressed rats. Moreover, stressed rats demonstrated enhanced anxiety levels and depression like behaviors in adulthood. These behavioral abnormalities were accompanied by a decline in apical dendritic length in both infralimbic and prelimbic regions and dendritic branches in infralimbic region of the prefrontal cortex. Treatment with crocin, exposure to wheel running activity, and the combined interventions alleviated both behavioral and morphological deficits induced by adolescent stress. Moreover, these treatments exerted positive neuronal morphological effects in the prefrontal cortex in non-stressed animals. Our findings provide important evidences that exercise as a non-pharmacological intervention and crocin treatment during pre-pubertal period can protect against adolescent stress induced behavioral and morphological abnormalities in adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02727-2DOI Listing
April 2019

Effects of levothyroxine on learning and memory deficits in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease: the role of BDNF and oxidative stress.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2020 Jan 21;43(1):57-63. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

The effect of levothyroxine (L-T4) on the learning and memory impairment induced by streptozotocin (STZ) and brain tissue oxidative damage in rats was evaluated. An animal model of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) was established by intracerebroventricular injection of STZ (3 mg/kg) in male Wistar rats (250 ± 50 g). After that, the rats were treated for 3 weeks with L-T4 (10, 100 μg/kg) or normal saline. Passive avoidance (PA) learning and spatial memory were evaluated using shuttle box and Morris water maze (MWM), respectively. Finally, the rats were euthanized, their blood samples were collected for further thyroxine assessment and their brains were removed after decapitation in order to measure the oxidative stress parameters and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In the MWM, latency (s) increased in the AD rats compared with the normal control group while it decreased in the 10 μg/kg L-T4 injected AD rats compared with the AD group. In the PA, the latency for entering the dark compartment was lower in the AD group than in the normal control group and it decreased in the 10 μg/kg L-T4 injected AD rats. The low dose of L-T4 (10 μg/kg) reduced malondialdehyde concentration but increased thiols concentration, superoxide dismutase, catalase activities and BDNF level in hippocampal tissues of the AD rats. Injection of L-T4 (10 μg/kg) alleviated memory deficits and also improved factors of oxidative stress and BDNF level in the STZ-induced AD rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2018.1481085DOI Listing
January 2020

A comparison between the effects of seeds extract and valsartan on echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters in rats with levothyroxine-induced thyrotoxicosis.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2018 May-Jun;8(3):276-285

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of (Po) seeds extract and those of valsartan on cardiac function in levothyroxine (T)-treated rats.

Materials And Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n=10): control, levothyroxine (T), T plus valsartan (T-Val) and T plus hydro-alcoholic extract of the seeds (T-Po). Control group received normal saline. Levothyroxine (100µg/kg/day, i.p.) was administered to three other groups for 4 weeks. Valsartan (8 mg/kg/day, orally) and Po seeds extract (400 mg/kg/day, orally) were administered during the last two weeks of treatment period. At the end of the experiment, echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters were measured and serum free T, T, and T were measured.

Results: Administration of T for 4 weeks significantly increased serum free T levels in T group but elevations of free T levels in T-Val group were not significant. Free T level decreased in T-Po (p<0.01) compared to T group. Heart rate (HR), heart weight (HW), and left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) were significantly increased in T group compared to control group while these parameters in the other groups were not significantly different from those of control group. The reduction in HR, HW, and LVSP were more prominent in T-Po group. Ejection fraction (EF) and fraction shortening (FS) were insignificantly decreased in T group compared to control group.

Conclusion: These results showed that treatment of hyperthyroid rats with seeds extract was more effective than valsartan in reducing cardiac changes induced by levothyroxine.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5987442PMC
June 2018

A comparison of the effects of seeds hydro-alcoholic extract and Vitamin C on biochemical, hemodynamic and functional parameters in cardiac tissue of rats with subclinical hyperthyroidism.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2018 Mar-Apr;8(2):161-169

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Centre, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objective: The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of () seeds and Vitamin C on biochemical and hemodynamic parameters in cardiac tissue of rats with subclinical hyperthyroidism.

Materials And Methods: Forty eight male rats were divided into six groups of 8 and treated for 4 weeks. T4 group received daily injection of levothyroxine sodium (20 μg/kg) and control group was given daily injection of saline. T4-Po groups were given T4 plus 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of seeds extract in drinking water daily. T4-Vit C group received T4 plus daily injection of Vitamin C (100 mg/kg). At the end of the experiment, body weight, serum free T4 level, left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total thiol levels were measured.

Results: Free T4 levels were increased in all groups that were treated with T4. Weight gain was decreased in T4 and T4-Po100 groups compared to control group (p<0.001 and p<0.05). However, body weight was increased in T4-Po (200 and 400) and T4-Vit C groups compared to T4 group. LVDP was increased in T4 group compared to control group but, LVDP was decreased in T4-Po and T4-Vit C groups. Malondialdehyde was decreased in T4-Po groups and T4-Vit C group compared to T4 group. Total thiol groups were increased in T4-Po (200 and 400) and T4-Vit C groups compared to T4 group.

Conclusion: The results showed that extract has a protective effect on cardiac dysfunction due to subclinical hyperthyroidism induced by levothyroxine sodium in rats.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5885330PMC
April 2018

The Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Seeds on Serum Estradiol and Prolactin Levels and obstetric Criteria due to Hypothyroidism in Rat.

Adv Biomed Res 2017 28;6:166. Epub 2017 Dec 28.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: The aim of this study was investigation of the effects of (NS) seeds on hypothyroid pregnant rats and their progenies.

Materials And Methods: Hypothyroidism was induced by propylthiouracil (PTU) 0.03% in drinking water. Female rats were divided into seven groups: control, PTU, PTU-NS (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg), and NS (100 and 400 mg/kg). All treatments were done 20 days before mating and during pregnancy. The weight of rat dams and progenies, number of progenies and serum T4, estradiol and prolactin (PRL) levels in rat dams were measured for all groups.

Results: Serum T4 in all PTU-NS groups before mating was significantly increased versus PTU group. Body weight of rat dams before mating in all groups of PTU-NS was increased versus PTU group by < 0.001, < 0.05, and < 0.001, respectively and in NS 100 and NS 400 was increased versus control group ( < 0.001). The number of offspring was significantly decreased in PTU and PTU-NS versus control group. The weight of progenies in NS 400 was higher than control group ( < 0.001) and was increased in PTU-NS 200 and PTU-NS 400 versus PTU group by < 0.001 and < 0.05, respectively. Serum PRL level in rat dams in control, PTU, and PTU-NS groups were not statistically different between groups but significantly increased in NS 400 group when compared to control group. Estradiol levels were not significantly different in rat dams at 5 days after delivery.

Conclusion: These results demonstrated that feeding of rat dams with NS extract before mating has positive protective effects on progenies. These effects may be due to antioxidant properties of NS in reducing oxidative stress and thyroid damages induced by PTU.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.221860DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5767798PMC
December 2017

Kidney stone formation and antioxidant effects of decoction in male Wistar rats.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2017 Mar-Apr;7(2):180-190

Pharmacological Research Center of Medicinal Plants, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objectives: The antioxidant capacity impairs in kidney and urinary bladder of animals with stone disease. Herbal medicine can improve the antioxidant condition of renal tissue. () is a medicinal plant with antioxidative and diuretic properties and different preparations of this plant have shown promising effects in stone disease. Assessment of the whole plant decoction to prevent kidney stone disease as well as its antioxidant effects was the aim of this paper.

Materials And Methods: Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups (n=10). One group was left without treatment and four groups received ethylene glycol (1% v/v) in drinking water for 6 weeks. Three doses of aqueous decoction (12.5, 50 and 200 mg/kg BW) were added to the drinking water of groups 3-5. Finally, water intake, 24-hour urine volume, MDA, total thiol concentration and FRAP value were measured in the serum and kidney tissues. The CaOx depositions were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining.

Results: Compared to the ethylene glycol-treated group, 200 mg/kg , lowered stone incidents, decreased urine volume, increased FRAP/g Cr (43%) and thiol content (p<0.05) with no significant alteration of water intake, MDA decreased significantly compared to 12.5 (p<0.01). Kidney weight increased and body weight decreased in ethylene glycol-treated group compared to the control group (p<0.05).

Conclusion: A minimum dose of 200 mg/kg reduced stone formation and simultaneously increased total antioxidant power of serum and preserved MDA content and water.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5355823PMC
March 2017

Microinjections of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride into the medial prefrontal cortex attenuate glucocorticoid-induced impairment of long-term memory retrieval in rats.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2007 Mar 22;87(3):385-90. Epub 2006 Nov 22.

Laboratory of Learning and Memory, Physiological Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

We recently reported that blockade of dopamine (DA) D2 receptors attenuated deficits in long-term memory retrieval induced by a systemic injection of corticosterone, but the anatomical sites of such interaction were not known. In this study, we investigated whether the DA D2 receptors located in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) may play a role in the impairing effects of glucocorticoids on the memory retrieval process. Young adult male rats were trained in a one trial inhibitory avoidance task (0.5 mA, 3s footshock). On the retention test given 48 h after training, the latency to re-enter the dark compartment and the time spent in light compartment of the apparatus were recorded. Systemically administered corticosterone (1mg/kg) given to rats 30 min before retention testing impaired their memory retrieval. Bilateral microinjections of the DA D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride (10 or 100 ng/0.5 microl per side) into the mPFC 30 min before corticosterone administration attenuated the glucocorticoid-induced impairment of memory retrieval. Furthermore, applied doses of sulpiride alone were ineffective in modulating memory retrieval. These findings indicate that D2 receptors located in the mPFC play an important role in mediating the impairing effects of glucocorticoids on memory retrieval.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2006.10.002DOI Listing
March 2007

Glucocorticoid-induced impairment of long-term memory retrieval in rats: an interaction with dopamine D2 receptors.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2006 May 25;85(3):300-6. Epub 2006 Jan 25.

Laboratory of Learning and Memory, Physiological Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

This study investigated glucocorticoid-dopaminergic interactions in modulating retrieval of long-term memory in an inhibitory avoidance task. Young adult male rats were trained in one trial inhibitory avoidance task (0.5 mA, 3 s footshock). On the retention test given 48 h after training, the latency to re-enter the dark compartment of the apparatus was recorded. Systemically administered corticosterone (1 or 3 mg/kg) given to rats 30 min before retention testing impaired their memory retrieval, but the lower dose was more effective than the higher one. Administration of the dopamine (DA) D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride (6 or 20 mg/kg) 30 min before corticosterone attenuated the impairing effects of corticosterone (1 mg/kg) on memory retrieval. Administration of the DA D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 (25 or 50 microg/kg) had no effect on corticosterone-induced impairment of memory retrieval. Further, applied doses of sulpiride or SCH23390 alone were ineffective in modulating memory retrieval. These findings provide evidence for the existence of an interaction between glucocorticoids and DA D2 receptor on memory retrieval process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2005.12.003DOI Listing
May 2006
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