Publications by authors named "Robin van Bruggen"

87 Publications

Biomarkers to predict infection and infection-related complications during chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in acute myeloid leukaemia: a pilot study.

Br J Haematol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Blood Cell Research, Division Research and Landsteiner Laboratory of Amsterdam UMC, Sanquin Blood Supply, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17422DOI Listing
April 2021

Neutrophil specific granule and NETosis defects in gray platelet syndrome.

Blood Adv 2021 Jan;5(2):549-564

Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam University Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is an autosomal recessive bleeding disorder characterized by a lack of α-granules in platelets and progressive myelofibrosis. Rare loss-of-function variants in neurobeachin-like 2 (NBEAL2), a member of the family of beige and Chédiak-Higashi (BEACH) genes, are causal of GPS. It is suggested that BEACH domain containing proteins are involved in fusion, fission, and trafficking of vesicles and granules. Studies in knockout mice suggest that NBEAL2 may control the formation and retention of granules in neutrophils. We found that neutrophils obtained from the peripheral blood from 13 patients with GPS have a normal distribution of azurophilic granules but show a deficiency of specific granules (SGs), as confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy and mass spectrometry proteomics analyses. CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from patients with GPS differentiated into mature neutrophils also lacked NBEAL2 expression but showed similar SG protein expression as control cells. This is indicative of normal granulopoiesis in GPS and identifies NBEAL2 as a potentially important regulator of granule release. Patient neutrophil functions, including production of reactive oxygen species, chemotaxis, and killing of bacteria and fungi, were intact. NETosis was absent in circulating GPS neutrophils. Lack of NETosis is suggested to be independent of NBEAL2 expression but associated with SG defects instead, as indicated by comparison with HSC-derived neutrophils. Since patients with GPS do not excessively suffer from infections, the consequence of the reduced SG content and lack of NETosis for innate immunity remains to be explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002442DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7839360PMC
January 2021

Kindlin3-Dependent CD11b/CD18-Integrin Activation Is Required for Potentiation of Neutrophil Cytotoxicity by CD47-SIRPα Checkpoint Disruption.

Cancer Immunol Res 2021 Feb 22;9(2):147-155. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam University Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

The CD47-signal regulatory protein-alpha (SIRPα) immune checkpoint constitutes a therapeutic target in cancer, and initial clinical studies using inhibitors of CD47-SIRPα interactions in combination with tumor-targeting antibodies show promising results. Blockade of CD47-SIRPα interaction can promote neutrophil antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) toward antibody-opsonized targets. Neutrophils induce killing of antibody-opsonized tumor cells by a process identified as trogoptosis, a necrotic/lytic type of cancer cell death that involves trogocytosis, the antibody-mediated endocytic acquisition of cancer membrane fragments by neutrophils. Both trogocytosis and killing strictly depend on CD11b/CD18-(Mac-1)-mediated neutrophil-cancer cell conjugate formation, but the mechanism by which CD47-SIRPα checkpoint disruption promotes cytotoxicity has remained elusive. Here, by using neutrophils from patients with leukocyte adhesion deficiency type III carrying gene mutations, hence lacking the integrin-associated protein kindlin3, we demonstrated that CD47-SIRPα signaling controlled the inside-out activation of the neutrophil CD11b/CD18-integrin and cytotoxic synapse formation in a kindlin3-dependent fashion. Our findings also revealed a role for kindlin3 in trogocytosis and an absolute requirement in the killing process, which involved direct interactions between kindlin3 and CD18 integrin. Collectively, these results identified a dual role for kindlin3 in neutrophil ADCC and provide mechanistic insights into the way neutrophil cytotoxicity is governed by CD47-SIRPα interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-20-0491DOI Listing
February 2021

The Gardos effect drives erythrocyte senescence and leads to Lu/BCAM and CD44 adhesion molecule activation.

Blood Adv 2020 12;4(24):6218-6229

Department of Blood Cell Research, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Senescence of erythrocytes is characterized by a series of changes that precede their removal from the circulation, including loss of red cell hydration, membrane shedding, loss of deformability, phosphatidyl serine exposure, reduced membrane sialic acid content, and adhesion molecule activation. Little is known about the mechanisms that initiate these changes nor is it known whether they are interrelated. In this study, we show that Ca2+-dependent K+ efflux (the Gardos effect) drives erythrocyte senescence. We found that increased intracellular Ca2+ activates the Gardos channel, leading to shedding of glycophorin-C (GPC)-containing vesicles. This results in a loss of erythrocyte deformability but also in a marked loss of membrane sialic acid content. We found that GPC-derived sialic acid residues suppress activity of both Lutheran/basal cell adhesion molecule (Lu/BCAM) and CD44 by the formation of a complex on the erythrocyte membrane, and Gardos channel-mediated shedding of GPC results in Lu/BCAM and CD44 activation. This phenomenon was observed as erythrocytes aged and on erythrocytes that were otherwise prone to clearance from the circulation, such as sickle erythrocytes, erythrocytes stored for transfusion, or artificially dehydrated erythrocytes. These novel findings provide a unifying concept on erythrocyte senescence in health and disease through initiation of the Gardos effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7757008PMC
December 2020

Loss-of-function mutations in CSF3R cause moderate neutropenia with fully mature neutrophils: two novel pedigrees.

Br J Haematol 2020 12 23;191(5):930-934. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Blood Cell Research, Sanquin Research, Amsterdam University Medical Center (AUMC), University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17081DOI Listing
December 2020

Y-RNA subtype ratios in plasma extracellular vesicles are cell type- specific and are candidate biomarkers for inflammatory diseases.

J Extracell Vesicles 2020 May 26;9(1):1764213. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department Of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Major efforts are made to characterize the presence of microRNA (miRNA) and messenger RNA in blood plasma to discover novel disease-associated biomarkers. MiRNAs in plasma are associated to several types of macromolecular structures, including extracellular vesicles (EV), lipoprotein particles (LPP) and ribonucleoprotein particles (RNP). RNAs in these complexes are recovered at variable efficiency by commonly used EV- and RNA isolation methods, which causes biases and inconsistencies in miRNA quantitation. Besides miRNAs, various other non-coding RNA species are contained in EV and present within the pool of plasma extracellular RNA. Members of the Y-RNA family have been detected in EV from various cell types and are among the most abundant non-coding RNA types in plasma. We previously showed that shuttling of full-length Y-RNA into EV released by immune cells is modulated by microbial stimulation. This indicated that Y-RNAs could contribute to the functional properties of EV in immune cell communication and that EV-associated Y-RNAs could have biomarker potential in immune-related diseases. Here, we investigated which macromolecular structures in plasma contain full length Y-RNA and whether the levels of three Y-RNA subtypes in plasma (Y1, Y3 and Y4) change during systemic inflammation. Our data indicate that the majority of full length Y-RNA in plasma is stably associated to EV. Moreover, we discovered that EV from different blood-related cell types contain cell-type-specific Y-RNA subtype ratios. Using a human model for systemic inflammation, we show that the neutrophil-specific Y4/Y3 ratios and PBMC-specific Y3/Y1 ratios were significantly altered after induction of inflammation. The plasma Y-RNA ratios strongly correlated with the number and type of immune cells during systemic inflammation. Cell-type-specific "Y-RNA signatures" in plasma EV can be determined without prior enrichment for EV, and may be further explored as simple and fast test for diagnosis of inflammatory responses or other immune-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20013078.2020.1764213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7448942PMC
May 2020

Oxidative stress activates red cell adhesion to laminin in sickle cell disease.

Haematologica 2020 08 27. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Inserm - INTS - University of Paris, Paris, France;

Vaso-occlusive crises are the hallmark of sickle cell disease (SCD). They are believed to occur in two steps, starting with adhesion of deformable low-dense red blood cells (RBCs), or other blood cells such as neutrophils, to the wall of post-capillary venules, followed by trapping of the denser RBCs or leukocytes in the areas of adhesion because of reduced effective lumen-diameter. In SCD, RBCs are heterogeneous in terms of density, shape, deformability and surface proteins, which accounts for the differences observed in their adhesion and resistance to shear stress. Sickle RBCs exhibit abnormal adhesion to laminin mediated by Lu/BCAM protein at their surface. This adhesion is triggered by Lu/BCAM phosphorylation in reticulocytes but such phosphorylation does not occur in mature dense RBCs despite firm adhesion to laminin. In this study, we investigated the adhesive properties of sickle RBC subpopulations and addressed the molecular mechanism responsible for the increased adhesion of dense RBCs to laminin in the absence of Lu/BCAM phosphorylation. We provide evidence for the implication of oxidative stress in post-translational modifications of Lu/BCAM that impact its distribution and cis-interaction with glycophorin C at the cell surface activating its adhesive function in sickle dense RBCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2020.261586DOI Listing
August 2020

Different MDSC Activity of G-CSF/Dexamethasone Mobilized Neutrophils: Benefits to the Patient?

Front Oncol 2020 21;10:1110. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Blood Cell Research, Sanquin Research, Amsterdam University Medical Center (AUMC), University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Human neutrophils exert a well-known role as efficient effector cells to kill pathogenic micro-organisms. Apart from their role in innate immunity, neutrophils also have the capacity to suppress T cell-mediated immune responses as so-called granulocyte-myeloid-derived suppressor cells (g-MDSCs), impacting the clinical outcome of various disease settings such as cancer. Patients undergoing chemotherapy because of an underlying malignancy can develop prolonged bone marrow suppression and are prone to serious infections because of severe neutropenia. Concentrates of granulocytes for transfusion (GTX) constitute a therapeutic tool and rescue treatment to fight off these serious bacterial and fungal infections when antimicrobial therapy is ineffective. GTX neutrophils are mobilized by overnight G-CSF and/or Dexamethasone stimulation of healthy donors. Although the phenotype of these mobilized neutrophils differs from the circulating neutrophils under normal conditions, their anti-microbial function is still intact. In contrast to the unaltered antimicrobial effector functions, G-CSF/Dexamethasone-mobilized neutrophils were found to lack suppression of the T cell proliferation, whereas G-CSF-mobilized or Dexamethasone-mobilized neutrophils could still suppress the T cell proliferation upon cell activation equally well as control neutrophils. Although the mechanism of how G-CSF/Dex mobilization may silence the g-MDSC activity of neutrophils without downregulating the antimicrobial activity is presently unclear, their combined use in patients in the treatment of underlying malignancies may be beneficial-irrespective of the number of circulating neutrophils. These findings also indicate that MDSC activity does not fully overlap with the antimicrobial activity of human neutrophils and offers the opportunity to elucidate the feature(s) unique to their T-cell suppressive activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.01110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7385308PMC
July 2020

Severity of illness influences the microcirculatory response to red blood cell transfusion in the critically ill: an observational cohort study.

Crit Care 2020 08 12;24(1):498. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine and Laboratory of Experimental Intensive Care and Anesthesiology, Amsterdam UMC, location AMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-020-03202-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7425570PMC
August 2020

Biomarkers for the Discrimination of Acute Kawasaki Disease From Infections in Childhood.

Front Pediatr 2020 22;8:355. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Department of Blood Cell Research, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Kawasaki disease (KD) is a vasculitis of early childhood mimicking several infectious diseases. Differentiation between KD and infectious diseases is essential as KD's most important complication-the development of coronary artery aneurysms (CAA)-can be largely avoided by timely treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG). Currently, KD diagnosis is only based on clinical criteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether routine C-reactive protein (CRP) and additional inflammatory parameters myeloid-related protein 8/14 (MRP8/14 or S100A8/9) and human neutrophil-derived elastase (HNE) could distinguish KD from infectious diseases. The cross-sectional study included KD patients and children with proven infections as well as febrile controls. Patients were recruited between July 2006 and December 2018 in Europe and USA. MRP8/14, CRP, and HNE were assessed for their discriminatory ability by multiple logistic regression analysis with backward selection and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. In the discovery cohort, the combination of MRP8/14+CRP discriminated KD patients ( = 48) from patients with infection ( = 105), with area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.88. The HNE values did not improve discrimination. The first validation cohort confirmed the predictive value of MRP8/14+CRP to discriminate acute KD patients ( = 26) from those with infections ( = 150), with an AUC of 0.78. The second validation cohort of acute KD patients ( = 25) and febrile controls ( = 50) showed an AUC of 0.72, which improved to 0.84 when HNE was included. When used in combination, the plasma markers MRP8/14, CRP, and HNE may assist in the discrimination of KD from both proven and suspected infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7388698PMC
July 2020

Treatment-associated hemolysis in Kawasaki disease: association with blood-group antibody titers in IVIG products.

Blood Adv 2020 07;4(14):3416-3426

Department of Blood Cell Research, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam University Medical Center (UMC), University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Hemolytic anemia resulting from IV Immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment can be a serious complication, especially for those with underlying conditions with a high level of inflammation and after administration of high IVIG dosages, such as Kawasaki disease (KD), a multisystem vasculitis affecting young children. This hemolysis is caused by antibodies against blood groups A and B, but the precise mechanism for hemolysis is not known. We performed a single center, partly retrospective, partly prospective study of a cohort of 581 patients who received IVIG for treatment of KD from 2006 to 2013. Factors associated with hemolysis were identified through univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Six IVIG preparations were assayed for their hemolytic effect with serological and cellular assays to clarify the mechanism of red cell destruction. During the study period, a sudden increase in the incidence of hemolysis was observed, which coincided with the introduction of new IVIG preparations in North America that contained relatively high titers of anti-A and anti-B. These blood-group-specific antibodies were of the immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) subclass and resulted in phagocytosis by monocyte-derived macrophages in an FcγRIIa-dependent manner. Phagocytosis was increased in the presence of proinflammatory mediators that mimicked the inflammatory state of KD. An increased frequency of severe hemolysis following IVIG administration was caused by ABO blood-group-specific IgG2 antibodies leading to FcγRIIa-dependent clearance of erythrocytes. This increase in adverse events necessitates a reconsideration of the criteria for maximum titer (1:64) of anti-A and anti-B in IVIG preparations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7391134PMC
July 2020

The association and functional relevance of genetic variation in low-to-medium-affinity Fc-gamma receptors with clinical platelet transfusion refractoriness.

J Thromb Haemost 2020 08 25;18(8):2047-2053. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Blood Cell Research, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Inadequate responses to platelet transfusions (i.e., platelet transfusion refractoriness [PLT refractoriness]) are a serious problem. Multiple factors contribute to low yields upon platelet transfusion, among which are platelet-reactive allo-antibodies. Platelet-reactive allo-antibodies occur in up to 30% of patients receiving multiple transfusions, and presumably lead to rapid destruction of the transfused platelets via receptors for IgG, the Fc-gamma receptors (FcγRs). Genetic variation in FcγRs is associated with susceptibility to immune thrombocytopenia, in which autoantibodies against platelets cause thrombocytopenia.

Objectives: We hypothesized that genetic variation in FcγRs may also influence PLT refractoriness in allo-immunized patients and could help in identifying the patients at risk.

Patients/methods: Patients with severe PLT refractoriness for whom diagnostic testing for allo-immunization was requested in the period of 2005 to 2013 were retrospectively included. A case-control study was performed comparing patients in whom platelet-reactive antibodies were detected (n = 181) with ethnically matched healthy controls (n = 180) to determine differences in all known functional copy number variations and single nucleotide polymorphisms in FcγRs.

Results And Conclusions: None of the tested FcγR genetic variations seemed associated with the development of severe PLT refractoriness. In contrast to observations in immune thrombocytopenia, genetic variation in FcγRs does not seem to influence the chance to develop PLT refractoriness. Our results do not support determination of FcγR genetic background as a means to identify patients most at risk for PLT refractoriness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.14892DOI Listing
August 2020

Colloid osmotic pressure of contemporary and novel transfusion products.

Vox Sang 2020 Nov 6;115(8):664-675. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Intensive Care, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background And Objectives: Colloid osmotic pressure (COP) is a principal determinant of intravascular fluid homeostasis and a pillar of fluid therapy and transfusion. Transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) is a leading complication of transfusion, and COP could be responsible for recruiting additional fluid. Study objective was to measure COP of blood products as well as investigate the effects of product concentration and storage lesion on COP.

Materials And Methods: Three units of each product were sampled longitudinally. COP was measured directly as well as the determinants thereof albumin and total protein. Conventional blood products, that is red blood cell (RBC), fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet concentrates (PLTs), were compared with their concentrated counterparts: volume-reduced RBCs, hyperconcentrated PLTs, and fully and partially reconstituted lyophilized plasma (prLP). Fresh and maximally stored products were measured to determine changes in protein and COP. We calculated potential volume load (PVL) to estimate volume recruited using albumin's water binding per product.

Results: Colloid osmotic pressure varies widely between conventional products (RBCs, 1·9; PLTs, 7·5; and FFP, 20·1 mmHg); however, all are hypooncotic compared with human plasma COP (25·4 mmHg). Storage lesion did not increase COP. Concentrating RBCs and PLTs did not increase COP; only prLP showed a supraphysiological COP of 47·3 mm Hg. The PVL of concentrated products was lower than conventional products.

Conclusion: Colloid osmotic pressure of conventional products was low. Therefore, third-space fluid recruitment is an unlikely mechanism in TACO. Concentrated products had a lower calculated fluid load and may prevent TACO. Finally, storage did not significantly increase oncotic pressure of blood products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vox.12932DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7754447PMC
November 2020

Divergent chemokine receptor expression and the consequence for human IgG4 B cell responses.

Eur J Immunol 2020 08 25;50(8):1113-1125. Epub 2020 May 25.

Sanquin Research, Department of Immunopathology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

IgG4 antibodies are unique to humans. IgG4 is associated with tolerance during immunotherapy in allergy, but also with pathology, as in pemphigus vulgaris and IgG4-related disease. Its induction is largely restricted to nonmicrobial antigens, and requires repeated or prolonged antigenic stimulation, for reasons poorly understood. An important aspect in generating high-affinity IgG antibodies is chemokine receptor-mediated migration of B cells into appropriate niches, such as germinal centers. Here, we show that compared to IgG1 B cells, circulating IgG4 B cells express lower levels of CXCR3, CXCR4, CXCR5, CCR6, and CCR7, chemokine receptors involved in GC reactions and generation of long-lived plasma cells. This phenotype was recapitulated by in vitro priming of naive B cells with an IgG4-inducing combination of T /T cytokines. Consistent with these observations, we found a low abundance of IgG4 B cells in secondary lymphoid tissues in vivo, and the IgG4 antibody response is substantially more short-lived compared to other IgG subclasses in patient groups undergoing CD20 B cell depletion therapy with rituximab. These results prompt the hypothesis that factors needed to form IgG4 B cells restrain at the same time the induction of a robust migratory phenotype that could support a long-lived IgG4 antibody response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.201948454DOI Listing
August 2020

The Effect of Washing of Stored Red Blood Cell Transfusion Units on Post Transfusion Recovery and Outcome in a Pneumosepsis Animal Model.

Shock 2020 Dec;54(6):794-801

Department of Intensive Care Medicine and Laboratory of Experimental Intensive Care and Anesthesiology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Septic patients are often anemic, requiring red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. However, RBC transfusions are associated with organ injury. The mechanisms of RBC-induced organ injury are unknown, but increased clearance of donor RBCs from the circulation with trapping in the organs could play a role. We hypothesized that washing of RBCs prior to transfusion may reduce clearance and trapping of donor cells and thereby reduce organ injury.

Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were inoculated intratracheally with 10 colony-forming units (CFU) of Streptococcus pneumoniae or vehicle as a control and transfused with either a washed or standard (non-washed) biotinylated RBC transfusion from syngeneic rats. Controls received saline. Blood samples were taken directly after transfusion and at 24 h to calculate the 24 h post transfusion recovery (PTR). After sacrifice, flow cytometry was used to detect donor RBCs in organs and blood. The organs were histologically scored by a pathologist and CFUs in the lung and blood were counted.

Results: The 24h-PTR was similar between healthy and pneumoseptic rats after a standard transfusion. In healthy rats, a washed transfusion resulted in a higher PTR and less accumulation of donor RBCs in the organs compared with a standard transfusion. However, during pneumonia, this effect of washing was not seen. Transfusion did not further augment lung injury induced by pneumonia, but washing decreased bacterial outgrowth in the lungs associated with reduced lung injury.

Conclusion: In healthy recipients, washing increased 24h-PTR of donor RBCs and decreased trapping in organs. In pneumoseptic rats, washing reduced bacterial outgrowth and lung injury, but did not improve PTR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000001535DOI Listing
December 2020

MKL1 deficiency results in a severe neutrophil motility defect due to impaired actin polymerization.

Blood 2020 06;135(24):2171-2181

Department of Blood Cell Research, Sanquin Research, Amsterdam University Medical Center (AUMC), University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Megakaryoblastic leukemia 1 (MKL1) promotes the regulation of essential cell processes, including actin cytoskeletal dynamics, by coactivating serum response factor. Recently, the first human with MKL1 deficiency, leading to a novel primary immunodeficiency, was identified. We report a second family with 2 siblings with a homozygous frameshift mutation in MKL1. The index case died as an infant from progressive and severe pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and poor wound healing. The younger sibling was preemptively transplanted shortly after birth. The immunodeficiency was marked by a pronounced actin polymerization defect and a strongly reduced motility and chemotactic response by MKL1-deficient neutrophils. In addition to the lack of MKL1, subsequent proteomic and transcriptomic analyses of patient neutrophils revealed actin and several actin-related proteins to be downregulated, confirming a role for MKL1 as a transcriptional coregulator. Degranulation was enhanced upon suboptimal neutrophil activation, whereas production of reactive oxygen species was normal. Neutrophil adhesion was intact but without proper spreading. The latter could explain the observed failure in firm adherence and transendothelial migration under flow conditions. No apparent defect in phagocytosis or bacterial killing was found. Also, monocyte-derived macrophages showed intact phagocytosis, and lymphocyte counts and proliferative capacity were normal. Nonhematopoietic primary fibroblasts demonstrated defective differentiation into myofibroblasts but normal migration and F-actin content, most likely as a result of compensatory mechanisms of MKL2, which is not expressed in neutrophils. Our findings extend current insight into the severe immune dysfunction in MKL1 deficiency, with cytoskeletal dysfunction and defective extravasation of neutrophils as the most prominent features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019002633DOI Listing
June 2020

Potential of Parameters of Iron Metabolism for the Diagnosis of Anemia of Inflammation in the Critically Ill.

Transfus Med Hemother 2020 Feb 3;47(1):61-67. Epub 2019 May 3.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Anemia of inflammation (AI) is the most common cause of anemia in the critically ill, but its diagnosis is a challenge. New therapies specific to AI are in development, and they require accurate detection of AI. This study explores the potential of parameters of iron metabolism for the diagnosis of AI during an ICU stay.

Methods: In a nested case-control study, 30 patients developing AI were matched to 60 controls. The iron parameters were determined in plasma samples during an ICU stay. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the iron parameter threshold with the highest sensitivity and specificity to predict AI. Likelihood ratios as well as positive and negative predictive values were calculated as well.

Results: The sensitivity of iron parameters for diagnosing AI ranges between 62 and 76%, and the specificity between 57 and 72%. Iron and transferrin show the greatest area under the curve. Iron shows the highest sensitivity, and transferrin and transferrin saturation display the highest specificity. Hepcidin and ferritin show the lowest specificity. At an actual anemia prevalence of 53%, the diagnostic accuracy of iron, transferrin, and transferrin saturation was fair, with a positive predictive value between 71 and 73%. Combining iron, transferrin, transferrin saturation, hepcidin, and/or ferritin levels did not increase the accuracy of the AI diagnosis.

Conclusions: In this explorative study on the use of different parameters of iron metabolism for diagnosing AI during an ICU stay, low levels of commonly measured markers such as plasma iron, transferrin, and transferrin saturation have the highest sensitivity and specificity and outperform ferritin and hepcidin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000497123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7036579PMC
February 2020

Red blood cell transfusion results in adhesion of neutrophils in human endotoxemia and in critically ill patients with sepsis.

Transfusion 2020 02 5;60(2):294-302. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Department of Blood Cell Research, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is associated with adverse effects, which may involve activation of the host immune response. The effect of RBC transfusion on neutrophil Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production and adhesion ex vivo was investigated in endotoxemic volunteers and in critically ill patients that received a RBC transfusion. We hypothesized that RBC transfusion would cause neutrophil activation, the extent of which depends on the storage time and the inflammatory status of the recipient.

Study Design And Methods: Volunteers were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and transfused with either saline, fresh, or stored autologous RBCs. In addition, 47 critically ill patients with and without sepsis receiving either fresh (<8 days) or standard stored RBC (2-35 days) were included. Neutrophils from healthy volunteers were incubated with the plasma samples from the endotoxemic volunteers and from the critically ill patients, after which priming of neutrophil ROS production and adhesion were assessed.

Results: In the endotoxemia model, ex vivo neutrophil adhesion, but not ROS production, was increased after transfusion, which was not affected by RBC storage duration. In the critically ill, ex vivo neutrophil ROS production was already increased prior to transfusion and was not increased following transfusion. Neutrophil adhesion was increased following transfusion, which was more notable in the septic patients than in non-septic patients. Transfusion of fresh RBCs, but not standard issued RBCs, resulted in enhanced ROS production in neutrophils.

Conclusion: RBC transfusion was associated with increased neutrophil adhesion in a model of human endotoxemia as well as in critically ill patients with sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7028139PMC
February 2020

The effect of red blood cell transfusion on platelet function in critically ill patients.

Thromb Res 2019 Dec 1;184:115-121. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Introduction: Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is associated with an increased risk of pro-thrombotic events, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. We hypothesized that RBC transfusion modulates platelet activity in critically ill patients with and without sepsis.

Methods: In a prospective cohort study, 37 critically ill patients receiving a single RBC unit to correct for anemia were sampled prior to and 1 h after transfusion. Platelet exposure of P-selectin, CD63 and binding of PAC-1 as well as formation of platelet-leukocyte complexes were measured by flow cytometry. The ability of plasma from critically ill patients to induce ex vivo platelet aggregation was assessed by flow cytometry after incubation with platelets from a healthy donor.

Results: RBC transfusion neither triggered the expression of platelet activation markers nor the formation of platelet-leukocyte complexes. Plasma from critically ill patients induced more spontaneous platelet aggregation prior to RBC transfusion compared to healthy controls, which was further augmented following RBC transfusion. Also collagen-induced platelet aggregation was already increased prior to RBC transfusion compared to healthy controls, and this response was unaffected by RBC transfusion. In contrast, ristocetin-induced platelet agglutination was decreased when compared to controls, suggesting impaired vWF-dependent platelet agglutination, even in the presence of high vWF levels. Following RBC transfusion, ristocetin-induced platelet agglutination further decreased. There were no differences between septic and non-septic recipients in all assays.

Conclusion: Ex vivo platelet aggregation is disturbed in the critically ill. Transfusion of a RBC unit may further increase the spontaneous platelet aggregatory response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2019.10.028DOI Listing
December 2019

Volume incompliance and transfusion are essential for transfusion-associated circulatory overload: a novel animal model.

Transfusion 2019 12 7;59(12):3617-3627. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Department of Intensive Care, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) is the predominant complication of transfusion resulting in death. The pathophysiology is poorly understood, but inability to manage volume is associated with TACO, and observational data suggest it is different from simple cardiac overload due to fluids. We developed a two-hit TACO animal model to assess the role of volume incompliance ("first-hit") and studied whether volume overload ("second-hit") by red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is different compared to fluids (Ringer's lactate [RL]).

Materials And Methods: Male adult Lewis rats were stratified into a control group (no intervention) or a first hit: either myocardial infarction (MI) or acute kidney injury (AKI). Animals were randomized to a second hit of either RBC transfusion or an equal volume of RL. A clinically relevant difference was defined as an increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (ΔLVEDP) of +4.0 mm Hg between the RBC and RL groups.

Results: In control animals (without first hit) LVEDP was not different between infusion groups (Δ + 1.6 mm Hg). LVEDP increased significantly more after RBCs compared to RL in animals with MI (Δ7.4 mm Hg) and AKI (Δ + 5.4 mm Hg), respectively. Volume-incompliant rats matched clinical TACO criteria in 92% of transfused versus 25% of RL-infused animals, with a greater increase in heart rate and significantly higher blood pressure.

Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first animal model for TACO, showing that a combination of volume incompliance and transfusion is essential for development of circulatory overload. This model allows for further testing of mechanistic factors as well as therapeutic approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15565DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6916548PMC
December 2019

Tissue-specific expression of IgG receptors by human macrophages ex vivo.

PLoS One 2019 15;14(10):e0223264. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Department of Blood Cell Research, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Academic Medical Center (AMC), University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Recently it was discovered that tissue-resident macrophages derive from embryonic precursors, not only from peripheral blood monocytes, and maintain themselves by self-renewal. Most in-vitro studies on macrophage biology make use of in-vitro cultured human monocyte-derived macrophages. Phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized particles by tissue-resident macrophages takes place via interaction with IgG receptors, the Fc-gamma receptors (FcγRs). We investigated the FcγR expression on macrophages both in-vivo and ex-vivo from different human tissues. Upon isolation of primary human macrophages from bone marrow, spleen, liver and lung, we observed that macrophages from all studied tissues expressed high levels of FcγRIII, which was in direct contrast with the low expression on blood monocyte-derived macrophages. Expression levels of FcγRI were highly variable, with bone marrow macrophages showing the lowest and alveolar macrophages the highest expression. Kupffer cells in the liver were the only tissue-resident macrophages that expressed the inhibitory IgG receptor, FcγRIIB. This inhibitory receptor was also found to be expressed by sinusoidal endothelial cells in the liver. In sum, our immunofluorescence data combined with ex-vivo stainings of isolated macrophages indicated that tissue-resident macrophages are remarkably unique and different from monocyte-derived macrophages in their phenotypic expression of IgG receptors. Tissue macrophages show distinct tissue-specific FcγR expression patterns.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0223264PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6793881PMC
March 2020

Neutrophils as Suppressors of T Cell Proliferation: Does Age Matter?

Front Immunol 2019 11;10:2144. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Department of Blood Cell Research, Sanquin Research, Amsterdam University Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Whereas, neutrophils have long been considered to mainly function as efficient innate immunity killers of micro-organisms at infected sites, they are now recognized to also be involved in modulation of adaptive immune responses. Immature and mature neutrophils were reported to have the capacity to suppress T cell-mediated immune responses as so-called granulocyte-myeloid-derived suppressor cells (g-MDSCs), and thereby affect the clinical outcome of cancer patients and impact the chronicity of microbial infections or rejection reactions in organ transplantation settings. These MDSCs were at first considered to be immature myeloid cells that left the bone marrow due to disease-specific signals. Current studies show that also mature neutrophils can exert suppressive activity. In this study we investigated in a robust T cell suppression assay whether immature CD11b+ myeloid cells were capable of MDSC activity comparable to mature fully differentiated neutrophils. We compared circulating neutrophils with myeloid cell fractions from the bone marrow at different differentiation stages. Our results indicate that functional MDSC activity is only becoming detectable at the final stage of differentiation, depending on the procedure of cell isolation. The MDSC activity obtained during neutrophil maturation correlated with the induction of the well-known highly mobile and toxic effector functions of the circulating neutrophil. Although immature neutrophils have been suggested to be increased in the circulation of cancer patients, we show here that immature neutrophils are not efficient in suppressing T cells. This suggests that the presence of immature neutrophils in the bloodstream of cancer patients represent a mere association or may function as a source of mature neutrophils in the tumor environment but not a direct cause of enhanced MDSC activity in cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.02144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6749034PMC
October 2020

Transfusion practice in the non-bleeding critically ill: an international online survey-the TRACE survey.

Crit Care 2019 Sep 11;23(1):309. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, University of Amsterdam, Room C3-430, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Over the last decade, multiple large randomized controlled trials have studied alternative transfusion strategies in critically ill patients, demonstrating the safety of restrictive transfusion strategies. Due to the lack of international guidelines specific for the intensive care unit (ICU), we hypothesized that a large heterogeneity in transfusion practice in this patient population exists. The aims of this study were to describe the current transfusion practices and identify the knowledge gaps.

Methods: An online, anonymous, worldwide survey among ICU physicians was performed evaluating red blood cell, platelet and plasma transfusion practices. Furthermore, the presence of a hospital- or ICU-specific transfusion guideline was asked. Only completed surveys were analysed.

Results: Nine hundred forty-seven respondents filled in the survey of which 725 could be analysed. Hospital transfusion protocol available in their ICU was reported by 53% of the respondents. Only 29% of respondents used an ICU-specific transfusion guideline. The reported haemoglobin (Hb) threshold for the general ICU population was 7 g/dL (7-7). The highest reported variation in transfusion threshold was in patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or with brain injury (8 g/dL (7.0-9.0)). Platelets were transfused at a median count of 20 × 10 cells/L IQR (10-25) in asymptomatic patients, but at a higher count prior to invasive procedures (p < 0.001). In patients with an international normalized ratio (INR) > 3, 43% and 57% of the respondents would consider plasma transfusion without any upcoming procedures or prior to a planned invasive procedure, respectively. Finally, doctors with base specialty in anaesthesiology transfused critically ill patients more liberally compared to internal medicine physicians.

Conclusion: Red blood cell transfusion practice for the general ICU population is restrictive, while for different subpopulations, higher Hb thresholds are applied. Furthermore, practice in plasma and platelet transfusion is heterogeneous, and local transfusion guidelines are lacking in the majority of the ICUs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-019-2591-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6737617PMC
September 2019

Development of a model for anemia of inflammation that is relevant to critical care.

Intensive Care Med Exp 2019 Jul 25;7(Suppl 1):47. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, 1105, AZ, the Netherlands.

Background: Anemia of inflammation (AI) is common in critically ill patients. Although this syndrome negatively impacts the outcome of critical illness, understanding of its pathophysiology is limited. Also, new therapies that increase iron availability for erythropoiesis during AI are upcoming. A model of AI induced by bacterial infections that are relevant for the critically ill is currently not available. This paper describes the development of an animal model for AI that is relevant for critical care research.

Results: In experiments with rats, the rats were inoculated either repeatedly or with a slow release of Streptococcus pneumoniae or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Rats became ill, but their hemoglobin levels remained stable. The use of a higher dose of bacteria resulted in a lethal model. Then, we turned to a model with longer disease duration, using pigs that were supported by mechanical ventilation after inoculation with P. aeruginosa. The pigs became septic 12 to 24 h after inoculation, with a statistically significant decrease in mean arterial pressure and base excess, while heart rate tended to increase. Pigs needed resuscitation and vasopressor therapy to maintain a mean arterial pressure > 60 mmHg. After 72 h, the pigs developed anemia (baseline 9.9 g/dl vs. 72 h, 7.6 g/dl, p = 0.01), characterized by statistically significant decreased iron levels, decreased transferrin saturation, and increased ferritin. Hepcidin levels tended to increase and transferrin levels tended to decrease.

Conclusions: Using pathogens commonly involved in pulmonary sepsis, AI could not be induced in rats. Conversely, in pigs, P. aeruginosa induced pulmonary sepsis with concomitant AI. This AI model can be applied to study the pathophysiology of AI in the critically ill and to investigate the effectivity and toxicity of new therapies that aim to increase iron availability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40635-019-0261-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6658638PMC
July 2019

Biotinylation of platelets for transfusion purposes a novel method to label platelets in a closed system.

Transfusion 2019 09 18;59(9):2964-2973. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Department of Blood Cell Research, Sanquin Research, and Landsteiner Laboratory, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Labeling of platelets (PLTs) is required to measure the recovery and survival of transfused PLTs in vivo. Currently a radioactive method is used to label PLTs. However, application of those radiolabeling methods is limited by both safety issues and the inability to isolate transfused PLTs from the circulation. Biotin-labeled PLTs are an attractive nonradioactive option. However, no validated protocol to biotinylate PLTs is currently available for human studies.

Study Design And Methods: Six PLT concentrates (PCs) were subaliquoted and biotinylated on Days 1 and 7 of storage. To distinguish the effect of the processing steps from the effects of biotin incubation, two control groups were used: 1) "sham" samples were processed without the biotinylation reagent and 2) control samples were assessed without any processing other than the PC isolation. For the biotinylation procedure, 50 mL of PCs was washed twice and incubated with 5 mg/L biotin for 30 minutes in a closed system. As measures of PLT activation, phosphatidylserine exposure and CD62p expression were assessed.

Results: After biotinylation, 98.4% ± 0.9% of PLTs were labeled. PLT counts, pH, and "swirling" were within the range accepted by the Dutch blood bank for standard PLT products. Biotinylated PLTs were more activated compared than controles but not more than sham samples, but were more activated than the controls.

Conclusion: We developed a standardized and reproducible protocol according to Good Practice Guidelines standards, for biotin labeling of PLTs for clinical purposes. This method can be applied as nonradioactive alternative assess survival and recovery of transfused PLTs in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6852179PMC
September 2019

Clearance and phenotype of extracellular vesicles after red blood cell transfusion in a human endotoxemia model.

Transfus Apher Sci 2019 Aug 22;58(4):508-511. Epub 2019 Jun 22.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: In the critically ill, extracellular vesicles (EV) from red blood cells (RBC) have been related to adverse effects of blood transfusion. Stored RBC units contain high concentrations of RBC- EVs, thereby increasing the concentration of EVs in the circulation after transfusion. The mechanisms underlying the clearance of donor RBC-EVs after transfusion are unknown. This study investigates whether membrane markers that are associated with clearance of RBCs are also implicated in clearance of RBC-EVs in human endotoxemic recipients of a transfusion.

Methods: Six volunteers were injected with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide, and after two hours transfused with an autologous RBC unit donated 35 days earlier. Samples were collected from the RBC unit and the volunteers before and after transfusion. RBC-EVs were labeled with (anti) glycophorin A, combined with (anti) CD44, CD47, CD55, CD59, CD147, or lactadherin to detect phosphatidylserine (PS) and analyzed on a A50 Micro flow cytometer.

Results: In the RBC unit, RBC-EVs solely exposed PS (7.8%). Before transfusion, circulating RBC-EVs mainly exposed PS (22%) and CD59 (9.1%), the expression of the other membrane markers was much lower. After transfusion, the concentration of RBC- EVs increased 2.4-fold in two hours. Thereafter, the EV concentration decreased towards baseline levels. The fraction of EVs positive for all tested membrane markers decreased after transfusion.

Conclusion: Besides a minor fraction of PS-exposing EVs, RBC-EVs produced during storage do not expose detectable levels of RBC membrane markers that are associated with clearance, which is in contrast to the EVs produced by the circulating RBCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transci.2019.05.008DOI Listing
August 2019

A Homozygous Mutation on the HBA1 Gene Coding for Hb Charlieu (HBA1: c.320T>C) Together with β-Thalassemia Trait Results in Severe Hemolytic Anemia.

Hemoglobin 2019 Mar 13;43(2):77-82. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

a Department of Blood Cell Research , Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, University of Amsterdam , Amsterdam , the Netherlands.

A 4-year-old boy, a β-thalassemia (β-thal) carrier, with an unexplained severe chronic microcytic anemia was referred to us. Sequencing of the α-globin genes revealed a Hb Charlieu [α106(G13)Leu→Pro, : c.320T>C, p.Leu107Pro] mutation present on both genes. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) confirmed α mRNA in the proband and his parents, showing that the mutation does not affect mRNA stability. However, we were unable to detect the Hb Charlieu protein by capillary electrophoresis (CE), reverse phase electrophoresis, cation exchange electrophoresis or isoelectric focusing. Mass spectrometry (MS) allowed us to confirm the presence of the Hb Charlieu peptide in erythrocyte progenitors. These findings suggest that the mutation affects the stability of α. As hemoglobin (Hb) heat stability tests showed no abnormalities in erythrocytes, we speculated that α is already degraded during red blood cell (RBC) development. The clinical severity in the proband and the presence of new methylene blue-stained aggregates in his reticulocytes indicates that incorporation of α destabilizes Hb. This, combined with an excess of unstable free α-globins as the result of β-thal minor, results in severely impaired erythropoiesis and, as a consequence, severe and chronic microcytic anemia in the proband.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03630269.2019.1601107DOI Listing
March 2019

Neutrophils acquire antigen-presenting cell features after phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized erythrocytes.

Blood Adv 2019 06;3(11):1761-1773

Department of Blood Cell Research, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Neutrophils are particularly well known for their antimicrobial function. Although historically they are regarded as strictly a phagocyte of the innate immune system, over time it has become clear that neutrophils are versatile cells with numerous functions including innate and adaptive immune regulation. We have previously described a role for human neutrophils in antibody-mediated red blood cell (RBC) clearance. Under homeostatic conditions, neutrophils do not take up RBCs. Yet, when RBCs are immunoglobulin G (IgG) opsonized, which can occur in alloimmunization or autoimmunization reactions, neutrophils can effectively phagocytose RBCs. In the present study, we show that human neutrophils acquire an antigen-presenting cell (APC) phenotype following RBC phagocytosis. Subsequent to RBC phagocytosis, neutrophils expressed major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) and costimulatory molecules such as CD40 and CD80. Moreover, in classical APCs, the respiratory burst is known to regulate antigen presentation. We found that the respiratory burst in neutrophils is reduced after IgG-mediated RBC phagocytosis. Additionally, following RBC phagocytosis, neutrophils were demonstrated to elicit an antigen-specific T-cell response, using tetanus toxoid (TT) as an antigen to elicit an autologous TT-specific CD4 T-cell response. Lastly, although the "don't eat me" signal CD47 is known to have a powerful restrictive role in the activation of immunity against RBCs in dendritic cells, CD47 does not seem to have a significant effect on the antigen-presenting function of neutrophils in this context. Overall, these findings reveal that besides their classical antimicrobial role, neutrophils show plasticity in their phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2018028753DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6560339PMC
June 2019

Identification of genetic biomarkers for alloimmunization in sickle cell disease.

Br J Haematol 2019 09 5;186(6):887-899. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Department of Blood Cell Research, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Most sickle cell disease (SCD) patients rely on blood transfusion as their main treatment strategy. However, frequent blood transfusion poses the risk of alloimmunization. On average, 30% of SCD patients will alloimmunize while other patient groups form antibodies less frequently. Identification of genetic markers may help to predict which patients are at risk to form alloantibodies. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether genetic variations in the Toll-like receptor pathway or in genes previously associated with antibody-mediated conditions are associated with red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization in a cohort of SCD patients. In this case-control study, cases had a documented history of alloimmunization while controls had received ≥20 RBC units without alloantibody formation. We used a customized single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel to genotype 690 SNPs in 275 (130 controls, 145 cases) patients. Frequencies were compared using multiple logistic regression analysis. In our primary analysis, no SNPs were found to be significantly associated with alloimmunization after correction for multiple testing. However, in a secondary analysis with a less stringent threshold for significance we found 19 moderately associated SNPs. Among others, SNPs in TLR1/TANK and MALT1 were associated with a higher alloimmunization risk, while SNPs in STAM/IFNAR1 and STAT4 conferred a lower alloimmunization risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15998DOI Listing
September 2019

FcγRIIIb Restricts Antibody-Dependent Destruction of Cancer Cells by Human Neutrophils.

Front Immunol 2018 30;9:3124. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Sanquin Research, and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

The function of the low-affinity IgG-receptor FcγRIIIb (CD16b), which is uniquely and abundantly expressed on human granulocytes, is not clear. Unlike the other Fcγ receptors (FcγR), it is a glycophosphatidyl inositol (GPI) -anchored molecule and does not have intracellular signaling motifs. Nevertheless, FcγRIIIb can cooperate with other FcγR to promote phagocytosis of antibody-opsonized microbes by human neutrophils. Here we have investigated the role of FcγRIIIb during antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) by neutrophils toward solid cancer cells coated with either trastuzumab (anti-HER2) or cetuximab (anti-EGFR). Inhibiting FcγRIIIb using CD16-F(ab') blocking antibodies resulted in substantially enhanced ADCC. ADCC was completely dependent on FcγRIIa (CD32a) and the enhanced ADCC seen after FcγRIIIb blockade therefore suggested that FcγRIIIb was competing with FcγRIIa for IgG on the opsonized target cells. Interestingly, the function of neutrophil FcγRIIIb as a decoy receptor was further supported by using neutrophils from individuals with different gene copy numbers of causing different levels of surface FcγRIIIb expression. Individuals with one copy of showed higher levels of ADCC compared to those with two or more copies. Finally, we show that therapeutic antibodies intended to improve FcγRIIIa (CD16a)-dependent natural killer (NK) cell ADCC due to the lack of fucosylation on the N-linked glycan at position N297 of the IgG heavy chain Fc-region, show decreased ADCC as compared to regularly fucosylated antibodies. Together, these data confirm FcγRIIIb as a negative regulator of neutrophil ADCC toward tumor cells and a potential target for enhancing tumor cell destruction by neutrophils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.03124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6363688PMC
October 2019