Publications by authors named "Roderick Larsen-Reindorf"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Use of Fertility Awareness-Based Methods for Pregnancy Prevention Among Ghanaian Women: A Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Survey.

Glob Health Sci Pract 2021 06 30;9(2):318-331. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

School of Public Health, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana.

Few studies in low- and middle-income countries have examined the use of fertility awareness-based methods (FABMs) for pregnancy prevention. Understanding the prevalence of FABM use among Ghanaian contraceptors and the characteristics and practices of users is essential. Our 2018 nationally representative survey of Ghanaian women included detailed questions on the use of rhythm and Standard Days Method/Cycle Beads (SDM). After considering multimethod use patterns, we estimated likely FABM prevalence among contraceptors, identified characteristics associated with current use of an FABM (vs. current use of a hormonal method/intrauterine device [IUD]), and described how women report using FABMs. At least 18% of contracepting Ghanaian women likely use an FABM, though this may be underreported. Among FABM users, 57% reported current use of an FABM alone; the remainder reported concurrent use of other methods. Women who were older, richer, more educated, and had fewer children had higher odds of current FABM use versus IUD/hormonal method. Although FABM users were more likely than other contraceptors to correctly identify the approximate fertile time, only 50% of FABM users did so correctly. Most (92%) rhythm users were interested in making their method use more effective. While 72% had heard of SDM, less than 25% had heard of various other ways to make the rhythm method more effective. Only 17% of rhythm users had ever discussed the method with a health professional. Rhythm users indicated substantial willingness to track additional biomarkers (e.g., daily temperature or cervical mucus) or to use a phone to enhance the effectiveness of their method, and most indicated no substantial difficulty getting partners to abstain or withdraw on fertile days. A nontrivial proportion of reproductive age Ghanaian women are using an FABM, nearly all of whom are interested in learning how to improve its effectiveness. The family planning field should better address these women's contraceptive needs in commitment to reproductive autonomy and choice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.9745/GHSP-D-20-00601DOI Listing
June 2021

Immediate "Kangaroo Mother Care" and Survival of Infants with Low Birth Weight.

N Engl J Med 2021 05;384(21):2028-2038

The affiliations of the members of the writing committee are as follows: the Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child, and Adolescent Health, and Ageing, World Health Organization, Geneva (S.P.N.R., S.Y., N.M., H.V.J., H.T., R.B.); Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital (S.A., P.M., N.C., J.S., P.A., K.N., I.S., K.C.A., H.C.) and the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (M.J.S.), New Delhi, and Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, Faridabad (N.W.) - all in India; Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (H.N., E.A., A.M.) and Muhimbili National Hospital (M.N., R.M.) - both in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; the University of Malawi, College of Medicine, Blantyre, Malawi (K.K., L.G., A.T.M., V.S., Q.D.); Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria (C.H.A., O.K., B.P.K., E.A.A.); Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (S.N., R.L.-R., D.A., G.P.-R.) and Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (A.B.-Y., N.W.-B., I.N.), Kumasi, and the School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Accra (A.A.M.) - all in Ghana; Karolinska University Hospital (A.L.) and Karolinska Institute (N.B., A.L., B.W.), Stockholm; the Institute for Safety Governance and Criminology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa (B.M.); and Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway (S.R.).

Background: "Kangaroo mother care," a type of newborn care involving skin-to-skin contact with the mother or other caregiver, reduces mortality in infants with low birth weight (<2.0 kg) when initiated after stabilization, but the majority of deaths occur before stabilization. The safety and efficacy of kangaroo mother care initiated soon after birth among infants with low birth weight are uncertain.

Methods: We conducted a randomized, controlled trial in five hospitals in Ghana, India, Malawi, Nigeria, and Tanzania involving infants with a birth weight between 1.0 and 1.799 kg who were assigned to receive immediate kangaroo mother care (intervention) or conventional care in an incubator or a radiant warmer until their condition stabilized and kangaroo mother care thereafter (control). The primary outcomes were death in the neonatal period (the first 28 days of life) and in the first 72 hours of life.

Results: A total of 3211 infants and their mothers were randomly assigned to the intervention group (1609 infants with their mothers) or the control group (1602 infants with their mothers). The median daily duration of skin-to-skin contact in the neonatal intensive care unit was 16.9 hours (interquartile range, 13.0 to 19.7) in the intervention group and 1.5 hours (interquartile range, 0.3 to 3.3) in the control group. Neonatal death occurred in the first 28 days in 191 infants in the intervention group (12.0%) and in 249 infants in the control group (15.7%) (relative risk of death, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 0.89; P = 0.001); neonatal death in the first 72 hours of life occurred in 74 infants in the intervention group (4.6%) and in 92 infants in the control group (5.8%) (relative risk of death, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.58 to 1.04; P = 0.09). The trial was stopped early on the recommendation of the data and safety monitoring board owing to the finding of reduced mortality among infants receiving immediate kangaroo mother care.

Conclusions: Among infants with a birth weight between 1.0 and 1.799 kg, those who received immediate kangaroo mother care had lower mortality at 28 days than those who received conventional care with kangaroo mother care initiated after stabilization; the between-group difference favoring immediate kangaroo mother care at 72 hours was not significant. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12618001880235; Clinical Trials Registry-India number, CTRI/2018/08/015369.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2026486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8108485PMC
May 2021

Menstrual knowledge, sociocultural restrictions, and barriers to menstrual hygiene management in Ghana: Evidence from a multi-method survey among adolescent schoolgirls and schoolboys.

PLoS One 2020 22;15(10):e0241106. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, School of Medical Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

On a daily basis, schoolgirls in low and middle-income countries discover blood on their clothing for the first time in school environments without toilets, water, or a supportive teacher, mentor, or role model to help them understand the changes happening in their bodies. This study aimed to examine the menstrual knowledge, sociocultural restrictions, and barriers to menstrual hygiene management in school environment among adolescent schoolgirls in a rural community. We collected quantitative data from 250 adolescent schoolgirls and qualitative data from thirty schoolboys and five schoolteachers in five Junior High Schools in the Kumbungu district of northern Ghana. Binary logistic regression models were fitted to determine the predictors of poor menstrual knowledge. Qualitative data were transcribed verbatim, coded, and organized into themes. Overall, 53.6% of the girls had poor knowledge about menstruation. Most of the boys had heard about menstruation and had an idea about what menstruation is with most of them describing it as "the flow of blood through the vagina of a female." The boys revealed that terms such as "Vodafone," "Red card," and "Palm oil" are used to describe menstruation in the schools and within the community. After adjusting for the effect of other sociodemographic factors, we found evidence that girls in their late adolescents were less likely to have poor menstrual knowledge compared to those aged 10-14 years (aOR 0.20, 95%CI 0.08-0.48). Maternal education was protective against poor menstrual knowledge. When compared to adolescents whose mothers were illiterates, those whose mothers had basic education (aOR 0.62, 95%CI 0.28-1.40) and those whose mothers had secondary or higher education (AOR 0.22, 95%CI 0.06-0.76) were less likely to have poor knowledge about menstruation. Adolescents from homes with no television and radio sets were more likely to have poor menstrual knowledge compared to those from homes with television and radio sets (aOR 2.42, 95%CI 1.41-4.15). Comfort, safety, and cost were the major factors that influenced their choice of sanitary products. Most of the teachers said the schools do not provide students with sanitary products, even in emergencies. We found that girls were not to prepare some local dishes (e.g. Wasawasa) during their periods and are forbidden from participating in religious activities (i.e. read the Holy Quran or pray in the mosque) during the period of menstruation. Open discussions about menstruation and its management are not encouraged and girls are considered unclean and impure during the period of menstruation. None of the schools had a regular supply of water in WASH facilities, a mirror for girls to check their uniforms for bloodstains or soap in the toilet facilities for handwashing. Menstrual education through the standard school curriculum, starting from primary school, could prepare girls for menarche, improve their knowledge on menstruation, and teach boys how to support girls and women during the period of menstruation. This could also eliminate the sociocultural misconceptions surrounding menstruation.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0241106PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7580927PMC
December 2020

Prevalence and Correlates of Perceived Infertility in Ghana.

Stud Fam Plann 2020 09;51(3):207-224

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD.

Perceived infertility is an understudied phenomenon in low- and middle-income countries, where biomedical infertility can have severe consequences, particularly for women. We conducted a nationally representative survey of Ghanaian women, estimated the prevalence of and reasons for perceived infertility, and assessed factors associated with higher levels of perceived infertility using a partial proportional odds model. Among 4,070 women, 13 percent believed they were "very likely" to have difficulty getting pregnant when they wanted to, 21 percent believed this was "somewhat likely," and 66 percent believed this was "not at all likely." Reasons for perceived infertility varied by whether the respondent was currently seeking pregnancy. In multivariable analysis, several factors were associated with higher levels of perceived infertility, while unexpectedly, women who reported ever using contraception were less likely to report perceived infertility. Acknowledging the need to address infertility globally and understanding the role of perceived infertility are important components in supporting people's ability to decide whether and when to have children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sifp.12136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7539950PMC
September 2020

Menstrual Hygiene Management and School Absenteeism among Adolescents in Ghana: Results from a School-Based Cross-Sectional Study in a Rural Community.

Int J Reprod Med 2020 27;2020:6872491. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Medicine, Renal Dialysis Unit, Tamale Teaching Hospital, Tamale, Ghana.

The study aimed to deepen our understanding of the menstrual hygiene management (MHM) of adolescents and the influence of menstruation on school absenteeism. We employed a school-based cross-sectional design in five Junior High Schools combining both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. A questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data from 250 schoolgirls, and key informant interviews were conducted with a teacher in each of the five schools. We performed logistic regression analysis to provide crude and adjusted effect estimates and 95% confidence intervals. About fifty percent of the girls were engaged in good MHM, and approximately forty percent of them reported menstrual-related school absenteeism. We did not find evidence ( = 0.858) of association between MHM and menstrual-related school absenteeism. However, after controlling for the effect of other factors, we found evidence that the age of the schoolgirls, their father's occupation, and the receipt of allowance for menstrual care products were associated with MHM. When compared to those aged 17 to 19, those aged 10 to 13 years had 0.72 (95% CI 0.21, 2.44) decreased odds of poor MHM while those aged 14 to 16 had almost 3-fold increased odds (95% CI 1.49, 4.55) of poor MHM. The adolescents whose fathers were farmers had 0.42 (95% CI 0.21, 0.82) decreased odds of poor MHM while those whose fathers were unemployed had 0.24 (95% CI 0.10, 0.61) decreased odds of poor MHM. We found that girls who did not receive regular allowance for menstrual care products had nearly 2-fold increased odds (95% CI 1.06, 3.09) of poor MHM compared to those who received allowance for menstrual care products. Menstrual pain (82.2%), fear of staining clothing (70.3%), fear of being teased (70.3%), nonavailability of sanitary pad (63.4%), and lack of private place to manage period at school (60.4%) were the common reasons cited for menstrual-related school absenteeism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/6872491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204135PMC
April 2020

Estimating the incidence of abortion: using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology in Ghana, 2017.

BMJ Glob Health 2020 9;5(4):e002130. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Introduction: Induced abortion is legally permitted in Ghana under specific conditions, but access to services that meet guidelines approved by government is limited. As part of a larger project comparing five methodologies to estimate abortion incidence, we implemented an indirect estimation approach: the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology (AICM), to understand the incidence of abortion in Ghana in 2017.

Methods: We drew a nationally representative, two-stage, stratified sample of health facilities. We used information from 539 responding facilities to estimate treated complications stemming from illegal induced abortions, and to estimate the number of legal abortions provided. We used information from 146 knowledgeable informants to generate zonal multipliers representing the inverse of the proportion of illegal induced abortions treated for complications in facilities in Ghana's three ecological zones. We applied multipliers to estimates of treated complications from illegal abortions, and added legal abortions to obtain an annual estimate of all induced abortions.

Results: The AICM approach suggests that approximately 200 000 abortions occurred in Ghana in 2017, corresponding to a national abortion rate of 26.8 (95% CI 21.7 to 31.9) per 1000 women 15-49. Abortion rates were lowest in the Northern zone (18.6) and highest in the Middle zone (30.4). Of all abortions, 71% were illegal.

Conclusion: Despite Ghana's relatively liberal abortion law and efforts to expand access to safe abortion services, illegal induced abortion appears common. A concurrently published paper compares the AICM-derived estimates presented in this paper to those from other methodological approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2019-002130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7170428PMC
June 2021

A Survey Study of Pregnant Women and Healthcare Practitioners Assessing the Knowledge of Attitudes and Practices of Hepatitis B Management at a Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana, West Africa.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2015 Dec 1;2(4):ofv122. Epub 2015 Sep 1.

Department of Public Health Sciences , Loyola University Chicago , Maywood, Illinois.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health problem, with sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), including West Africa, bearing a large proportion of cases. Mother-to-child and early childhood horizontal transmission, the most common mechanisms of disease spread in West Africa, lead to a high rate of chronic infection. Although these transmission mechanisms are preventable through vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin, they are not routinely used due to limited resources. Antiviral therapy in pregnant women who are HBV positive is another option to reduce transmission. We conducted a survey study of pregnant women and clinicians at a teaching hospital in West Africa to determine the knowledge base about HBV and willingness to implement measures to reduce HBV transmission. Pregnant women had limited knowledge about HBV and the common transmission mechanisms. Clinicians identified cost and time as the major barriers to implementation of HBV prevention measures. Both pregnant women and clinicians were largely willing to implement and use measures, including antivirals, to help reduce HBV transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofv122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4637905PMC
December 2015

Understanding couples' relationship quality and contraceptive use in Kumasi, Ghana.

Int Perspect Sex Reprod Health 2013 Dec;39(4):185-94

Research Scientist, Department of Family Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA,

Context: A wealth of data exist on knowledge, attitudes and practice related to contraceptive use; however, emotional aspects of relationships that may influence reproductive decision making are often overlooked.

Methods: Data from the 2010 Family Health and Wealth Survey were used in bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses to identify associations between relationship quality and current contraceptive use among 698 married or cohabiting couples in Kumasi, Ghana. Four scales measuring commitment, trust, constructive communication and destructive communication, as well as a question about relationship satisfaction, were the indicators of relationship quality. Current contraceptive use was divided into three categories: no use, reliance on a method that can be used without the partner's awareness (the injectable, pill, IUD, implant and diaphragm) and use of a method that both partners are typically aware of (periodic abstinence, withdrawal, condoms and spermicide).

Results: Overall contraceptive use was low--22% of women said they were currently using any method. In general, respondents reported high levels of relationship quality. Women's relationship satisfaction scores were positively associated with use of awareness methods rather than nonuse (relative risk ratio, 1.2). Men's trust scores were positively associated with use of nonawareness methods rather than nonuse (1.1), and men's constructive communication scores were associated with use of both types of method rather than nonuse (1.1 for each).

Conclusions: Couples' relationship quality appears to be an important element in their decision making regarding contraceptive use, and should be taken into consideration in the design and implementation of family planning programs and policy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1363/3918513DOI Listing
December 2013
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