Publications by authors named "Rodion Velichinskii"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Biological Role and Therapeutic Potential of NK Cells in Hematological and Solid Tumors.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Oct 21;22(21). Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Laboratory of Cell Interactions, Immunology Department, Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Miklukho-Maklaya, 117997 Moscow, Russia.

NK cells are an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy due to their potent antitumor activity. The main advantage of using NK cells as cytotoxic effectors over T cells is a reduced risk of graft versus host disease. At present, several variants of NK-cell-based therapies are undergoing clinical trials and show considerable effectiveness for hematological tumors. In these types of cancers, the immune cells themselves often undergo malignant transformation, which determines the features of the disease. In contrast, the current use of NK cells as therapeutic agents for the treatment of solid tumors is much less promising. Most studies are at the stage of preclinical investigation, but few progress to clinical trials. Low efficiency of NK cell migration and functional activity in the tumor environment are currently considered the major barriers to NK cell anti-tumor therapies. Various therapeutic combinations, genetic engineering methods, alternative sources for obtaining NK cells, and other techniques are aiming at the development of promising NK cell anticancer therapies, regardless of tumorigenesis. In this review, we compare the role of NK cells in the pathogenesis of hematological and solid tumors and discuss current prospects of NK-cell-based therapy for hematological and solid tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8584101PMC
October 2021

Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Increases Proliferation and Lifespan of Human NK Cells without Immortalization.

Biomedicines 2021 Jun 9;9(6). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Shemyakin & Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Miklukho-Maklaya 16/10, 117997 Moscow, Russia.

NK cells are the first line of defense against viruses and malignant cells, and their natural functionality makes these cells a promising candidate for cancer cell therapy. The genetic modifications of NK cells, allowing them to overcome some of their inherent limitations, such as low proliferative potential, can enable their use as a therapeutic product. We demonstrate that hTERT-engineered NK cell cultures maintain a high percentage of cells in the S/G2 phase for an extended time after transduction, while the life span of NK cells is measurably extended. Bulk and clonal NK cell cultures pre-activated in vitro with IL-2 and K562-mbIL21 feeder cells can be transduced with hTERT more efficiently compared with the cells activated with IL-2 alone. Overexpressed hTERT was functionally active in transduced NK cells, which displayed upregulated expression of the activation marker HLA-DR, and decreased expression of the maturation marker CD57 and activating receptor NKp46. Larger numbers of KIR2DL2/3+ cells in hTERT-engineered populations may indicate that NK cells with this phenotype are more susceptible to transduction. The hTERT-modified NK cells demonstrated a high natural cytotoxic response towards K562 cells and stably expressed Ki67, a proliferation marker. Overall, our data show that ectopic hTERT expression in NK cells enhances their activation and proliferation, extends in vitro life span, and can be a useful tool in developing NK-based cancer cell therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9060662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8229856PMC
June 2021

Existing and Emerging Biomarkers for Immune Checkpoint Immunotherapy in Solid Tumors.

Adv Ther 2019 10 13;36(10):2638-2678. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

In the last few years, immunotherapy has transformed the way we treat solid tumors, including melanoma, lung, head neck, breast, renal, and bladder cancers. Durable responses and long-term survival benefit has been experienced by many cancer patients, with favorable toxicity profiles of immunotherapeutic agents relative to chemotherapy. Cures have become possible in some patients with metastatic disease. Additional approvals of immunotherapy drugs and in combination with other agents are anticipated in the near future. Multiple additional immunotherapy drugs are in earlier stages of clinical development, and their testing in additional tumor types is under way. Despite considerable early success and relatively fewer side effects, the majority of cancer patients do not respond to checkpoint inhibitors. Additionally, while the drugs are generally well tolerated, there is still the potential for significant, unpredictable and even fatal toxicity with these agents. Improved biomarkers may help to better select patients who are more likely to respond to these drugs. Two key biologically important predictive tissue biomarkers, specifically, PD-L1 and mismatch repair deficiency, have been FDA-approved in conjunction with the checkpoint inhibitor, pembrolizumab. Tumor mutation burden, another promising biomarker, is emerging in several tumor types, and may also soon receive approval. Finally, several other tissue and liquid biomarkers are emerging that could help guide single-agent immunotherapy and in combination with other agents. Of these, one promising investigational biomarker is alteration or deficiency in DNA damage response (DDR) pathways, with altered DDR observed in a broad spectrum of tumors. Here, we provide a critical overview of current, emerging, and investigational biomarkers in the context of response to immunotherapy in solid tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-019-01051-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6778545PMC
October 2019
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