Publications by authors named "Robyn J Levy"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Efficacy and safety of recombinant C1 inhibitor for the treatment of hereditary angioedema attacks: a North American open-label study.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2013 Apr 6;110(4):295-9. Epub 2013 Mar 6.

University of California Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90095-1680, USA.

Background: The efficacy of recombinant human C1 inhibitor (rhC1INH) for the treatment of patients with acute hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks has been demonstrated in 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies.

Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of rhC1INH for repeated treatment of acute attacks of HAE.

Methods: In this open-label extension study, patients with eligible HAE attacks were treated with an intravenous 50-U/kg dose of rhC1INH with an option for an additional dose of 50 U/kg based on clinical response. Time to beginning of relief was assessed by patients using a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Safety evaluation was based on the clinical laboratory results and adverse events.

Results: Sixty-two patients were treated for 168 attacks (range, 1-8 attacks per patient). A total of 90% of the attacks were treated with a single 50-U/kg dose of rhC1INH. Median times to beginning of symptom relief for the first 5 attacks were 37 to 67 minutes. More than 90% of attacks responded within 4 hours after treatment with rhC1INH. There was no requirement for increased dosing with successive treatments. Thirty-nine patients (63%) reported at least 1 treatment-emergent adverse event, with most events rated mild to moderate. Seven severe treatment-emergent adverse events were reported, and all were considered to be unrelated to treatment with rhC1INH.

Conclusion: The results of this open-label extension support continued efficacy of rhC1INH after repeated treatments for subsequent HAE attacks. There was no increase in adverse event reporting after repeated exposure to rhC1INH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anai.2013.02.007DOI Listing
April 2013

Per-attack reporting of prodromal symptoms concurrent with C1-inhibitor treatment of hereditary angioedema attacks.

Adv Ther 2012 Oct 27;29(10):913-22. Epub 2012 Sep 27.

Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Section, Penn State University, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA.

Introduction: Prodromal symptoms commonly precede hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks. There is continuing interest in evaluating prodromes as treatment indicators, but a paucity of relevant data. This study was designed to prospectively identify prodomal characteristics in patients voluntarily reporting such information around the time of seeking treatment for an acute HAE attack.

Methods: Twenty-eight patients with HAE were enrolled in this survey, which was conducted in the context of an open-label study of treatment of HAE attacks with plasma-derived C1-inhibitor concentrate. At the time of treatment, patients were encouraged to answer survey questions about prodromal symptoms preceding that particular HAE attack.

Results: Twenty-one patients provided prodromal information for 253 treated HAE attacks. Seventy-one percent of patients (15/21) reported prodromes. Three patients accounted for approximately 80% of the attacks and 89% of the reported prodromal symptoms. Prodromes were experienced before 67.6% (171/253) of attacks, with a mean of 1.4 prodromes per attack. Fatigue was the most frequent prodrome (42% of attacks), followed by nausea (26%), and flu-like symptoms (22%). The median duration of a prodrome before an attack was 12 h (range, 0.33-24 h).

Conclusions: Despite many limitations in the study design, these findings confirm that prodromes are frequently associated with HAE attacks in many patients and occur sufficiently early to allow time for treatment initiation. The frequency of "false positive" prodromal symptoms remains undetermined, and the authors captured data only on attacks severe enough to warrant treatment. Additional well-designed prospective studies are clearly needed to continue investigating the potential clinical relevance of prodromes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-012-0053-5DOI Listing
October 2012

C1-inhibitor therapy for hereditary angioedema attacks: prospective patient assessments of health-related quality of life.

Allergy Asthma Proc 2012 Sep-Oct;33(5):427-31

Division of Allergy and Immunology, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68131, USA.

C1-inhibitor (INH) concentrate, which is recommended as first-line treatment for acute hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks in many countries, was recently approved in the United States. We sought to solicit patients' feedback about their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) while being treated with C1-INH concentrate for acute HAE attacks under real-world conditions, as well as the personal impact of the availability of C1-INH on lifestyle and mental health domains. Subjects enrolled in an open-label study of C1-INH at 20 U/kg for acute HAE attacks were invited to participate in a prospectively designed survey to solicit "real-time" patient responses that were collected via an interactive voice response service or online with a personal computer. Eighteen subjects submitted 60 quarterly HRQoL and treatment impact survey responses over 29 months. Seventeen of 18 patients responding reported mean short form 12 HRQoL scores that were within a normal range. More than one-half indicated that C1-INH availability made them feel somewhat or much better, and >80% reported having a better outlook on the future and feeling more secure about the danger of life-threatening attacks. These data confirm a high level of HRQoL and a positive impact in lifestyle and emotional domains among patients who were treated for acute attacks of HAE with C1-INH concentrate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2500/aap.2012.33.3597DOI Listing
March 2013

Clinical impact of peripheral attacks in hereditary angioedema patients.

Am J Med 2012 Sep 27;125(9):937.e17-24. Epub 2012 Jun 27.

Department of Dermatology and Allergology, University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: Episodes of acute subcutaneous angioedema affecting the extremities in patients with known hereditary angioedema are called peripheral attacks. These attacks are considered to be of limited clinical importance.

Objective: To evaluate the impact of peripheral attacks in patients with hereditary angioedema and to assess the response to treatment with recombinant human C1-inhibitor (rhC1INH).

Methods: Hereditary angioedema patients with a peripheral attack included in a clinical database of rhC1INH were analyzed. Visual analog scale (VAS) scoring was used to evaluate symptom severity and response to therapy.

Results: Sixty-five patients with a peripheral attack were identified. VAS scores for 64 patients were available. Twenty-nine (45%) patients reported a single peripheral location of the attack, the others multiple locations. Eight patients (13%) indicated moderate (VAS 20-50 mm) and 55 (86%) severe (VAS ≥50 mm) swelling, 17 (27%) had moderate and 35 (55%) severe pain, while 8 (13%) patients reported moderate and 51 (80%) severe dysfunction for the peripheral attack. Symptom VAS scores decreased over time more rapidly in patients treated with rhC1INH than in patients treated with placebo. Onset of relief was achieved in 95% of the rhC1INH-treated patients within 4 hours, whereas only 21% of saline-treated patients had relief in the same time period.

Conclusion: Peripheral attacks in hereditary angioedema patients often are located at multiple anatomical locations and frequently have associated pain and dysfunction, in addition to swelling, as dominant symptoms. The medical need for treatment of these attacks may be underestimated. Treatment with rhC1INH constitutes a therapeutic option for acute peripheral hereditary angioedema attacks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2011.12.016DOI Listing
September 2012

Randomized placebo-controlled trial of the bradykinin B₂ receptor antagonist icatibant for the treatment of acute attacks of hereditary angioedema: the FAST-3 trial.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2011 Dec 5;107(6):529-37. Epub 2011 Oct 5.

Allergy and Asthma Research Associates Research Center, Dallas, Texas 75081, USA.

Background: The For Angioedema Subcutaneous Treatment (FAST)-3 study was a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of icatibant (bradykinin B(2) receptor antagonist) in subjects with hereditary angioedema (HAE) resulting from C1-INH deficiency or dysfunction (type I/II).

Objective: To investigate icatibant efficacy and safety in subjects with acute HAE attacks.

Methods: Subjects with moderate to very severe cutaneous or abdominal symptoms received icatibant (n = 43) or placebo (n = 45). Five subjects with laryngeal (mild-to-moderate) first attacks received icatibant (n = 3) or placebo (n = 2), and 5 subjects with severe laryngeal first attacks received open-label icatibant.

Results: Cutaneous or abdominal attacks: icatibant significantly reduced median times (vs placebo) to 50% or more reduction in symptom severity (2.0 vs 19.8 hours; P < .001, primary endpoint), onset of primary symptom relief (1.5 vs 18.5 hours; P < .001, key secondary endpoint), or almost complete symptom relief (8.0 vs 36.0 hours; P = .012) and provided a shorter time to initial symptom relief (0.8 vs 3.5 hours; P < .001). For laryngeal attacks, median time to 50% or more reduction in symptom severity was 2.5 hours (icatibant) and 3.2 hours (placebo). No icatibant-treated subject required rescue medication before symptom relief occurred. The incidence of adverse events (AEs) was similar in icatibant- and placebo-treated subjects (41% and 52%, respectively). All icatibant-treated subjects experienced injection site reactions, but none reported clinically relevant changes in safety parameters or serious AEs.

Conclusions: FAST-3 demonstrated that icatibant was effective and generally well tolerated in subjects with acute HAE attacks.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00912093.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anai.2011.08.015DOI Listing
December 2011

Ecallantide (DX-88) for acute hereditary angioedema attacks: integrated analysis of 2 double-blind, phase 3 studies.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2011 Jul 9;128(1):153-159.e4. Epub 2011 Apr 9.

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02467, USA.

Background: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare disorder characterized by recurrent angioedema attacks. Ecallantide, a novel plasma kallikrein inhibitor, inhibits production of bradykinin, the key mediator of these angioedema attacks.

Objective: We sought to further characterize the safety and efficacy of ecallantide for HAE attacks by performing an integrated analysis of pooled data from 2 phase 3 studies.

Methods: An integrated analysis was conducted with data from 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in which patients with HAE (age ≥10 years) received 30 mg of subcutaneous ecallantide or placebo within 8 hours of onset of a moderate-to-severe attack at any anatomic site. Efficacy was evaluated by using validated patient-reported outcome measures: the Mean Symptom Complex Severity (MSCS) score and the Treatment Outcome Score (TOS).

Results: Compared with placebo, ecallantide resulted in significantly greater reduction in MSCS scores from baseline to 4 hours after dosing (ecallantide [mean ± SD], -0.97 ± 0.78; placebo, -0.47 ± 0.71; P < .001) and a significantly greater increase in TOSs at 4 hours (ecallantide, 55.5 ± 46.5; placebo, 20.0 ± 58.9; P < .001). Significantly greater symptomatic improvement over placebo occurred through 24 hours after dosing (MSCS score, P = .028; TOS, P = .039). Ecallantide demonstrated efficacy at all attack sites. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was similar between groups.

Conclusions: This integrated analysis supports and expands on the results of the phase 3 studies. Ecallantide appears to be effective and well tolerated for the treatment of HAE attacks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2011.03.006DOI Listing
July 2011

Hereditary angioedema: Validation of the end point time to onset of relief by correlation with symptom intensity.

Allergy Asthma Proc 2011 Jan-Feb;32(1):36-42

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Ohio 45267-0563, USA.

Time to onset of symptom relief in hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a common primary end point in clinical studies but it has never been validated by correlation with the course of HAE symptoms. This study was designed as a retrospective validation of the primary end point for a placebo-controlled phase II/III study in patients with HAE. Ninety-eight abdominal attacks were treated with 10 or 20 U/kg of a highly purified C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) concentrate or placebo. The primary end point was the time to onset of symptom relief, as determined by the patients. Patients assessed the intensity of the symptoms of pain, nausea, vomiting, cramps, and diarrhea over time. By Spearman rank correlation, the primary end point was compared with the time to first reduction of (1) any symptom intensity, (2) the sum of symptom intensity scores, and (3) the intensity of the last symptom present at baseline. The C1-INH, 20 U/kg, and placebo groups were compared by one-sided two-sample Wilcoxon tests. The time to first reduction in intensity of the last symptom present at baseline had the highest correlation with the primary end point (r = 0.77). The time to onset of symptom relief and the time to the first reduction in intensity of the last symptom were significantly shorter for the C1-INH, 20 U/kg, group compared with placebo (p = 0.009 and p = 0.0036, respectively). The association with the intensity of single symptoms confirmed that the time to onset of symptom relief is an appropriate end point for assessing the efficacy of C1-INH therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2500/aap.2011.32.3404DOI Listing
December 2011

Prospective study of C1 esterase inhibitor in the treatment of successive acute abdominal and facial hereditary angioedema attacks.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2011 Jan 20;106(1):62-8. Epub 2010 Nov 20.

DallasAllergyImmunology, Dallas, Texas 75230, USA.

Background: hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare disorder characterized by a quantitative or functional deficiency of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), resulting in periodic attacks of acute edema at various body locations. The symptoms of these painful attacks can be treated effectively with C1-INH concentrate.

Objective: to document the efficacy and safety of a weight-based dose of C1-INH concentrate in the treatment of successive HAE attacks at abdominal and facial locations.

Methods: acute facial and abdominal attacks were each treated with C1-INH concentrate using a single intravenous dose of 20 U/kg body weight. Efficacy end points included patient-reported time to onset of symptom relief and time to complete resolution of all symptoms. Safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events and assaying for markers of viral infection.

Results: we treated 663 abdominal attacks in 50 patients and 43 facial attacks in 16 patients (a total of 706 attacks in 53 patients). The median time to onset of relief for all attacks was 19.8 minutes, with a median time to complete resolution of 11.0 hours. The median time to onset of relief was 19.8 minutes for abdominal attacks and 28.2 minutes for facial attacks, indicating efficacy for both types of attack. No treatment-related serious adverse events occurred, and C1-INH concentrate was well tolerated. No human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis virus, or parvovirus B19 infections arose during the study.

Conclusion: the C1-INH concentrate dose of 20 U/kg provides rapid, effective, and safe treatment for successive HAE attacks at abdominal and facial locations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anai.2010.10.012DOI Listing
January 2011

Recombinant human C1-inhibitor for the treatment of acute angioedema attacks in patients with hereditary angioedema.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2010 Oct;126(4):821-827.e14

Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego and San Diego VA Healthcare, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Background: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) results from a genetic deficiency of C1-inhibitor. Two similar independent, randomized, saline controlled, double-blind studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of recombinant human C1-inhibitor (rhC1INH) as a treatment of acute angioedema attacks in patients with HAE.

Objective: Analysis of pooled study results.

Methods: Patients with an eligible attack were randomized to a single intravenous dose of rhC1INH or saline. Efficacy was assessed by using patient-reported visual analog scale outcomes, and safety was assessed by using adverse events and immunogenicity of rhC1INH.

Results: rhC1INH at 100 (n = 29) and 50 (n = 12) U/kg body weight resulted in a significant reduction for both the primary endpoint time to the beginning of relief of symptoms compared with saline (n = 29): median, 66 (95% CI, 61-122) minutes, 122 (72-136) minutes, and 495 (245-520) minutes, P < .001 and P = .013, respectively; and for the secondary endpoint time to minimal symptoms, median, 266 (242-490) minutes, 247 (243-484) minutes, and 1210 (970-1500) minutes, P < .001 and P = .001, respectively. Therapeutic failure occurred in 59% (17/29) of the saline group compared with 0% (0/12) of the 50 U/kg group and 10% (3/29) of the 100 U/kg group. Treatment-emergent adverse events were unremarkable and tended to be reported more frequently in the saline group. No postexposure antibody responses against rhC1INH or host-related impurities were observed.

Conclusion: Administration of rhC1INH at 100 or 50 U/kg was highly effective as a treatment of acute attacks in patients with HAE and appeared to be safe and well tolerated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2010.07.021DOI Listing
October 2010

Icatibant, a new bradykinin-receptor antagonist, in hereditary angioedema.

N Engl J Med 2010 Aug;363(6):532-41

Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan.

Background: Hereditary angioedema is characterized by recurrent attacks of angioedema of the skin, larynx, and gastrointestinal tract. Bradykinin is the key mediator of symptoms. Icatibant is a selective bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist.

Methods: In two double-blind, randomized, multicenter trials, we evaluated the effect of icatibant in patients with hereditary angioedema presenting with cutaneous or abdominal attacks. In the For Angioedema Subcutaneous Treatment (FAST) 1 trial, patients received either icatibant or placebo; in FAST-2, patients received either icatibant or oral tranexamic acid, at a dose of 3 g daily for 2 days. Icatibant was given once, subcutaneously, at a dose of 30 mg. The primary end point was the median time to clinically significant relief of symptoms.

Results: A total of 56 and 74 patients underwent randomization in the FAST-1 and FAST-2 trials, respectively. The primary end point was reached in 2.5 hours with icatibant versus 4.6 hours with placebo in the FAST-1 trial (P=0.14) and in 2.0 hours with icatibant versus 12.0 hours with tranexamic acid in the FAST-2 trial (P<0.001). In the FAST-1 study, 3 recipients of icatibant and 13 recipients of placebo needed treatment with rescue medication. The median time to first improvement of symptoms, as assessed by patients and by investigators, was significantly shorter with icatibant in both trials. No icatibant-related serious adverse events were reported.

Conclusions: In patients with hereditary angioedema having acute attacks, we found a significant benefit of icatibant as compared with tranexamic acid in one trial and a nonsignificant benefit of icatibant as compared with placebo in the other trial with regard to the primary end point. The early use of rescue medication may have obscured the benefit of icatibant in the placebo trial. (Funded by Jerini; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00097695 and NCT00500656.)
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa0906393DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4662377PMC
August 2010

Ecallantide for the treatment of acute attacks in hereditary angioedema.

N Engl J Med 2010 Aug;363(6):523-31

University of Milan, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Luigi Sacco, Via Giovanni Battista Grassi 74, 20157 Milan, Italy.

Background: Hereditary angioedema is a rare genetic disorder characterized by acute, intermittent, and potentially life-threatening attacks of edema of the skin and mucosa. We evaluated ecallantide, a newly developed recombinant plasma kallikrein inhibitor, for the treatment of acute attacks of angioedema.

Methods: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients with hereditary angioedema presenting with an acute attack were randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive subcutaneous ecallantide, at a dose of 30 mg, or placebo. Two measures of patient-reported outcomes were used to assess the response: treatment outcome scores, which range from +100 (designated in the protocol as significant improvement in symptoms) to -100 (significant worsening of symptoms), and the change from baseline in the mean symptom complex severity score, which range from +2 (representing a change from mild symptoms at baseline to severe symptoms after) to -3 (representing a change from severe symptoms at baseline to no symptoms after). The primary end point was the treatment outcome score 4 hours after study-drug administration. Secondary end points included the change from baseline in the mean symptom complex severity score at 4 hours and the time to significant improvement.

Results: A total of 71 of the 72 patients completed the trial. The median treatment outcome score at 4 hours was 50.0 in the ecallantide group and 0.0 in the placebo group (interquartile range [IQR], 0.0 to 100.0 in both groups; P=0.004). The median change in the mean symptom complex severity score at 4 hours was -1.00 (IQR, -1.50 to 0.00) with ecallantide, versus -0.50 (IQR, -1.00 to 0.00) with placebo (P=0.01). The estimated time to significant improvement was 165 minutes with ecallantide versus more than 240 minutes with placebo (P=0.14). There were no deaths, treatment-related serious adverse events, or withdrawals owing to adverse events.

Conclusions: Four hours after administration of ecallantide or placebo for acute attacks of angioedema in patients with hereditary angioedema, patient-reported treatment outcome scores and mean symptom complex severity scores were significantly better with ecallantide than with placebo. (Funded by Dyax; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00262080.)
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa0905079DOI Listing
August 2010

Population pharmacokinetics of plasma-derived C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate used to treat acute hereditary angioedema attacks.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2010 Aug;105(2):149-54

Division of Immunology/Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati Medical Center and Bernstein Clinical Research Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267-0563, USA.

Background: C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) replacement is recommended as a first-line therapy for acute edema attacks in hereditary angioedema (HAE). Only limited pharmacokinetic analyses of the administered C1-INH in plasma are available.

Objective: To investigate retrospectively the population pharmacokinetics of a plasma-derived C1-INH (pC1-INH) concentrate used to treat acute HAE attacks in a randomized, placebo-controlled phase 2/3 study in patients with HAE.

Methods: Acute abdominal and facial attacks were treated with either a pC1-INH concentrate (Berinert) at single intravenous doses of 10 or 20 U/kg body weight or placebo. Plasma sampling was conducted 0, 1, and 4 hours after dosing. A nonlinear retrospective population pharmacokinetic model was obtained using the assumption of a 1-compartment model.

Results: The final population pharmacokinetic model was based on data from 97 patients treated with 10 or 20 U/kg of pC1-INH concentrate. The estimated mean half-life was 32.7 hours (90% confidence interval, 16.6-48.8 hours), and the estimated mean clearance was 0.92 mL/kg/h (90% confidence interval, 0.50-1.33 mL/kg/h).

Conclusions: The half-life of the same pC1-INH concentrate reported in a previous study was confirmed by this retrospective population pharmacokinetic analysis in patients treated for acute HAE attacks. In contrast to other treatment options with shorter half-lives, the long half-life of pC1-INH concentrate may provide an extended period of protection, even after the symptoms of an attack have subsided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anai.2010.06.005DOI Listing
August 2010

Prospective study of rapid relief provided by C1 esterase inhibitor in emergency treatment of acute laryngeal attacks in hereditary angioedema.

J Clin Immunol 2010 Nov 16;30(6):823-9. Epub 2010 Jul 16.

Asthma and Respiratory Research, Penn State University, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033, USA.

Introduction: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare disorder characterized by C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency, resulting in periodic attacks of acute edema that can be life-threatening if they occur in the laryngeal region. We assessed the efficacy of C1-INH concentrate in the emergency treatment of rarely occurring acute laryngeal HAE attacks in a prospective, open-label clinical study.

Methods: Acute laryngeal attacks were each treated with C1-INH concentrate (Berinert) at a single dose of 20 U/kg body weight. Efficacy endpoints included time to onset of symptom relief and time to complete resolution of all symptoms, each based on the patient's assessment.

Results: All 39 laryngeal attacks in 16 patients were treated successfully. The median time to onset of symptom relief was 15 min. The median time to complete resolution of all symptoms was 8.25 h. No treatment-related serious adverse events occurred, and the treatment was well tolerated. The administration of C1-INH concentrate was not associated with any viral infections.

Conclusion: C1-INH concentrate is an effective and safe emergency treatment for providing reliable and rapid relief from the potentially life-threatening symptoms of laryngeal HAE attacks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-010-9442-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2970824PMC
November 2010

EDEMA4: a phase 3, double-blind study of subcutaneous ecallantide treatment for acute attacks of hereditary angioedema.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2010 Jun;104(6):523-9

Family Allergy & Asthma Center PC, Atlanta, Georgia 30342, USA.

Background: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a genetic disorder resulting from low levels of C1-inhibitor activity that manifests as acute attacks of variable and sometimes life-threatening edema. Ecallantide is a novel potent inhibitor of human plasma kallikrein, a key mediator of the excessive formation of bradykinin associated with the signs and symptoms of an HAE attack.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ecallantide in the treatment of acute HAE attacks.

Methods: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients with a moderate to severe HAE attack were randomized 1:1 to receive 30 mg of subcutaneous ecallantide or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was change from baseline in mean symptom complex severity score 4 hours after dosing. Additional end points included treatment outcome score 4 hours after dosing and maintenance of significant overall improvement through 24 hours.

Results: Ninety-six patients were enrolled. Mean (SD) change from baseline in mean symptom complex severity score 4 hours after dosing was significantly greater with ecallantide use (-0.8 [0.6]) compared with placebo use (-0.4 [0.8]) (P = .01 comparing distributions). Ecallantide therapy was also associated with a significantly larger mean (SD) treatment outcome score 4 hours after dosing vs placebo use (ecallantide: 53.4 [49.7]; placebo: 8.1 [63.2]; P = .003 comparing distributions). The benefit of ecallantide was apparent within 2 hours after dosing and was maintained through 24 hours after dosing. The safety profile was similar between the treatment groups.

Conclusion: Ecallantide appears to be an effective and safe treatment for acute attacks of HAE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anai.2010.04.012DOI Listing
June 2010

Efficacy of human C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate compared with placebo in acute hereditary angioedema attacks.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2009 Oct 19;124(4):801-8. Epub 2009 Sep 19.

Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pa., USA.

Background: Hereditary angioedema caused by C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency is a rare disorder.

Objective: To compare the efficacy of pasteurized C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate (Berinert, CSL Behring) at intravenous doses of 10 or 20 U/kg body weight with placebo in the treatment of single, acute abdominal or facial attacks in patients with hereditary angioedema.

Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 125 patients with type I or II hereditary angioedema. The primary outcome was time from start of treatment to onset of symptom relief. Secondary outcomes were time to complete resolution, proportion of patients with worsened intensity of angioedema symptoms between 2 and 4hours after treatment, and number of vomiting episodes within 4 hours.

Results: Median time to onset of relief was significantly shorter with C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate at a dose of 20 U/kg than with placebo (0.5 vs 1.5 hours; P = .0025), whereas with 10 U/kg, the time to onset of relief was only slightly shorter than with placebo (1.2 vs 1.5 hours; P = .2731). Compared with placebo, the reduction in time to onset of relief was greatest for severe attacks (0.5 vs 13.5 hours). The secondary outcomes consistently supported the efficacy of the 20 U/kg dose. C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate was safe and well tolerated. No seroconversions were observed for HIV, hepatitis virus, or human B19 virus.

Conclusion: C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate given intravenously at a dose of 20 U/kg is an effective and safe treatment for acute abdominal and facial attacks in patients with hereditary angioedema, with a rapid onset of relief.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2009.07.017DOI Listing
October 2009