Publications by authors named "Roberto Paradisi"

71 Publications

Long-Term Medical Therapy after Laparoscopic Excision of Ovarian Endometriomas: Can We Reduce and Predict the Risk of Recurrence?

Gynecol Obstet Invest 2021 13;86(1-2):170-176. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Gynecology and Human Reproduction Physiopathology, Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche e Chirurgiche (DIMEC), IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Objectives: Up to 32% of women experience anatomic recurrence after conservative surgery for endometriomas, while pain recurs in 10-40% of cases. Long-term postoperative hormonal therapy is recommended to prevent disease recurrence. We evaluated the efficacy of long-term therapy with estroprogestins (EPs) or progestins (Ps) in preventing endometrioma recurrence, as identifiable cysts and subjective symptoms, after laparoscopic excision.

Design: This retrospective cohort study included 375 women submitted to laparoscopic endometrioma excision. Women were followed up at 6 and 12 months and then yearly after surgery. Based on postoperative medical therapy, women were divided into 4 groups: nonusers, cyclic EP users, continuous EP users, and progestogen users. Materials, Setting, Methods: Anamnestic and anthropometric characteristics were collected as well as clinical and surgical data. Gynecological examination, and transvaginal and transabdominal ultrasound scans were performed. Pain (numerical rating score >5) and endometrioma recurrence at ultrasound (ovarian cyst with typical sonographic features ≥10 mm in mean diameter) were recorded at each examination. The reoperation rate in women with recurrence was investigated.

Results: The median follow-up was 3.7 years with a maximum of 16.7 years. Most patients used EPs (119 cyclic and 61 continuous users), 95 used P, and 100 were nonusers. In 135 women (36%), endometriotic cyst recurrence was diagnosed, with a mean diameter of 18.7 ± 10.8 mm (range 10-55 mm). The median recurrent cyst-free time was 7.9 years (95% CI 5.8-10.8). Dysmenorrhea was the first symptom to reappear, affecting 162 patients (43.2%). Upon multivariable regression analysis, continuous users had a lower risk of relapse (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.32-0.99), in terms of both cysts and symptom recurrence, than patients who received no medications. The reoperation rate was 16.2%.

Limitations: The main limitation of this study is its retrospective design. Also, women switching therapies throughout the follow-up period were sorted into one of the study groups based on the longest treatment taken, without considering the discontinuation rates.

Conclusions: Long-term EPs, administered in a continuous regimen and starting immediately after conservative surgery for endometriomas, seem to reduce the disease recurrence risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000514310DOI Listing
April 2021

No evidence for SARS-CoV-2 presence in ovarian tissue and peritoneal cavity from a COVID-19 positive woman undergoing urgent fertility preservation procedure.

Minerva Endocrinol (Torino) 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, IRCCS S. Orsola Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6507.21.03396-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Uterine Fundus Remodeling after Hysteroscopic Metroplasty: A Prospective Pilot Study.

J Clin Med 2021 Jan 12;10(2). Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Gynecology and Human Reproduction Physiopathology Unit, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy.

The septate uterus is the most common congenital uterine malformation and is treated by hysteroscopic metroplasty. There are few studies on the fundal uterine changes that occur after surgery. We designed a pilot prospective observational study to evaluate by three-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound (3D-TVS) the changes not only of the internal fundal uterine profile, but also of the external one, after hysteroscopic metroplasty. Sixty women who underwent hysteroscopic metroplasty for partial or complete uterine septum (U2a and U2b subclasses of ESHRE/ESGE classification) were enrolled. We performed 3D-TVS after surgery confirming optimal removal of the septum. However, at ultrasound follow-up after three months, we observed a significant increase ( < 0.001) in the residual septum (Zr) (3.7 mm (95% CI: 3.1-4.4)), the myometrial wall thickness (Y) (2.5 mm (95% CI: 2.0-3.0)) and the total fundal wall thickness (Y + Zr) (6.2 mm (95% CI: 5.5-6.9)). Forty-three patients (72%) required a second step of hysteroscopic metroplasty. Moreover, the shape of uterine fundus changed in 58% of cases. We actually observed a remodeling of the uterine fundus with modifications of its external and internal profiles. Therefore, we propose to always perform a second ultrasound look at least three months after the metroplasty to identify cases that require a second- step metroplasty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10020260DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7828148PMC
January 2021

Fertility Sparing Treatment of Endometrial Cancer with and without Initial Infiltration of Myometrium: A Single Center Experience.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Nov 29;12(12). Epub 2020 Nov 29.

Gynecology and Human Reproduction Physiopathology Unit, IRCCS Policlinico di Sant'Orsola, DIMEC, University of Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy.

Endometrial cancer (EC) is the fourth largest female cancer in Europe and North America. In 5% of cases, the diagnosis is made in women who wish to become pregnant. In our retrospective study, we reported our experience about fertility sparing treatment of G1 endometrioid endometrial cancer (G1 EEC) or atypical endometrial hyperplasia/endometrial intraepithelial neoplasm (AEH/EIN) in young women desiring pregnancy treated in our Center. Conservative treatment was based on operative hysteroscopy and hormone therapy with megestrol acetate (160 mg/die for 9 months). For the first time we included women with G1 EEC with minimal myometrial infiltration. The minimum follow-up period was two years and consisted of serial outpatient hysteroscopies with endometrial biopsies. Among the 36 women with G1 EEC we observed one case of disease persistence and four recurrences and four recurrences among the 46 women diagnosed with AEH/EIN. To date, 35 live births were obtained in both groups. Our results advance the hypothesis that conservative treatment can represent a safe and feasible alternative to propose to young women with desire for pregnancy. Further randomized and multicentric studies are needed to arrive at unambiguous and standardized guidelines on the surgical and medical treatment of young women with EEC or AEH/EIN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12123571DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7760930PMC
November 2020

Description of the Follicular Fluid Cytokine and Hormone Profiles in Human Physiological Natural Cycles.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jan;106(2):e721-e738

Gynecology and Physiopathology of Human Reproduction Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Purpose: Exogenous gonadotrophins administration during in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycles could significantly alter the endogenous follicular regulation system and could influence oocyte quality. The analysis of the follicular fluid (FF) cytokine and hormone profiles in physiological natural cycles is crucial to appreciate the role of FF milieu on follicle development. So far, the FF cytokine profile has been analyzed only in controlled ovarian stimulation cycles and in modified natural cycles. Our study defines, in physiological natural cycles, the cytokine and hormone profiles of individual FF aspirated from antral follicles.

Methods: A total of 203 FFs obtained from 83 women with regular menstrual cycles undergoing ovarian tissue cryopreservation were analyzed: 115 FFs from Group 1 (10 to 29 years of age) and 88 FFs from Group 2 (30 to 40 years of age). In individual FF, 27 cytokines were measured with xMAP technology, and progesterone, estrone, estradiol, testosterone, androstenedione concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

Results: FF hormone profiles were not different in follicular and luteal phase, suggesting that FF hormones are regulated independently of the endogenous gonadotrophins-possibly because 74% of the punctured follicles, which were ≤6 mm, did not require cyclic pituitary function. The follicle size was influenced not only by the FF cytokine profile but also by the FF hormone profile, both of which are dependent on age.

Main Conclusions: In physiological natural cycles, FF hormones seems to be regulated independently of the endogenous gonadotropins. Age influences FF hormone and cytokine profiles and the compelling relationship between FF hormones and FF cytokines could influence the follicle development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7823236PMC
January 2021

Transperineal Ultrasound Visual Feedback Assisted Pelvic Floor Muscle Physiotherapy in Women With Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis and Dyspareunia: A Pilot Study.

J Sex Marital Ther 2020 24;46(7):603-611. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Gynaecology and Human Reproduction Physiopathology Unit, DIMEC, S. Orsola Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

A prospective study with the aim to evaluate the effects of pelvic floor physiotherapy was conducted among women with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) and associated dyspareunia. At initial evaluation superficial and deep dyspareunia were assessed using a numerical rating scale, and levator hiatus area (LHA) was assessed with 3-D/4-D transperineal ultrasound. Women underwent five individual sessions of ultrasound visual feedback assisted pelvic floor physiotherapy. One month after the therapy, dyspareunia and LHA were reassessed and compared with pre-therapy data. Pelvic floor physiotherapy seems to improve both superficial and deep dyspareunia and pelvic floor muscle relaxation in women with DIE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0092623X.2020.1765057DOI Listing
May 2021

Adenomyosis and endometriosis in adolescents and young women with pelvic pain: prevalence and risk factors.

Minerva Pediatr 2020 Jun 16. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Gynecology and Human Reproduction Pathophysiology, DIMEC, S. Orsola Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of ultrasound diagnosis of adenomyosis and endometriosis in young women complaining of pelvic pain and to find the symptoms and clinical characteristics associated with these diseases in young women.

Methods: Cross-sectional study, including 100 young women (14-24 years) with a history of chronic pelvic pain. Women were asked detailed medical hystory and pain symptoms scores (Visual Analogue Scale) and underwent gynecological examination and ultrasound evaluation.

Results: The prevalence of endometriosis and adenomyosis in young women amounted to 25.0% and 46.0%, respectively. A significant correlation was found between ovarian endometriosis and adenomyosis. Dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia were risk factors for adenomyosis. Dyschezia, dyspareunia, chronic pelvic pain, presence of sonographic soft markers suggestive of pelvic adhesions, being a worker and having a previous surgery were risk factors for endometriosis. Young women (20-24 years) had a higher incidence of both adenomyosis and endometriosis than adolescents (14-19 years).

Conclusions: Our outcomes strengthen the hypothesis of a progressive and common course of the natural history of endometriosis, which initially may manifest with symptoms, then with signs of pelvic adhesions and finally as adenomyosis, ovarian endometriomas or deep infiltrating endometriosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4946.20.05842-9DOI Listing
June 2020

Comparison of Hysteroscopic Cesarean Scar Defect Repair with 26 Fr Resectoscope and 16 Fr Mini-resectoscope: A Prospective Pilot Study.

J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2021 02 6;28(2):314-319. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Gynecology and Human Reproduction Physiopathology Unit, S. Orsola Hospital, University of Bologna (Drs. Casadio, Morra, Talamo, Magnarelli, Paradisi, and Seracchioli).

Study Objective: Several studies have been published on hysteroscopic treatment of cesarean scar defect using the 26 Fr resectoscope. This study compared the effects of the 26 Fr resectoscope with those of the 16 Fr mini-resectoscope in terms of efficacy, safety profile, and peri- and postoperative complications.

Design: A prospective cohort study.

Setting: Tertiary care university hospital (S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna, Italy).

Patients: Three hundred and nine women having symptoms and with a cesarean scar defect diagnosis were divided into 2 groups according to a temporal criterion: from March 2012 to March 2015, 155 consecutive women (control group) underwent isthmoplasty with the 26 Fr resectoscope (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany), whereas from April 2015 to March 2018, 154 consecutive women (study group) underwent isthmoplasty with the 16 Fr mini-resectoscope (Gubbini system, Tontarra Medizintechnik, Tuttlingen, Germany).

Interventions: One hundred and fifty-five women (control group) underwent isthmoplasty with the 26 Fr resectoscope, and 154 women (study group) underwent isthmoplasty with the 16 Fr mini-resectoscope. The so-called "channel-like" 360° endocervical resection technique was applied.

Measurements And Main Results: The isthmoplasty time with the 2 resectoscopes, excluding cervical dilatation, was similar (p = .25), whereas the overall surgical time was shorter in the case of the mini-resectoscope. The use of the 16 Fr mini-resectoscope was significantly associated with a reduced volume of distension medium used (p <.001) and a lower fluid absorption (p <.001). A significant increase (p = .01) in postoperative complications in the control group (9/155; 5.8%) compared with the study group (1/154; 0.7%) was also found. No significant reduction in discharge time was observed between the 2 groups (p = .13). Patient satisfaction immediately after surgery was significantly higher (p <.001) in the study group than in the control group.

Conclusion: Isthmoplasty with a 16 Fr mini-resectoscope seems to be as effective as isthmoplasty with a 26 Fr resectoscope in reducing postmenstrual abnormal uterine bleeding and suprapubic pelvic pain. It is associated with a significant reduction in overall surgical time owing to the non-necessity of performing cervical dilatation. The 16 Fr mini-resectoscope facilitates surgery in small anatomical spaces such as the cervical canal and reduces the complication rate linked to blind maneuvers not respecting the uterine anatomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmig.2020.06.002DOI Listing
February 2021

Question Mark Sign and Transvaginal Ultrasound Uterine Tenderness for the Diagnosis of Adenomyosis: A Prospective Validation.

J Ultrasound Med 2020 Jul 7;39(7):1405-1412. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Department of Gynecology and Human Reproduction Pathophysiology, Saint'Orsola Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the classic ultrasound (US) signs of adenomyosis, the question mark sign and transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) uterine tenderness, in the diagnosis of adenomyosis.

Methods: This was a prospective study including 78 patients waiting for hysterectomy for uterine benign diseases and undergoing preoperative US examinations to evaluate all criteria for US diagnosis of adenomyosis as reported by the consensus statement of the Morphological Uterus Sonographic Assessment group. A US diagnosis of adenomyosis was made in the presence of 2 or more Morphological Uterus Sonographic Assessment features. Moreover, the question mark sign and TVUS uterine tenderness were evaluated. Ultrasound features were compared with the histologic examination, which was considered the reference standard for the diagnosis of adenomyosis. The Cohen κ coefficient was used to measure the accordance between US and histologic results. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of each US feature were calculated.

Results: The prevalence of adenomyosis in the sample was 33.3%. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of TVUS in the diagnosis of adenomyosis were 77%, 96%, 91%, 89%, and 90%, respectively. Myometrial heterogeneity was the most frequently encountered feature (100%) but showed low specificity (7%). The question mark sign and TVUS uterine tenderness showed sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of 41%, 96%, 83%, 77%, and 69% and 69%, 65%, 66%, 81%, and 67%.

Conclusions: The question mark sign and TVUS uterine tenderness are useful tools for the diagnosis of adenomyosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jum.15237DOI Listing
July 2020

Frequency and clinical impact of Dolichocolon in women submitted to surgery for rectosigmoid endometriosis.

J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod 2020 Apr 1;49(4):101697. Epub 2020 Feb 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, DIMEC, S. Orsola Hospital, University of Bologna, Italy.

Introduction: Rectosigmoid endometriosis and Dolichocolon can both present with a triad of chronic abdominal pain, constipation and bloating. The relationship between these two pathologies is unknown. The present study aims to determine the frequency of DC in women with rectosigmoid endometriosis and its possible impact on pre- and post-operative symptoms.

Material And Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 113 consecutive patients submitted to magnetic resonance imaging enema and subsequent complete surgical removal for symptomatic rectosigmoid endometriosis between June 2015 to June 2018. Dolichocolon is an anatomic variant characterized by redundancies and lengthening of the colon. We divided our study population according to its presence or absence. The two groups were compared in terms of demographic data, surgical findings and pre- and post-operative clinical variables. Pain symptoms were assessed through numerical rating scale from 0 to 10. Bowel complaints included constipation, bloating and diarrhea.

Results: Thirty-five patients (31 %) presented a dolichocolon at magnetic resonance imaging enema. The two groups were comparable in terms of demographic data, pre-operative clinical variables and surgical findings. At 6-month follow-up, there was a significant improvement of symptoms, except for constipation and bloating in dolichocolon group. In particular, we observed with a statistical difference (p < .05) the persistence of constipation and bloating in dolichocolon group compared to non-dolichocolon group.

Conclusions: Dolichocolon was observed in one third patients with rectosigmoid endometriosis and could influence surgical outcomes for rectosigmoid endometriosis in terms of relief of bowel symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jogoh.2020.101697DOI Listing
April 2020

Liver function, tolerability and satisfaction during treatment with ulipristal acetate in women with fibroids: a single center experience.

Gynecol Endocrinol 2020 May 24;36(5):445-447. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Gynecology and Human Reproduction Physiopathology, DIMEC, S. Orsola Hospital University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

The aim of the study was to evaluate liver function in women treated with ulipristal acetate (UPA) and to assess the tolerability and satisfaction during treatment. This Cross-sectional study included women with symptomatic uterine fibroids subjected to one or more 3-month treatment courses of 5 mg UPA daily. Following European Medical Agency's prescriptions, women were asked about symptoms potentially related to liver damage and had blood tests done, to assess serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Data on side effects, tolerability and satisfaction with the therapy were obtained during a phone interview. A total of 162 women completed the study with a mean treatment duration of 1.8 ± 0.9 cycles. No increased AST and ALT serum levels were detected and no woman reported symptoms suggestive of liver injury. The majority of women reported improvement of fibroids-related symptoms and a high degree of satisfaction with treatment. More than half of women had side effects, in most cases not as severe as to discontinue therapy. Ulipristal acetate did not worsen liver function or cause severe organ injury and showed high tolerability and satisfaction profiles. Therefore, we believe that it can still be considered a valuable option in the treatment of uterine fibroids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09513590.2019.1680626DOI Listing
May 2020

Painful Love: Superficial Dyspareunia and Three Dimensional Transperineal Ultrasound Evaluation of Pelvic Floor Muscle in Women with Endometriosis.

J Sex Marital Ther 2020 15;46(2):187-196. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Gynaecology and Human Reproduction Physiopathology, DIMEC, S. Orsola Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

We conducted an observational study between March 2015 and March 2018 in our academic center. Symptomatic, sexually active women with clinical and sonographic diagnosis of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) or isolated ovarian endometriosis were enrolled. Women were asked to rank endometriosis-related symptoms, especially superficial and deep dyspareunia. Moreover, 3D transperineal ultrasound was performed to assess the levator hiatus area (LHA) evaluating pelvic floor muscle (PFM) morphometry. Women with endometriosis seem to have a high prevalence of superficial dyspareunia and three-dimensional transperineal ultrasound seems to be a viable technique to assess PFM morphometry in these women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0092623X.2019.1676852DOI Listing
November 2020

Dienogest or Norethindrone acetate for the treatment of ovarian endometriomas: Can we avoid surgery?

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2019 Jul 2;238:120-124. Epub 2019 May 2.

Gynaecology and Human Reproduction Physiopathology, DIMEC, S. Orsola Hospital, University of Bologna, Italy.

Objective: To compare the effects of Dienogest (D) and Norethindrone acetate (N) in symptomatic women with ovarian endometriomas, analyzing the efficacy in reducing endometrioma size and symptom relief and drug tolerability.

Study Design: Retrospective study including 135 symptomatic women with ultrasonographic diagnosis of ovarian endometrioma. Women were divided into two groups: 1) women who received D 2 mg/day (group D); 2) women who received N 2.5 mg/day (group N). Women were evaluated at therapy prescription and after 6 and 12 months of treatment: transvaginal ultrasound was performed to assess the mean diameter of endometriomas, a Visual Analogue Scale was used to rank endometriosis related symptoms (dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, chronic pelvic pain). The main outcome measure was the comparison between the 2 groups in terms of variations in endometrioma size and endometriosis related symptoms during the follow-up. Drug tolerability was also analyzed in terms of side effects.

Results: A reduction in ovarian endometrioma size was observed during treatment in both groups, with no significant differences between groups D and N. Endometriosis related symptoms decreased in both groups, but the decrease was significantly higher in group D than in group N for all symptoms, both at 6 and 12 months of treatment. Regarding drug tolerability, uterine bleeding/spotting and weight gain were reported more frequently by women in the group N than women in the group D, both at 6 and 12 months of treatment.

Conclusion: Progestin therapy with D or N appears to be effective in reducing the size of endometriomas and related symptoms, with a greater effect on symptoms relief and higher tolerability in women treated with D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2019.04.010DOI Listing
July 2019

Computed Tomography-Colonography With Intravenous Contrast Medium and Urographic Phase for the Evaluation of Pelvic Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis of Intestinal and Urinary Tract.

J Comput Assist Tomogr 2019 May/Jun;43(3):513-518

From the Departments of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES).

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a specific protocol of computed tomography-colonography with intravenous contrast medium and urographic phase, which combined simultaneously the study of the intestinal and urinary tract, in the preoperative evaluation of women with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) of anterior and posterior pelvic compartments.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 73 women who underwent 74 computed tomography-colonography with intravenous contrast medium and urographic phase examinations for strong clinical suspicion of DIE. All the women had surgical confirmation.

Results: Computed tomography-colonography with intravenous contrast medium and urographic phase in detecting DIE rectosigmoid involvement had a sensitivity of 82.3% and a specificity of 66.7%, while in detecting DIE urinary tract involvement had a sensitivity of 45.9% and a specificity of 78.4%.

Conclusions: Computed tomography-colonography with intravenous contrast medium and urographic phase is a useful technique for the preoperative planning of selected women with DIE, in particular, for the detection of sigmoid colon and bladder lesions especially when performed with a dose reduction protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RCT.0000000000000867DOI Listing
June 2019

Conservative hysteroscopic treatment of stage I well differentiated endometrial cancer in patients with high surgical risk: a pilot study.

J Gynecol Oncol 2019 Jul 22;30(4):e62. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, DIMEC, S.Orsola Hospital, University Alma Mater Studiorum of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Objective: To report hysteroscopic treatment combined with levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) to treat women with early well differentiated endometrial cancer (EC) at high surgical risk.

Methods: Nine women diagnosed with stage IA, grade 1 endometrioid EC which was contraindicated or refused standard treatment with external beam radiation therapy with or without brachytherapy were enrolled in our prospective study. Endo-myometrial hysteroscopic resection of the whole uterine cavity and the placement of LNG-IUD for 5 years was performed. Response rate, perioperative complications, and recurrence of disease were evaluated.

Results: None had intra or post-operative complications and all were discharged no later than the third day of hospitalization. After 6 months from surgery, all the women showed a complete regression of the lesion. All the women completed the 5 years follow-up and in no case was detected sign of recurrence. Two women died for causes unrelated to the tumor or the ongoing therapy.

Conclusion: The alternative treatment with endo-myometrial hysteroscopic resection and LNG-IUD in women with stage IA, grade 1 endometrioid EC showed initial encouraging outcomes in terms of effectiveness and safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3802/jgo.2019.30.e62DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6543116PMC
July 2019

Channel-like 360° Isthmocele Treatment with a 16F Mini-Resectoscope: A Step-by-step Technique.

J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2019 Nov - Dec;26(7):1229-1230. Epub 2019 May 3.

Gynecology and Human Reproduction Physiopathology Unit (Drs. Morra, Paradisi, and Seracchioli), Sant'Orsola Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Study Objective: To show the technique of hysteroscopic channel-like 360° repair of a cesarean scar defect performed with a Gubbini 16F miniresectoscope (GUBBINI system; Tontarra Medizintechnik, Tuttlingen, Germany).

Design: A step-by-step demonstration of the surgical technique using slides, pictures, and a video (an instructive video [Video 1]).

Setting: A university hospital (Bologna University Hospital, Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Polyclinic, Bologna, Italy).

Patients: A 35-year-old woman with a history of a previous cesarean section complaining of pelvic pain and postmenstrual spotting.

Interventions: With the vaginoscopic approach, the isthmocele was localized; a high-frequency 90° angled circular loop electrode and pure cutting current of 100 W were used to resect the fibrotic tissue of the proximal (step 1) and distal (step 2) part of the niche. We performed resection not only of the fibrotic tissue underneath the niche but also of the inflamed tissue placed around the niche and on the opposite site (the so-called channel-like 360° endocervical ablation). A high-frequency angled ball electrode was used to obtain focused coagulation of all residual inflamed tissue still present on the niche surface and on the cervical canal walls (step 3); the aim of this step is to facilitate the re-epithelialization of the cervical canal walls by the paraphysiological endocervical epithelium. The procedure was ended by controlling any bleeding of the endocervical vessels by reducing the inflow and pressure of the distending medium and by focused electrocauterization with a ball electrode (step 4).

Measurements And Main Results: The operative time was 14 minutes. The small diameter of a 16F resectoscope and the use of a miniaturized loop without cervical dilation allow the operative procedures to be performed without cervical dilation and without anatomic distortion of the defect, reducing the risk of complications. The small diameter of the sheaths also makes the surgical gesture faster with an easier and faster approach to the niche compared with isthmocele hysteroscopic standard surgery.

Conclusion: The presence of a uterine scar defect is usually asymptomatic or refers to postmenstrual spotting with dark red or brown discharge, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, chronic pelvic pain, infertility, or a dull sensation after menstruation. Several factors may play a role in isthmocele development such as a low uterine incision, a deficient suturing technique of the uterine incision, and patient-related factors that impair wound healing or increase inflammation or adhesion formation. Different techniques were used as reconstructive therapies of the cesarean scar defect including laparoscopic or robot-assisted laparoscopic excision, vaginal repair, or hysteroscopic treatment. All of these procedures remove or ablate the niche fibrotic tissue with the aim of relieving symptoms. Asymptomatic cases should not be treated. According to the most recent literature, hysteroscopic repair of a cesarean scar represents an effective and safe surgical option in cases of a symptomatic isthmocele. The persistence of symptoms has been reported in up to 18% of cases, so adequate counseling should be performed before the procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmig.2019.04.024DOI Listing
May 2020

First Italian birth after cryopreserved ovarian tissue transplantation in a patient affected by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Int J Hematol Oncol 2018 Dec 4;7(4):IJH08. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Gynecology & Physiopathology of Human Reproduction Unit, Department of Medical & Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, S Orsola-Malpighi Hospital of Bologna, Italy.

This case report describes the first Italian live birth obtained by cryopreserved ovarian tissue transplantation in a woman affected by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Before anticancer treatments, several fertility preservation options were proposed. At 29 years the patient underwent laparoscopy for ovarian tissue cryopreservation. After treatments she experienced premature ovarian failure (POF) and asked for cryopreserved ovarian tissue transplantation. Before transplantation, ovarian samples were analyzed to assess neoplastic contamination and tissue quality. Two subsequent ovarian tissue transplantations were performed 4 and 7 years after cryopreservation. The follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone reduction, estradiol increase and first menstrual cycle appeared 2 months after the second transplantation. The woman conceived spontaneously 5 months after the second transplantation. After 39 weeks of uneventful gestation, a healthy male baby was born. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation, thawing and transplantation successfully restored ovarian function and fertility after tissue storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/ijh-2018-0011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6331756PMC
December 2018

Transvaginal and transperineal ultrasound follow-up after laparoscopic correction of uterine retrodisplacement in women with posterior deep infiltrating endometriosis.

Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2019 04 23;59(2):288-293. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Gynaecology and Human Reproduction Physiopathology, DIMEC, S. Orsola Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Background: Retrodisplacement of the uterus (retroflexion and/or retroversion) may be associated with pelvic pain symptoms and posterior deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Previous studies in symptomatic women with retrodisplacement of the uterus showed the efficacy of hysteropexy in terms of pain symptoms improvement.

Aim: To evaluate sonographic, clinical and surgical outcomes of a hysteropexy technique MATERIALS AND METHODS: Laparoscopic round ligament plication and tilting of the uterine fundus in women with uterine retrodisplacement and posterior deep infiltrating endometriosis was performed. Forty-two symptomatic women were enrolled and the sonographic data of each (angle of uterine version and uterine flexion, uterine mobility) was assessed before and after surgery with transvaginal and transperineal approaches. Women were also evaluated at 1, 6 and 12 months after surgery for pain symptoms with a numerical rating scale (dysmenorrhoea, dyspareunia and chronic pelvic pain), intraoperative data and surgical complications.

Results: The additional mean operative time of hysteropexy procedure was 8 ± 3 min. At early follow-up both the uterine angles were significantly (P < 0.001) reduced. At 12-month follow-up, seven patients (16.7%) presented a retroverted uterus, while 12 (28.6%) presented a retroflexed uterus; the sliding sign remained negative in four patients (9.5%). A significant improvement of symptoms (P < 0.001) was observed during the follow-up.

Conclusion: Laparoscopic hysteropexy appears as an effective additional surgical procedure, which can temporarily correct the uterine position in order to reduce the risk of postoperative adhesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajo.12882DOI Listing
April 2019

Update on oogenesis in vitro.

Minerva Ginecol 2018 Oct 10;70(5):588-608. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Unit of Gynecology and Physiopathology of Human Reproduction, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy.

Introduction: Ovarian tissue is increasingly being collected from cancer patients and cryopreserved for fertility preservation. Alternately to the autologous transplantation, the development of culture systems that support oocyte development from the primordial follicle stage represent a valid strategy to restore fertility. The aim of this study is to review the most recent data regarding oogenesis in vitro and to provide an up-to-date on the contemporary knowledge of follicle growth and development in vitro.

Evidence Acquisition: A comprehensive systematic MEDLINE search was performed since February 2018 for English-language reports by using the following terms: "ovary," "animal and human follicle," "in vitro growth and development," "ovarian tissue culture," "fertility preservation," "IVM," "oocyte." Previous published reviews and recent published original articles were preferred in order to meet our study scope.

Evidence Synthesis: Over time, many studies have been conducted with the aim to optimize the characteristics of ovarian tissue culture systems and to better support the three main phases: 1) activation of primordial follicles; 2) isolation and culture of growing preantral follicles; 3) removal from the follicle environment and maturation of oocyte cumulus complexes. While complete oocyte in vitro development has been achieved in mouse, with the production of live offspring, the goal of obtaining oocytes of sufficient quality to support embryo development has not been completely reached into higher mammals despite decades of effort.

Conclusions: Over the years, many improvements have been made on ovarian tissue cultures with the future purpose that patients will be provided with a greater number of developmentally competent oocytes for fertility preservation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4784.18.04273-9DOI Listing
October 2018

Laparoscopic management of severe ureteral obstruction after vaginal hysterectomy and colposuspension.

Int Urogynecol J 2018 Oct 31;29(10):1557-1558. Epub 2018 May 31.

Gynaecology and Human Reproduction Physiopathology, DIMEC, S. Orsola Hospital, University of Bologna, 13, via Massarenti, 40138, Bologna, Italy.

Introduction And Hypothesis: After vaginal hysterectomy, uterosacral ligaments are commonly used to suspend the vaginal vault in order to prevent and to treat recurrence of central prolapse. Shull et al. proposed a technique to fix endopelvic fascia and vagina to the higher portion of the uterosacral ligaments using a vaginal approach [1]. This technique is associated with a risk of ureteral obstruction (0-11%) [2, 3]. Although intraoperative cystoscopy is recommended to check ureteral patency at the end of colposuspension, this secondary prevention technique could be false negative due to partial stenosis [4].

Methods: A 60-year-old woman with stage 3 uterine and anterior compartment descensus assessed using the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) system underwent vaginal hysterectomy, bilateral adnexectomy, and vaginal vault suspension to the uterosacral ligaments using the Shull technique. Intraoperative cystoscopy with indigo carmine was negative. On postoperative day 0, the patient complained left flank pain. Transabdominal ultrasound showed a left hydroureteronephrosis without ureteral stones, which was confirmed by uro-computed tomography scan. The attempts of ureteral stent positioning and opening the vaginal vault failed to resolve the ureteral obstruction, which was corrected, and a new vault suspension performed using the laparoscopic approach. Prophylactic ureteral stent positioning was performed. Informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report.

Results: The patient was discharged on postoperative day 5 with normal renal function. The ureteral stent was removed after 1 month, and renal ultrasound at 3 and 6 months' follow-up showed normal renal pelvis caliber. No recurrence of genital prolapse was observed at gynecological examination.

Conclusions: Laparoscopy can be a wise alternative option to manage ureteral obstruction secondary to vaginal colposuspension for genital organ prolapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00192-018-3675-6DOI Listing
October 2018

Transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue in a patient affected by metastatic struma ovarii and endometriosis.

Gynecol Endocrinol 2018 Jul 10;34(7):558-562. Epub 2018 Jan 10.

a Gynecology and Physiopathology of Human Reproductive Unit , University of Bologna, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital of Bologna , Bologna , Italy.

In this case report, the outcomes of cryopreserved ovarian tissue transplantation performed in a patient affected by struma-ovarii associated with mature cystic teratoma, recurrent endometriotic cysts and diffuse peritoneal malignant struma-ovarii implants were described. Before cryopreservation, the patient underwent two left ovarian surgeries for enucleation cysts 8 years after righ salpingo-oophorectomy for struma-ovarii. Ovarian biopsy was collected in another hospital and transported to our laboratory for cryopreservation. The patient was submitted to radioiodine-therapy for metastases from malignant struma-ovarii. After treatment she experienced premature ovarian failure. Ten years after cryopreservation, a first orthotopic transplantation was performed in the left ovary and in a peritoneal pocket. Before transplantation, ovarian samples were analyzed to assess neoplastic contamination and tissue quality. Three years later, a second transplantation was heterotopically performed in abdominal subcutaneous sites. The analysis on thawed ovarian tissue did not reveal micrometastasis and they showed follicle and stroma damages. After transplantation few small follicles were observed at ultrasound examination and hormonal levels remained at menopausal values. To date no ovarian function recovery has been observed. The report highlights that ovarian tissue cryopreservation after multiple ovarian surgery may have some limitations. An accurate counseling should be offered to patients who wish to preserve fertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09513590.2017.1423468DOI Listing
July 2018

Fertility-Sparing Treatment of Endometrial Cancer with Initial Infiltration of Myometrium by Resectoscopic Surgery: A Pilot Study.

Oncologist 2018 04 9;23(4):478-480. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, University Alma Mater Studiorum of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Three women with a well-differentiated grade 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium with minimal myometrial infiltration were treated with hysteroscopic resection and hormone therapy. The presence of myometrial infiltration has often been mentioned as an exclusion criterion for conservative management in young patients because of worsening cancer prognosis. The subsequent 5-year follow-up and the pregnancies achieved may confirm the choice of this temporary treatment and indicate a new option for fertility-sparing treatment in highly motivated patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2017-0285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5896712PMC
April 2018

Short-term histopathological effects of dienogest therapy on ovarian endometriomas: in vivo, nonrandomized, controlled trial.

Gynecol Endocrinol 2018 May 21;34(5):399-403. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

a Gynecology and Human Reproduction Physiopathology Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences , DIMEC, S. Orsola Hospital, University of Bologna , Bologna , Italy.

Ovarian endometriosis is a common gynecological disorder. To date, progestins are recommended as the first-line medical treatment for symptomatic ovarian endometriosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the main histopathological effects of short-term dienogest therapy in patients with ovarian endometriomas scheduled for surgery. A prospective, nonrandomized controlled trial, including 70 symptomatic women with single ovarian endometriotic cyst (diameter between 30-50 mm) was conducted. Women scheduled for surgery were divided into two groups, depending on the treatment established at enrollment: 36 women received progestin therapy with dienogest (P group) and 34 women received no therapy (C group). At histopathological examination necrosis, inflammation, decidualization, glandular atrophy and angiogenesis were blindly evaluated. At tissue level, decidualization was significantly more frequent in P group compared to C group (p = .001). A nonsignificant tendency (p = .29) towards a slight decreased inflammation in P group was found. No significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of necrosis, glandular atrophy and angiogenesis. The study suggests that high decidualization rate and the tendency to reduced inflammatory reaction in the short-term administration of dienogest might contribute to its therapeutic efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09513590.2017.1405932DOI Listing
May 2018

Severe ureteral endometriosis: frequency and risk factors.

J Obstet Gynaecol 2018 Feb 3;38(2):257-260. Epub 2017 Oct 3.

a Department of Gynecology and Reproductive Biology , S. Orsola Hospital, University of Bologna , Bologna , Italy.

Ureteral endometriosis (UE) can be classified as severe when there is obstruction to urinary flow (ureteral compression (UC)). In this retrospective study on 205 patients, we evaluated intraoperatively the frequency of severe ureteral endometriosis (UE) in women with UE and, secondarily, risk factors associated with UC. We documented intraoperatively ureteral UC in 124 (60.5%) patients with UE. A significantly lower body mass index (BMI) was observed in women with UC than in women without UC (p = .02). A significant association was found between UC and parametrial endometriosis (p = .001). In multivariable analysis, these variables remained significantly associated with UC. Ureteral compression is common in patients with UE, especially in women with parametrial infiltration and a low BMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01443615.2017.1349083DOI Listing
February 2018

Laparoscopic Mesh-Less Cervicosacropexy for Uterovaginal Prolapse.

Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg 2018 Nov/Dec;24(6):399-403

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate surgical and clinical outcomes of laparoscopic mesh-less cervicosacropexy for the treatment of uterovaginal prolapse.

Methods: This single institutional review board-approved prospective cohort study enrolled 46 consecutive, sexually active symptomatic women requiring surgical correction of uterovaginal prolapse, from July 2013 to March 2016. After supracervical laparoscopic hysterectomy, the cervix was suspended to the anterior longitudinal ligament of the sacral promontory through a continuous suture with plication and shortening of the right uterosacral ligament. Pelvic organs' function was evaluated through validated questionnaires during preoperative and postoperative follow-up evaluations. The anatomical recurrences of genital prolapse with a Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantitative stage 2 or higher, in particular of central compartment (Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantitative score C ≥-1), were recorded.

Results: Mean ± SD age was 55.5 ± 10.9 years. Mean ± SD operating time was 97.4 ± 25.6 (range, 60-180) minutes. Mean ± SD hospitalization length was 3.6 ± 0.9 (range, 2-6) days. No intraoperative complications were recorded. Median length of follow-up was 24 (range, 12-38) months. During the follow-up period, the objective success rates for central compartment prolapse and for all compartments were 93.5% and 89.1%, respectively. No woman presented dyspareunia at follow-up. Thirty-nine women (84.8%) reported very high satisfaction related to surgery and 6 (13%) a moderate satisfaction. Overall Female Sexual Function Index, Knowles-Eccersley-Scott Symptom, and Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract scores improved significantly after surgery, except for incontinence score domain.

Conclusions: Laparoscopic mesh-less cervicosacropexy represents an effective and feasible option for the surgical treatment of uterovaginal prolapse in sexually active women, avoiding postoperative complications due to the mesh use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SPV.0000000000000464DOI Listing
April 2019

Comparison of transvaginal sonography and computed tomography-colonography with contrast media and urographic phase for diagnosing deep infiltrating endometriosis of the posterior compartment of the pelvis: a pilot study.

Jpn J Radiol 2017 Sep 12;35(9):546-554. Epub 2017 Jul 12.

Gynecology and Human Reproduction Physiopathology, DIMEC, S. Orsola Hospital, University of Bologna, Massarenti, 13, 40138, Bologna, Italy.

Purpose: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal sonography (TVS) and computed tomography-colonography with contrast media and urographic phase (CTCU) in the preoperative detection of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE).

Materials And Methods: Forty-seven patients with clinical suspicion of DIE underwent preoperative TVS and CTCU. Imaging data were compared with histopathologic analysis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and test accuracies of the two modalities were calculated.

Results: For diagnosing intestinal DIE, TVS and CTCU had a sensitivity of 98 and 71%, specificity of 33 and 50%, positive predictive value of 91 and 91%, negative predictive value of 67 and 20%, accuracy of 89 and 68%, respectively. For diagnosing ureteral DIE, TVS and CTCU had a sensitivity of 10 and 60%, specificity of 94.8 and 70.2% on the right; sensitivity of 28.5 and 57.1%, specificity of 96.3 and 76.9% on the left, respectively.

Conclusion: TVS should be regarded as an accurate, radiation-free first-line diagnostic modality for patients with suspicion of posterior endometriosis. CTCU should be regarded as a complementary imaging modality, particularly for sigmoid or ureteral endometriosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11604-017-0665-4DOI Listing
September 2017

Does exist a correlation between endometriosis and thrombophilic disorders? A pilot study.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Jun;56(3):371-373

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, DIMEC, S. Orsola Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Objective: At present, there is growing evidence of the existence of a genetic predisposition in both thrombophilic disorders and endometriosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate for the first time the prevalence of some thrombophilic disorders in patients with endometriosis.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a retrospective study on 138 patients with endometriosis and 278 healthy control women. All women were subjected to a blood examination testing for thrombophilic screening and the variables examinated were: hyperhomocysteinemia, factor V Leiden and factor II prothrombin G20210A mutations in heterozygosis and homozigosis.

Results: A significant reduced prevalence (p < 0.05) of factor V Leiden mutation in endometriosis patients was found, whereas no significant differences (p = NS) for factor II and hyperhomocysteinemia were observed.

Conclusion: Our preliminary data do not show any association between thrombophilic condition and endometriosis. Before assuming hormonal therapies, a thrombophilic plasmatic screening seems to be unnecessary in patients affected by endometriosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2017.04.020DOI Listing
June 2017

Endometriosis in Adolescence: Practical Rules for an Earlier Diagnosis.

Pediatr Ann 2016 Sep;45(9):e332-5

Dysmenorrhea, cyclic pelvic pain, and acyclic pelvic pain are common in adolescent girls, and at least 10% of these girls are at risk for subsequent development of endometriosis. In this article we highlight practical tips for the management of dysmenorrhea and chronic pelvic pain and how to diagnose endometriosis as early as possible and detect patients at risk for developing the disease in the future. We suggest five practical rules for managing adolescents with dysmenorrhea and chronic pelvic pain: (1) Never underestimate the pain; (2) Always consider endometriosis as a possible cause of severe cyclic pain; (3) Obtain a detailed and accurate history before performing clinical evaluation and pelvic sonography; (4) Treat the pain with hormonal therapies (combined oral contraceptives or progestogen-only pill) and analgesics (acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs); and (5) Plan frequent follow-up visits to re-evaluate the patient. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(9):e332-e335.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20160727-03DOI Listing
September 2016

Long-term storage does not impact the quality of cryopreserved human ovarian tissue.

J Ovarian Res 2016 Aug 24;9(1):50. Epub 2016 Aug 24.

Gynecology and Physiopathology of Human Reproductive Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital of Bologna, via Massarenti 13, 40138, Bologna, Italy.

Background: Ovarian tissue cryopreservation is an emerging technique, also addressed to very young cancer patients, for whom it is not possible to perform an ovarian stimulation for oocytes freezing, before gonadotoxic treatment. In this cases, ovarian tissue must be cryopreserved for a long period of time and it is very important to know if it maintains fertility function after a long period of storage. Here we aimed to assess the effect of long-term storage on preservation and viability of cryopreserved human ovarian tissue.

Methods: Descriptive study of three cases of cancer patients whose cryopreserved ovarian tissue remained stored for 18 years. Long-term stored tissue was examined by histological and immunohistochemical analysis, transmission electron microscopy, TUNEL assay and LIVE/DEAD viability/citotoxicity test.

Results: Ovarian tissue stored for 18 years showed a good morphology. Follicles presented negative staining for estrogen and progesterone receptors, positive staining for ki67 in granulosa cells and/or oocytes and for bcl2 in granulosa cells. Regarding stroma, patch/focal positive expression was found for estrogen receptor and ki67, diffusely positive expression for progesterone receptor and bcl2. After long-term storage, ultrastructural examination showed sub-cellular integrity of follicles and interstitial oedema foci. No apoptosis was observable by TUNEL assay. Stromal cell viability remained >97 % during the culture period.

Conclusion: The evaluation of different aspects of the tissue provides evidence that the storage time does not impact on tissue quality and gives hope especially to cancer girls, whose tissues could remain cryopreserved for a very long time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13048-016-0261-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4995754PMC
August 2016

High cytokine expression and reduced ovarian reserve in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma or non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Fertil Steril 2016 Oct 26;106(5):1176-1182. Epub 2016 Jul 26.

Gynecology and Physiopathology of Human Reproductive Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy.

Objective: To investigate the ovarian reserve in female lymphoma patients and the potential relationships with the cytokine network.

Design: Age-matched control study.

Setting: Women's university hospital.

Patient(s): Seventy-three lymphoma patients (57 with classic Hodgkin lymphoma [HL] and 16 with non-Hodgkin lymphoma [NHL]), approaching our center for ovarian tissue cryopreservation (study group) were compared with 25 age-matched healthy volunteers (control group).

Intervention(s): Measurements of antimüllerian hormone (AMH), soluble interleukin-2 receptor (SIL-2R), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) levels.

Main Outcome Measure(s): The AMH and cytokine levels of the lymphoma patients and the healthy volunteers were compared. Correlations between AMH with SIL-2R, IL-6, and IL-8 levels were performed.

Result(s): The AMH showed significant lower concentrations in lymphoma patients than in the control group. Higher significant concentrations in lymphoma patients than in control group were found for SIL-2R and IL-6. No differences were observed comparing HL and NHL groups and within the stages of HL group for AMH and all the cytokines analyzed. Finally, significant inverse correlations were observed in lymphoma patients between AMH and SIL-2R, IL-6, and IL-8 levels, but not with TNF-α levels. Positive correlations between SIL-2R with IL-6, and IL-6 with IL-8 were also shown.

Conclusion(s): In patients with HL or NHL at baseline the cytokine network is particularly active and the ovarian reserve is reduced. A strong negative correlation between AMH and SIL-2R, IL-6, and IL-8 has been also evidenced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2016.06.035DOI Listing
October 2016