Publications by authors named "Robin Winkler-Pickett"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Interleukin-1 and interferon-γ orchestrate β-glucan-activated human dendritic cell programming via IκB-ζ modulation.

PLoS One 2014 4;9(12):e114516. Epub 2014 Dec 4.

Cancer and Inflammation Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America; The Trans-NIH Center for Human Immunology, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

Recognition of microbial components via innate receptors including the C-type lectin receptor Dectin-1, together with the inflammatory environment, programs dendritic cells (DCs) to orchestrate the magnitude and type of adaptive immune responses. The exposure to β-glucan, a known Dectin-1 agonist and component of fungi, yeasts, and certain immune support supplements, activates DCs to induce T helper (Th)17 cells that are essential against fungal pathogens and extracellular bacteria but may trigger inflammatory pathology or autoimmune diseases. However, the exact mechanisms of DC programming by β-glucan have not yet been fully elucidated. Using a gene expression/perturbation approach, we demonstrate that in human DCs β-glucan transcriptionally activates via an interleukin (IL)-1- and inflammasome-mediated positive feedback late-induced genes that bridge innate and adaptive immunity. We report that in addition to its known ability to directly prime T cells toward the Th17 lineage, IL-1 by promoting the transcriptional cofactor inhibitor of κB-ζ (IκB-ζ) also programs β-glucan-exposed DCs to express cell adhesion and migration mediators, antimicrobial molecules, and Th17-polarizing factors. Interferon (IFN)-γ interferes with the IL-1/IκB-ζ axis in β-glucan-activated DCs and promotes T cell-mediated immune responses with increased release of IFN-γ and IL-22, and diminished production of IL-17. Thus, our results identify IL-1 and IFN-γ as regulators of DC programming by β-glucan. These molecular networks provide new insights into the regulation of the Th17 response as well as new targets for the modulation of immune responses to β-glucan-containing microorganisms.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0114516PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4256441PMC
December 2015

STAT1 activation regulates proliferation and differentiation of renal progenitors.

Cell Signal 2010 Nov 17;22(11):1717-26. Epub 2010 Jul 17.

Cancer and Developmental Biology Laboratory, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702-1201, USA.

We have shown previously that activation of STAT1 contributes to the pathogenesis of Wilms tumor. This neoplasm caricatures metanephric development and is believed to originate from embryonic renal mesenchymal progenitors that lose their ability to undergo mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). Therefore, we hypothesized that STAT1 is also activated and functional during metanephric development. Here we have demonstrated that both STAT1 and STAT3 are activated during normal development of the embryonic kidney. Furthermore, activation of STAT1 stimulated the proliferation of metanephric mesenchymal cells, but it prevented MET and tubulogenesis induced by leukemia inhibitory factor, which preferentially activates STAT3. Consistent with its negative regulation of metanephric mesenchymal differentiation, inhibition of STAT1 activation with protein kinase CK2 inhibitor TBB or RNAi-mediated knockdown of STAT1 promoted differentiation of metanephric progenitors and abolished the effect of cytokine-induced STAT1 activation in these cells. Additionally, a cell-permeable peptide that inhibits STAT1-mediated transactivation by targeting the STAT1 N-domain also blocked cytokine-induced STAT1-dependent proliferation in metanephric progenitors and promoted LIF-induced MET and tubulogenesis. Finally, the STAT1 peptide inhibitor caused the down regulation of survival/anti-apoptotic factors, Mcl-1 and Hsp-27, and induced apoptosis in renal tumor cells with constitutively active STAT1, indicating that STAT1 is required for these cells to survive. These findings show that both metanephric progenitors and renal tumor cells utilize a STAT1-dependent mechanism for growth or survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellsig.2010.06.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2923257PMC
November 2010

Differential regulation of interleukin 12 and interleukin 23 production in human dendritic cells.

J Exp Med 2008 Jun 19;205(6):1447-61. Epub 2008 May 19.

Department of Pathology, Section of Immunology, University of Verona, 37134 Verona, Italy.

We analyzed interleukin (IL) 12 and IL-23 production by monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mono-DCs). Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and zymosan preferentially induced IL-23. IL-23 but not IL-12 was efficiently induced by the combination of nucleotide-binding oligodimerization domain and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 ligands, which mimics activation by M. tuberculosis, or by the human dectin-1 ligand beta-glucan alone or in combination with TLR2 ligands, mimicking induction by zymosan. TLR2 ligands inhibited IL-12 and increased IL-23 production. DC priming with interferon (IFN) gamma strongly increased IL-12 production, but was not required for IL-23 production and inhibited IL-23 production induced by beta-glucan. The pattern of IL-12 and IL-23 induction was reflected in accumulation of the IL-12p35 and IL-23p19 transcripts, respectively, but not IL-12/23p40. Although IL-23, transforming growth factor beta, and IL-6 contained in the supernatants of activated mono-DCs played a role in the induction of IL-17 by human CD4(+) T cells, IL-1beta, in combination with one or more of those factors, was required for IL-17 production, and its production determined the differential ability of the stimuli used to elicit mono-DCs to produce soluble factors directing IL-17 production. Thus, the differential ability of pathogens to induce antigen-presenting cells to produce cytokines regulates the immune response to infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20071450DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2413040PMC
June 2008

In vivo regulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by NK cells: alteration of primary adaptive responses.

J Immunol 2008 Apr;180(7):4495-506

Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, Cancer and Inflammation Program, National Cancer Institute-Center for Cancer Research, SAIC-Frederick, National Cancer Institute-Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.

Innate immune responses provide the host with its first line of defense against infections. Signals generated by subsets of lymphocytes, including NK cells, NKT cells, and APC during this early host response determine the nature of downstream adaptive immune responses. In the present study, we have examined the role of innate NK cells in an autoimmune model through the use of primary immunization with the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Our studies have shown that in vivo depletion of NK cells can affect the adaptive immune responses, because NK cells were found to regulate the degree of clinical paralysis and to alter immune adaptive responses to the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide. The requirement for NK cells was reflected by changes in the T cell responses and diminished clinical disease seen in mice treated with anti-NK1.1, anti-asialo GM1, and selected Ly49 subtype-depleted mice. In addition to alteration in T cell responses, the maturational status of dendritic cells in lymph nodes was altered both quantitatively and qualitatively. Finally, examination of TCR Vbeta usage of the brain lymphocytes from EAE mice indicated a spectra-type change in receptor expression in NK- depleted mice as compared with non-NK-depleted EAE mice. These findings further establish a recently postulated link between NK cells and the generation of autoreactive T cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.180.7.4495DOI Listing
April 2008

Modulation of lymphocyte function with inhibitory CD2: loss of NK and NKT cells.

Cell Immunol 2007 Sep 26;249(1):8-19. Epub 2007 Nov 26.

Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, Cancer and Inflammation Program, NCI-CCR, 560/31-93, Frederick, MD 21702-1201, USA.

Analysis of the NK cell developmental pathway suggests that CD2 expression may be important in regulating NK maturation. To test this hypothesis, we developed mice containing only an inhibitory CD2 molecule by linking the extracellular domain of CD2 to an intracellular immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) motif. Mice containing the CD2 Tg(ITIM) transgene, introduced into a CD2 KO background, have no morphologically detectable lymph nodes, although development of the thymus appears normal. In addition, these mice had major loss of both NK and NKT subsets in peripheral organs, while T and B cell frequencies were intact. Expression of CD2 was low on T cells and lacking on B cells and functional defects were observed in these populations. NKT cells expressing CD4 were absent, while the CD8+ and double negative NKT cells were retained. Small subsets of NK cells were detected but expression of CD2 on these cells was very low or absent, and their maturation was impaired. Based on the phenotype described here, we believe that these mice represent a unique model to study lymphoid organ and lymphocyte development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellimm.2007.10.001DOI Listing
September 2007

TAP-1 indirectly regulates CD4+ T cell priming in Toxoplasma gondii infection by controlling NK cell IFN-gamma production.

J Exp Med 2007 Oct 8;204(11):2591-602. Epub 2007 Oct 8.

Immunobiology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

To investigate if transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP)-1 is required for CD8(+) T cell-mediated control of Toxoplasma gondii in vivo, we compared the resistance of TAP-1(-/-), CD8(-/-), and wild-type (WT) mice to infection with the parasite. Unexpectedly, TAP-1(-/-) mice displayed greater susceptibility than CD8(-/-), beta(2)-microglobulin(-/-) (beta(2)m(-/-)), or WT mice to infection with an avirulent parasite strain. The decreased resistance of the TAP-1(-/-) mice correlated with a reduction in the frequency of activated (CD62L(low) CD44(hi)) and interferon (IFN)-gamma-producing CD4(+) T cells. Interestingly, infected TAP-1(-/-) mice also showed reduced numbers of IFN-gamma-producing natural killer (NK) cells relative to WT, CD8(-/-), or beta(2)m(-/-) mice, and after NK cell depletion both CD8(-/-) and WT mice succumbed to infection with the same kinetics as TAP-1(-/-) animals and displayed impaired CD4(+) T cell IFN-gamma responses. Moreover, adoptive transfer of NK cells obtained from IFN-gamma(+/+), but not IFN-gamma(-/-), animals restored the CD4(+) T cell response of infected TAP-1(-/-) mice to normal levels. These results reveal a role for TAP-1 in the induction of IFN-gamma-producing NK cells and demonstrate that NK cell licensing can influence host resistance to infection through its effect on cytokine production in addition to its role in cytotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20070634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2118487PMC
October 2007

Glucocorticoid amplifies IL-2-dependent expansion of functional FoxP3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) T regulatory cells in vivo and enhances their capacity to suppress EAE.

Eur J Immunol 2006 Aug;36(8):2139-49

Basic Research Program, SAIC-Frederick, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute-Frederick, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.

IL-2 is crucial for the production of CD4(+)CD25(+) T regulatory (Treg) cells while important for the generation of effective T cell-mediated immunity. How to exploit the capacity of IL-2 to expand Treg cells, while restraining activation of T effector (Teff) cells, is an important and unanswered therapeutic question. Dexamethasone (Dex), a synthetic glucocorticoid steroid, has been reported to suppress IL-2-mediated activation of Teff cells and increase the proportion of Treg cells. Thus, we hypothesized that glucocorticoids may be useful as costimulants to amplify IL-2-mediated selective expansion of Treg cells. We show in this study that short-term simultaneous administration of Dex and IL-2 markedly expanded functional suppressive Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells in murine peripheral lymphoid tissues. In a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model, we observed that splenic CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells failed to suppress the proliferation of CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells. Pretreatment with Dex/IL-2 remarkably increased the proportion of CD4(+)FoxP3(+) cells and partially restored the function of splenic CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells, and inhibited the development of EAE. Therefore, the combination of glucocorticoid and IL-2, two currently used therapeutics, may provide a novel approach for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection and graft-vs.-host disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.200635873DOI Listing
August 2006

Pertussis toxin as an adjuvant suppresses the number and function of CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells.

Eur J Immunol 2006 Mar;36(3):671-80

Basic Research Program, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., Laboratory of Molecular Immunoregulation, National Cancer Institute-Frederick. Frederick, MD 21702-1201, USA.

We observed a remarkable reduction in the frequency and immunosuppressive activity of splenic CD4+CD25+ T cells in C57BL/6 mice with MOG33-55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Our study revealed that pertussis toxin (PTx), one component of the immunogen used to induce murine EAE, was responsible for down-regulating splenic CD4+CD25+ cells. Treatment of normal BALB/c mice with PTx in vivo reduced the frequency, suppressive activity and FoxP3 expression by splenic CD4+CD25+ T cells. However, PTx treatment did not alter the expression of characteristic phenotypic markers (CD45RB, CD103, GITR and CTLA-4) and did not increase the expression of CD44 and CD69 by the residual splenic and lymph node CD4+CD25+ T cells. This property of PTx was attributable to its ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. PTx did not inhibit suppressive activity of purified CD4+CD25+ T regulatory (Treg) cells in vitro, but did so in vivo, presumably due to an indirect effect. Although the exact molecular target of PTx that reduces Treg activity remains to be defined, our data suggests that alteration of both distribution and function of splenic immunocytes should play a role. This study concludes that an underlying cause for the immunological adjuvanticity of PTx is down-regulation of Treg cell number and function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.200535353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3153960PMC
March 2006

Regulation of ITAM-positive receptors: role of IL-12 and IL-18.

Blood 2006 Feb 25;107(4):1468-75. Epub 2005 Oct 25.

Laboratory of Experimental Immunology and Pediatric Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute-Center for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD 21702-1201, USA.

Our previous studies have identified mechanisms by which cytokine production, blocked by Ly49G2 receptor cross-linking, can be overridden. In this study we analyzed the regulation of other ITAM-positive receptor signaling on NK, NKT, and T cells and characterized the biochemical pathways involved in this signaling. Our studies demonstrate that cross-linking of NKG2D and NK1.1 results in a synergistic NK IFN-gamma response when combined with IL-12 or IL-18. Examination of NKT- and T-cell responses demonstrated that cross-linking of NKG2D and CD3 resulted in potent synergy when combined with IL-12 and, to a lesser degree, with IL-18. We have now found that both the p38 MAP kinase and the ERK-dependent signal transduction pathways are required for the synergistic response. Further mechanistic examination of the synergy indicated a potent up-regulation of total IFN-gamma mRNA in the nuclear and the cytoplasmic compartment, but mRNA half-life was not affected. Fifteen minutes of IL-12 pretreatment was sufficient to result in maximal synergistic activation, indicating that the response of the cells to the IL-12 signal was rapid and immediate. Thus, our data demonstrate that multiple convergent signals maximize the innate immune response by triggering complementary biochemical signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2005-04-1579DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1895416PMC
February 2006

In vivo hydrodynamic delivery of cDNA encoding IL-2: rapid, sustained redistribution, activation of mouse NK cells, and therapeutic potential in the absence of NKT cells.

J Immunol 2005 Jul;175(2):693-9

Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, National Cancer Institute-Center for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.

In the present study, we have tested the ability of hydrodynamically delivered IL-2 cDNA to modulate the number and function of murine leukocyte subsets in different organs and in mice of different genetic backgrounds, and we have evaluated effects of this mode of gene delivery on established murine tumor metastases. Hydrodynamic administration of the IL-2 gene resulted in the rapid and transient production of up to 160 ng/ml IL-2 in the serum. The appearance of IL-2 was followed by transient production of IFN-gamma and a dramatic and sustained increase in NK cell numbers and NK-mediated cytolytic activity in liver and spleen leukocytes. In addition, significant increases in other lymphocyte subpopulations (e.g., NKT, T, and B cells) that are known to be responsive to IL-2 were observed following IL-2 cDNA plasmid delivery. Finally, hydrodynamic delivery of only 4 mug of the IL-2 plasmid to mice bearing established lung and liver metastases was as effective in inhibiting progression of metastases as was the administration of large amounts (100,000 IU/twice daily) of IL-2 protein. Studies performed in mice bearing metastatic renal cell tumors demonstrated that the IL-2 cDNA plasmid was an effective treatment against liver metastasis and moderately effective against lung metastasis. Collectively, these results demonstrate that hydrodynamic delivery of relatively small amounts of IL-2 cDNA provides a simple and inexpensive method to increase the numbers of NK and NKT cells, to induce the biological effects of IL-2 in vivo for use in combination with other biological agents, and for studies of its antitumor activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.175.2.693DOI Listing
July 2005

Aging of innate immunity: functional comparisons of NK/LAK cells obtained from bulk cultures of young and aged mouse spleen cells in high concentrations of interleukin-2.

Exp Gerontol 2004 Jan;39(1):73-82

Department of Microbiology and Tropical Medicine, George Washington University, School of Medicine, 2300 I Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037, USA.

The technique of bulk cultivation of aged mouse spleen cells in high concentration of IL-2 was employed to obtain NK/LAK cells in sufficient number and enrichment for studies on the effects of aging on their functions. The yield and enrichment were equivalent to that of young mouse spleen cells. The aged and young mouse NK/LAK cells were equivalent also in their functional competence to proliferate, kill target cells and produce IFNgamma; i.e. they did not display age-associated defects typical of freshly-isolated NK/LAK cells. In two respects, however, the NK/LAK cells derived from aged mouse spleen were altered: (a) in the efficiency of nuclear translocation of transcription factors STAT 5A and 5B, and (b) in the deficiency in production of mRNA transcripts representing several chemokines. We recommend caution in the use of bulk cultivation in IL-2 to obtain NK/LAK cells for studies on aging. However, it does appear from this study that aging may severely affect chemokine production, at least in the case of NK/LAK cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2003.09.017DOI Listing
January 2004

Dissociation of NKT stimulation, cytokine induction, and NK activation in vivo by the use of distinct TCR-binding ceramides.

J Immunol 2004 Jan;172(2):943-53

Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, National Cancer Institute-Center for Cancer Research, Building 560, Room 31-93, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.

NKT and NK cells are important immune regulatory cells. The only efficient means to selectively stimulate NKT cells in vivo is alpha-galactosylceramide (alphaGalCer). However, alphaGalCer effectively stimulates and then diminishes the number of detectable NKT cells. It also exhibits a potent, indirect ability to activate NK cells. We have now discovered another ceramide compound, beta-galactosylceramide (betaGalCer) (C12), that efficiently diminishes the number of detectable mouse NKT cells in vivo without inducing significant cytokine expression or activation of NK cells. Binding studies using CD1d tetramers loaded with betaGalCer (C12) demonstrated significant but lower intensity binding to NKT cells when compared with alphaGalCer, but both ceramides were equally efficient in reducing the number of NKT cells. However, betaGalCer (C12), in contrast to alphaGalCer, failed to increase NK cell size, number, and cytolytic activity. Also in contrast to alphaGalCer, betaGalCer (C12) is a poor inducer of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, GM-CSF, and IL-4 gene expression. These qualitative differences in NKT perturbation/NK activation have important implications for delineating the unique in vivo roles of NKT vs NK cells. Thus, alphaGalCer (which triggers NKT cells and activates NK cells) efficiently increases the resistance to allogeneic bone marrow transplantation while betaGalCer (C12) (which triggers NKT cells but does not activate NK cells) fails to enhance bone marrow graft rejection. Our results show betaGalCer (C12) can effectively discriminate between NKT- and NK-mediated responses in vivo. These results indicate the use of different TCR-binding ceramides can provide a unique approach for understanding the intricate immunoregulatory contributions of these two cell types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.172.2.943DOI Listing
January 2004

Increased bone marrow allograft rejection by depletion of NK cells expressing inhibitory Ly49 NK receptors for donor class I antigens.

Blood 2002 Oct;100(8):3026-33

Intramural Research Support Program, SAIC-Frederick and Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, MD 21702, USA.

Natural killer (NK) cells are the major effectors of acute rejection of incompatible bone marrow cell (BMC) grafts in lethally irradiated mice. The immunogenetics of BMC rejection are largely controlled by the coexpression (or not) of inhibitory and stimulatory Ly49 receptors whose ligands are class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. The majority of the BMC rejection studies involved low numbers of BMCs that were resisted by host NK cells. In the present study, larger numbers of BMCs were given in which rejection was not detected and the role of different Ly49 NK subsets not presumably involved in the rejection of a particular BMC haplotype was examined. Surprisingly, the data show that the removal of NK cell subsets expressing Ly49 inhibitory receptors for donor class I antigens, which would be predicted to have no effect on the BMC rejection capability, resulted in the marked rejection of BMCs where no resistance was normally seen. These results extend the "missing self" hypothesis to suggest that NK Ly49 inhibitory receptors can both inhibit activation and killing by those cells, but also can in some way influence the function of NK cells that do not express that inhibitory receptor in a cell-cell interaction. This suggests that caution must be exercised before removal of host NK cell subset is applied clinically because enhanced BMC rejection may result. Altering the balance of Ly49 NK subsets may also affect other in vivo activities of these cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.V100.8.3026DOI Listing
October 2002

Aberrant DAP12 signaling in the 129 strain of mice: implications for the analysis of gene-targeted mice.

J Immunol 2002 Aug;169(4):1721-8

Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.

NK cells are implicated in antiviral responses, bone marrow transplantation and tumor immunosurveillance. Their function is controlled, in part, through the Ly49 family of class I binding receptors. Inhibitory Ly49s suppress signaling, while activating Ly49s (i.e., Ly49D) activate NK cells via the DAP12 signaling chain. Activating Ly49 signaling has been studied primarily in C57BL/6 mice, however, 129 substrains are commonly used in gene-targeting experiments. In this study, we show that in contrast to C57BL/6 NK cells, cross-linking of DAP12-coupled receptors in 129/J mice induces phosphorylation of DAP12 but not calcium mobilization or cytokine production. Consistent with poor-activating Ly49 function, 129/J mice reject bone marrow less efficiently than C57BL/6 mice. Sequence analysis of receptors and DAP12 suggests no structural basis for inactivity, and both the 129/J and C57BL/6 receptors demonstrate normal function in a reconstituted receptor system. Most importantly, reconstitution of Ly49D in 129/J NK cells demonstrated that the signaling deficit is within the NK cells themselves. These unexpected findings bring into question any NK analysis of 129/J, 129Sv, or gene-targeted mice derived from these strains before complete backcrossing, and provide a possible explanation for the differences observed in the immune response of 129 mice in a variety of models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.169.4.1721DOI Listing
August 2002