Publications by authors named "Robin L Webb"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Neural Stem Cell Extracellular Vesicles Disrupt Midline Shift Predictive Outcomes in Porcine Ischemic Stroke Model.

Transl Stroke Res 2020 08 6;11(4):776-788. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Regenerative Bioscience Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602, USA.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a clinically relevant non-invasive imaging tool commonly utilized to assess stroke progression in real time. This study investigated the utility of MRI as a predictive measure of clinical and functional outcomes when a stroke intervention is withheld or provided, in order to identify biomarkers for stroke functional outcome under these conditions. Fifteen MRI and ninety functional parameters were measured in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) porcine ischemic stroke model. Multiparametric analysis of correlations between MRI measurements and functional outcome was conducted. Acute axial and coronal midline shift (MLS) at 24 h post-stroke were associated with decreased survival and recovery measured by modified Rankin scale (mRS) and were significantly correlated with 52 measured acute (day 1 post) and chronic (day 84 post) gait and behavior impairments in non-treated stroked animals. These results suggest that MLS may be an important non-invasive biomarker that can be used to predict patient outcomes and prognosis as well as guide therapeutic intervention and rehabilitation in non-treated animals and potentially human patients that do not receive interventional treatments. Neural stem cell-derived extracellular vesicle (NSC EV) was a disruptive therapy because NSC EV administration post-stroke disrupted MLS correlations observed in non-treated stroked animals. MLS was not associated with survival and functional outcomes in NSC EV-treated animals. In contrast to untreated animals, NSC EVs improved stroked animal outcomes regardless of MLS severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12975-019-00753-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7340639PMC
August 2020

Human Neural Stem Cell Extracellular Vesicles Improve Recovery in a Porcine Model of Ischemic Stroke.

Stroke 2018 05 12;49(5):1248-1256. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Regenerative Bioscience Center (R.L.W., E.E.K., B.J.J., S.S., F.D.W., S.L. Stice)

Background And Purpose: Recent work from our group suggests that human neural stem cell-derived extracellular vesicle (NSC EV) treatment improves both tissue and sensorimotor function in a preclinical thromboembolic mouse model of stroke. In this study, NSC EVs were evaluated in a pig ischemic stroke model, where clinically relevant end points were used to assess recovery in a more translational large animal model.

Methods: Ischemic stroke was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and either NSC EV or PBS treatment was administered intravenously at 2, 14, and 24 hours post-MCAO. NSC EV effects on tissue level recovery were evaluated via magnetic resonance imaging at 1 and 84 days post-MCAO. Effects on functional recovery were also assessed through longitudinal behavior and gait analysis testing.

Results: NSC EV treatment was neuroprotective and led to significant improvements at the tissue and functional levels in stroked pigs. NSC EV treatment eliminated intracranial hemorrhage in ischemic lesions in NSC EV pigs (0 of 7) versus control pigs (7 of 8). NSC EV-treated pigs exhibited a significant decrease in cerebral lesion volume and decreased brain swelling relative to control pigs 1-day post-MCAO. NSC EVs significantly reduced edema in treated pigs relative to control pigs, as assessed by improved diffusivity through apparent diffusion coefficient maps. NSC EVs preserved white matter integrity with increased corpus callosum fractional anisotropy values 84 days post-MCAO. Behavior and mobility improvements paralleled structural changes as NSC EV-treated pigs exhibited improved outcomes, including increased exploratory behavior and faster restoration of spatiotemporal gait parameters.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated for the first time that in a large animal model novel NSC EVs significantly improved neural tissue preservation and functional levels post-MCAO, suggesting NSC EVs may be a paradigm changing stroke therapeutic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.117.020353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5916046PMC
May 2018

Human Neural Stem Cell Extracellular Vesicles Improve Tissue and Functional Recovery in the Murine Thromboembolic Stroke Model.

Transl Stroke Res 2018 10 28;9(5):530-539. Epub 2017 Dec 28.

ArunA Biomedical, Athens, GA, 30602, USA.

Over 700 drugs have failed in stroke clinical trials, an unprecedented rate thought to be attributed in part to limited and isolated testing often solely in "young" rodent models and focusing on a single secondary injury mechanism. Here, extracellular vesicles (EVs), nanometer-sized cell signaling particles, were tested in a mouse thromboembolic (TE) stroke model. Neural stem cell (NSC) and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) EVs derived from the same pluripotent stem cell (PSC) line were evaluated for changes in infarct volume as well as sensorimotor function. NSC EVs improved cellular, tissue, and functional outcomes in middle-aged rodents, whereas MSC EVs were less effective. Acute differences in lesion volume following NSC EV treatment were corroborated by MRI in 18-month-old aged rodents. NSC EV treatment has a positive effect on motor function in the aged rodent as indicated by beam walk, instances of foot faults, and strength evaluated by hanging wire test. Increased time with a novel object also indicated that NSC EVs improved episodic memory formation in the rodent. The therapeutic effect of NSC EVs appears to be mediated by altering the systemic immune response. These data strongly support further preclinical development of a NSC EV-based stroke therapy and warrant their testing in combination with FDA-approved stroke therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12975-017-0599-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6132936PMC
October 2018

Pig Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Rosettes Parallel Human Differentiation Into Sensory Neural Subtypes.

Cell Reprogram 2017 04 7;19(2):88-94. Epub 2017 Mar 7.

1 Regenerative Bioscience Center, University of Georgia , Rhodes Center for Animal and Dairy Science, Athens, Georgia .

The pig is the large animal model of choice for study of nerve regeneration and wound repair. Availability of porcine sensory neural cells would conceptually allow for analogous cell-based peripheral nerve regeneration in porcine injuries of similar severity and size to those found in humans. After recently reporting that porcine (or pig) induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs) differentiate into neural rosette (NR) structures similar to human NRs, here we demonstrate that pig NR cells could differentiate into neural crest cells and other peripheral nervous system-relevant cell types. Treatment with either bone morphogenetic protein 4 or fetal bovine serum led to differentiation into BRN3A-positive sensory cells and increased expression of sensory neuron TRK receptor gene family: TRKA, TRKB, and TRKC. Porcine sensory neural cells would allow determination of parallels between human and porcine cells in response to noxious stimuli, analgesics, and reparative mechanisms. In vitro differentiation of pig sensory neurons provides a novel model system for neural cell subtype specification and would provide a novel platform for the study of regenerative therapeutics by elucidating the requirements for innervation following injury and axonal survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cell.2016.0057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6016089PMC
April 2017

Bridging integrator 1 (BIN1) protein expression increases in the Alzheimer's disease brain and correlates with neurofibrillary tangle pathology.

J Alzheimers Dis 2014 ;42(4):1221-7

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA University of Kentucky Center for Muscle Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

Recent genome wide association studies have implicated bridging integrator 1 (BIN1) as a late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) susceptibility gene. There are at least 15 different known isoforms of BIN1, with many being expressed in the brain including the longest isoform (iso1), which is brain-specific and localizes to axon initial segments and nodes of Ranvier. It is currently unknown what role BIN1 plays in AD. We analyzed BIN1 protein expression from a large number (n = 71) of AD cases and controls from five different brain regions (hippocampus, inferior parietal cortex, inferior temporal cortex, frontal cortex (BA9), and superior and middle temporal gyri). We found that the amount of the largest isoform of BIN1 was significantly reduced in the AD brain compared to age-matched controls, and smaller BIN1 isoforms were significantly increased. Further, BIN1 was significantly correlated with the amount of neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology but not with either diffuse or neuritic plaques, or with the amount of amyloid-β peptide. BIN1 is known to be abnormally expressed in another human disease, myotonic dystrophy, which also features prominent NFT pathology. These data suggest that BIN1 is likely involved in AD as a modulator of NFT pathology, and that this role may extend to other human diseases that feature tau pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-132450DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4198456PMC
July 2015

Postmortem Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) binding increases with Alzheimer's disease progression.

J Alzheimers Dis 2012 ;32(1):127-38

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0230, USA.

The development of imaging reagents is of considerable interest in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) field. Some of these, such as Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB), were designed to bind to the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), the major component of amyloid deposits in the AD brain. Although these agents were designed for imaging amyloid deposits in vivo, a major avenue of evaluation relies on postmortem cross validation with established indices of AD pathology. In this study, we evaluated changes in the postmortem binding of PiB and its relationship to other aspects of Aβ-related pathology in a series of AD cases and age-matched controls. We also examined cases of preclinical AD (PCAD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), both considered early points in the AD continuum. PiB binding was found to increase with the progression of the disease and paralleled increases in the less soluble forms of Aβ, including SDS-stable Aβ oligomers. Increased PiB binding and its relationship to Aβ was only significant in a brain region vulnerable to the development of AD pathology (the superior and middle temporal gyri) but not in an unaffected region (cerebellum). This implies that the amyloid deposited in disease-affected regions may possess fundamental, brain region specific characteristics that may not as yet be fully appreciated. These data support the idea that PiB is a useful diagnostic tool for AD, particularly in the early stage of the disease, and also show that PiB could be a useful agent for the discovery of novel disease-related properties of amyloid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-2012-120655DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3607315PMC
February 2013

β-Secretases, Alzheimer's Disease, and Down Syndrome.

Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res 2012 28;2012:362839. Epub 2012 Feb 28.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0230, USA.

Individuals with Down Syndrome (DS), or trisomy 21, develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology by approximately 40 years of age. Chromosome 21 harbors several genes implicated in AD, including the amyloid precursor protein and one homologue of the β-site APP cleaving enzyme, BACE2. Processing of the amyloid precursor protein by β-secretase (BACE) is the rate-limiting step in the production of the pathogenic Aβ peptide. Increased amounts of APP in the DS brain result in increased amounts of Aβ and extracellular plaque formation beginning early in life. BACE dysregulation potentially represents an overlapping biological mechanism with sporadic AD and a common therapeutic target. As the lifespan for those with DS continues to increase, age-related concerns such as obesity, depression, and AD are of growing concern. The ability to prevent or delay the progression of neurodegenerative diseases will promote healthy aging and improve quality of life for those with DS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/362839DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3299320PMC
August 2012

BACE2 expression increases in human neurodegenerative disease.

Am J Pathol 2012 Jan 7;180(1):337-50. Epub 2011 Nov 7.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536-0230, USA.

β-Secretase, the rate-limiting enzymatic activity in the production of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, is a major target of Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutics. There are two forms of the enzyme: β-site Aβ precursor protein cleaving enzyme (BACE) 1 and BACE2. Although BACE1 increases in late-stage AD, little is known about BACE2. We conducted a detailed examination of BACE2 in patients with preclinical to late-stage AD, including amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and age-matched controls, cases of frontotemporal dementia, and Down's syndrome. BACE2 protein and enzymatic activity increased as early as preclinical AD and were found in neurons and astrocytes. Although the levels of total BACE2 mRNA were unchanged, the mRNA for BACE2 splice form C (missing exon 7) increased in parallel with BACE2 protein and activity. BACE1 and BACE2 were strongly correlated with each other at all levels, suggesting that their regulatory mechanisms may be largely shared. BACE2 was also elevated in frontotemporal dementia but not in Down's syndrome, even in patients with substantial Aβ deposition. Thus, expression of both forms of β-secretase are linked and may play a combined role in human neurologic disease. A better understanding of the normal functions of BACE1 and BACE2, and how these change in different disease states, is essential for the future development of AD therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2011.09.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3338345PMC
January 2012

Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on amyloid-beta pathology in mouse skeletal muscle.

Neurobiol Dis 2010 Sep 20;39(3):449-56. Epub 2010 May 20.

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0230, USA.

Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is a common age-related inflammatory myopathy characterized by the presence of intracellular inclusions that contain the amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide, a derivative of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Abeta is believed to cause Alzheimer's disease (AD), suggesting that a link may exist between the two diseases. If AD and sIBM are linked, then treatments that lower Abeta in brain may prove useful for sIBM. To test this hypothesis, transgenic mice that overexpress APP in skeletal muscle were treated for 6 months with a variety of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; naproxen, ibuprofen, carprofen or R-flurbiprofen), a subset of which reduce Abeta in brain and cultured cells. Only ibuprofen lowered Abeta in muscle, and this was not accompanied by corresponding improvements in phenotype. These results indicate that the effects of NSAIDs in the brain may be different from other tissues and that Abeta alone cannot account for skeletal muscle dysfunction in these mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2010.05.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2910117PMC
September 2010

Efficient activation of reconstructed rat embryos by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.

PLoS One 2010 Mar 19;5(3):e9799. Epub 2010 Mar 19.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, United States of America.

Background: Over the last decade a number of species, from farm animals to rodents, have been cloned using somatic cell nuclear transfer technology (SCNT). This technique has the potential to revolutionize the way that genetically modified animals are made. In its current state, the process of SCNT is very inefficient (<5% success rate), with several technical and biological hurdles hindering development. Yet, SCNT provides investigators with powerful advantages over other approaches, such as allowing for prescreening for the desired level of transgene expression and eliminating the excess production of undesirable wild-type animals. The rat plays a significant role in biomedical research, but SCNT has been problematic for this species. In this study, we address one aspect of the problem by evaluating methods of activation in artificially constructed rat embryos.

Principal Findings: We demonstrate that treatment with a calcium ionophore (ionomycin) combined with a variety of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors is an effective way to activate rat embryos. This is in contrast to methods developed for the mouse embryo, which tolerates much less specific chemical treatments. Methods developed to activate mouse embryos do not translate well to rat embryos.

Conclusions: Activation methods developed for one species will not necessarily translate to another species, even if it is closely related. Further, the parthenogenic response to chemical activators is not always a reliable indicator of how reconstructed embryos will react to the same activation method. A better understanding of rat oocyte physiology, although essential for developing better models of disease, may also provide insights that will be useful for making the SCNT process more efficient.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0009799PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2841646PMC
March 2010

BACE1 and BACE2 enzymatic activities in Alzheimer's disease.

J Neurochem 2010 Feb 4;112(4):1045-53. Epub 2009 Dec 4.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.

beta-Secretase is the rate limiting enzymatic activity in the production of the amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) and is thought to be involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Although BACE1 (beta-site APP Cleaving Enzyme 1, EC 3.4.23.46) has received significant attention, the related BACE2 (EC 3.4.23.45) has not. Though BACE2 is also expressed in the brain, its potential role in AD has not been resolved. In this study, we compared the activities of both BACE1 and BACE2, which were isolated from the same samples of frontal cortex from both AD-affected individuals and age-matched controls. BACE1 activity showed a significant positive correlation with the amount of extractable Abeta, and BACE1 protein and activity were significantly increased in AD cases. Unexpectedly, there were substantial total amounts of BACE2 protein and enzymatic activity in the human brain. BACE2 activity did not change significantly in the AD brain, and was not related to Abeta concentration. These data indicate that BACE1 likely accounts for most of the Abeta produced in the human brain, and that BACE2 activity is not a likely contributor. However, as both forms of BACE compete for the same substrate pool, even small changes in BACE2 activity could have consequences for human disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.06528.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2819564PMC
February 2010
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