Publications by authors named "Roberto Galeotti"

32 Publications

An annotated T2-weighted magnetic resonance image collection of testicular germ and non-germ cell tumors.

Sci Data 2021 08 5;8(1):209. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, Via L. Ariosto 34, I-44121, Ferrara, Italy.

Testicular cancer is a rare tumor with a worldwide incidence that has increased over the last few decades. The majority of these tumors are testicular non-germ (TNGCTs) and germ cell tumors (TGCTs); the latter divided into two broad classes - seminomatous (SGCTs) and non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCTs). Although ultrasonography (US) maintains a primary role in the diagnostic workup of scrotal pathology, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as the imaging modality recommended for challenging cases, providing additional information to clarify inconclusive/equivocal US. In this work we describe and publicly share a collection of 44 images of annotated T2-weighted MRI lesions from 42 patients. Given that testicular cancer is a rare tumor, we are confident that this collection can be used to validate statistical models and to further investigate TNGCT and TGCT peculiarities using medical imaging features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00990-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8342409PMC
August 2021

Spontaneously reversible adrenal nodules in primary diffuse large B-cell testicular lymphoma mimicking an extranodal involvement: A case report.

Radiol Case Rep 2021 Aug 11;16(8):2168-2173. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Morphology, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, Italy.

In the staging of cancer patients, transient and spontaneously reversible bilateral adrenal hypertrophy may mimic a secondary localization of the disease. We discuss the case of an 82-year-old male patient with suspected testicular neoplasia in which abdominal CT examination reveals the onset of a bilateral macronodular adrenal enlargement, suggesting the diagnostic hypothesis of primary testicular neoplasia with secondary adrenal localization. The subsequent FDG-PET/CT study showed hyper-metabolism of the testicular mass, while the adrenal glands, surprisingly, did not show increased uptake of the radiotracer. After right orchifunicolectomy, primary testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was diagnosed. The subsequent staging PET/CT study with iodine contrast medium, three months after the first CT examination, showed spontaneous complete regression of the adrenal hypertrophy without any use of drug therapy. The differential diagnosis of this finding considered the lack of hypermetabolism and the densitometric characteristics of the adrenal glands, the absence of possible pharmacological interactions throughout the time of the diagnostic procedures, and the available clinical-laboratory data. By excluding the main causes of adrenal hypertrophy, the most likely diagnostic hypothesis was transient adrenal hypertrophy due to stress induced by testicular lymphoma, meaning by stress a disturbance not only emotional but also an alteration of organic homeostasis. Our case suggests that the analysis of adrenal lesions appeared in cancer patients should take into account non-metastatic conditions that must be studied with a multimodal approach and with serial investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radcr.2021.05.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8209649PMC
August 2021

Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis: Etiology, Symptomatology, Diagnosis and Current Treatment.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Feb 23;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Vascular Diseases Center, University Hospital of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy.

(1) Background: internal jugular vein thrombosis (IJVthr) is a potentially life-threating disease but no comprehensive reviews on etiology, symptomatology, diagnosis and current treatment guidelines are yet available; (2) Methods: we prospectively developed a protocol that defined objectives, search strategy for study identification, criteria for study selection, data extraction, study outcomes, and statistical methodology, according to the PRISMA standard. We performed a computerized search of English-language publications listed in the various electronic databases. We also retrieved relevant reports from other sources, especially by the means of hand search in the Glauco Bassi Library of the University of Ferrara; (3) Results: using the predefined search strategy, we retrieved and screened 1490 titles. Data from randomized control trials were few and limited to the central vein catheterization and to the IJVthr anticoagulation treatment. Systematic reviews were found just for Lemierre syndrome, the risk of pulmonary embolism, and the IJVthr following catheterization. The majority of the information required in our pre-defined objectives comes from perspectives observational studies and case reports. The methodological quality of the included studies was from moderate to good. After title and abstract evaluation, 1251 papers were excluded, leaving 239 manuscripts available. Finally, just 123 studies were eligible for inclusion. We found out the description of 30 different signs, symptoms, and blood biomarkers related to this condition, as well as 24 different reported causes of IJVthr. (4) Conclusions: IJVthr is often an underestimated clinical problem despite being one of the major sources of pulmonary embolism as well as a potential cause of stroke in the case of the upward propagation of the thrombus. More common symptoms are neck pain and headache, whereas swelling, erythema and the palpable cord sign beneath the sternocleidomastoid muscle, frequently associated with fever, are the most reported clinical signs. An ultrasound of the neck, even limited to the simple and rapid assessment of the compression maneuver, is a quick, economic, cost-effective, noninvasive tool. High quality studies are currently lacking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11020378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7926529PMC
February 2021

The potential role of MR based radiomic biomarkers in the characterization of focal testicular lesions.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 10;11(1):3456. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Morphology Surgery and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, Via L. Ariosto 34, 44121, Ferrara, Italy.

How to differentiate with MRI-based techniques testicular germ (TGCTs) and testicular non-germ cell tumors (TNGCTs) is still under debate and Radiomics may be the turning key. Our purpose is to investigate the performance of MRI-based Radiomics signatures for the preoperative prediction of testicular neoplasm histology. The aim is twofold: (i), differentiating TGCTs and TNGCTs status and (ii) differentiating seminomas (SGCTs) from non-seminomatous (NSGCTs). Forty-two patients with pathology-proven testicular neoplasms and referred for pre-treatment MRI, were retrospectively enrolled. Thirty-two out of 44 lesions were TGCTs. Twelve out of 44 were TNGCTs or other histologies. Two radiologists segmented the volume of interest on T2-weighted images. Approximately 500 imaging features were extracted. Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) was applied as method for variable selection. A linear model and a linear support vector machine (SVM) were trained with selected features to assess discrimination scores for the two endpoints. LASSO identified 3 features that were employed to build fivefold validated linear discriminant and linear SVM classifiers for the TGCT-TNGCT endpoint giving an overall accuracy of 89%. Four features were employed to build another SVM for the SGCT-SNGCT endpoint with an overall accuracy of 86%. The data obtained proved that T2-weighted-based Radiomics is a promising tool in the diagnostic workup of testicular neoplasms by discriminating germ cell from non-gem cell tumors, and seminomas from non-seminomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83023-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7875983PMC
February 2021

Voluminous abdominal gastrointestinal stromal tumor of unknown origin manifested with bleeding in a young man: synchronous management of the emergency and oncological approach-case report.

AME Case Rep 2020 30;4:33. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, which cover about 1-2% of gastrointestinal neoplasms with an unadjusted incidence of around 1/100,000/year. They are also the most common non-epithelial neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract and they are associated with a high rate of malignant transformation. They are more common in the stomach (40-60%) while a minor part repeatedly involves jejunum/ileus (25-30%), duodenum (5%), colorectal (5-15%) and esophagus (<1%). There are also much rarer extragastrointestinal stromal tumor (EGIST): these tumors have immunohistochemical and molecular characteristics similar to GISTs and for this reason, they are called this way, EGIST can involve retroperitoneum, mesentery, and omentum, without affecting the gastrointestinal tract. The clinical presentation depends on the primary localization of the neoplasm, however in 18% it is asymptomatic, and it is accidentally discovered during endoscopies, radiological examinations or surgical operations performed for other reasons, especially if it is small in size. More often, they are associated with non-specific symptoms such as early satiety, nausea or vomiting. Gastrointestinal bleeding is the most dangerous complication, often necessitating emergency surgery. The purpose of this case report is to describe our experience in the management of a young patient with gastrointestinal bleeding caused by an unknown voluminous retroperitoneal GIST with metastatic progression using a combined endovascular embolization and debulking-surgery approach for emergency and imatinib therapy combined with radiofrequency for the oncological approach. GIST requires multidisciplinary management, which improves both prognosis and quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/acr-20-70DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7608730PMC
October 2020

Pitfalls in the embolisation of a thyrocervical trunk bleeding: a case report.

Patient Saf Surg 2020 6;14:19. Epub 2020 May 6.

2Section of Diagnostic Imaging, Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

Introduction: An intrathoracic bleeding from the thyrocervical branch is not common in blunt trauma, but an interventional radiologist should be aware of the risks in order to prevent complications.

Case Presentation: A 30-year-old male presented with a right pneumo-haemothorax due to active bleeding revealed at contrast-enhanced CT, as a consequence of a fall occurred in the previous week. The patient was treated with endovascular embolisation in an angiographic room with coils placement, since the right thyrocervical artery was found to be supplying the pneumo-haemothorax. A radiculo-medullary branch rose from the thyrocervical trunk, impeding the proximal embolization with microparticles and needing selective isolation of the bleeding artery with the catheter to avoid spinal cord injuries. The treatment had a successful result and the following CT control showed signs of recovering, without any complication.

Conclusion: Our paper presents a rare contingency, warning the operator to bear in mind the presence of arteries feeding the spinal cord. This crucial detail precludes the use of microparticles embolisation to prevent neurologic sequelae, whereas the use of endovascular coils for embolization should be mandatory. Moreover, this case reminds that the post-traumatic bleeding deriving from a cervical trauma may also occur later.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13037-020-00244-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7201948PMC
May 2020

Technical results, clinical efficacy and predictors of outcome of intercostal arteries embolization for hemothorax: a two-institutions' experience.

J Thorac Dis 2019 Nov;11(11):4693-4699

General Thoracic Surgery Department, Respiratory Institute, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and identify the predictors of outcome of intercostal arterial embolization for hemothorax caused by intercostal artery (ICA) injuries.

Methods: A retrospective multi-institutional study was conducted. Outcomes were analyzed in 30 consecutive patients presenting with hemothorax caused by active ICA hemorrhage undergoing transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). Clinical and procedural parameters were compared between outcomes groups.

Results: Overall technical success rate was 87% (n=26). Among the 4 failed cases, 2 underwent repeated TAE and 2 underwent additional surgery. Overall 30-day mortality rate was 23%. Low haemoglobin levels and haematocrit, hepatic comorbidities and more than one artery undergoing embolization increased technical failure rate significantly. Survival was poorer in patients with massive bleeding.

Conclusions: ICA embolization was found to be a safe and effective method in treating hemothorax caused by active ICA haemorrhage. Careful pre-embolization evaluation may be required for patient with low haemoglobin levels and haematocrit, hepatic comorbidities and active haemorrhage from more than one artery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2019.10.27DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6940252PMC
November 2019

The eagle jugular syndrome.

BMC Neurol 2019 Dec 21;19(1):333. Epub 2019 Dec 21.

ENT Unit, Ferrara University Hospital, Ferrara, Italy.

Background: The elongation of the styloid process is historically associated with two variants of the Eagle syndrome. The classic one, mainly characterized by pain and dysphagia, and the carotid variant characterized by pain and sometimes by cerebral ischemia. We observed a further variant characterized by a styloid elongation coursing adjacent to the transverse process of C1, causing significant compression of the internal jugular vein.

Methods: We reviewed all the cases of Eagle syndrome, including the jugular variant, admitted in our Hospital in the last six years. We compared symptomatology, associated comorbidities and imaging. Data were statistically analyzed.

Results: Overall 23 patients were admitted to the Hospital for symptomatic elongation of the styloid process, 11 male and 12 females. The jugular variant of the Eagle syndrome is clinically delineated by significant differences, as compared to the classic variant and carotid variants. Headache was the more prominent symptom (p < .009) as well as a documented peri-mesencephalic hemorrhage was the more significant comorbidity (p < .0003). The group classic-carotid variant was characterized by ipsilateral pain respect to the jugular variant (p < .0003). CT angiography with venous phase extended to the neck veins and imaging reconstruction is highly recommended as imaging technique, complemented by color-Doppler ultrasound.

Conclusions: The elongation of the styloid process may have different paths which creates compression on the surrounding anatomical structures. There may be a possible association of jugular impingement by an elongated styloid process with symptoms.

Trial Registration: Protocol n°45-2013.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-019-1572-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6925502PMC
December 2019

Effects of Venous Angioplasty on Cerebral Lesions in Multiple Sclerosis: Expanded Analysis of the Brave Dreams Double-Blind, Sham-Controlled Randomized Trial.

J Endovasc Ther 2020 02 17;27(1):1526602819890110. Epub 2019 Nov 17.

Unit of Vascular Surgery and Transplantation, University of Catania, Italy.

Purpose: To evaluate if jugular vein flow restoration in various venographic defects indicative of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients can have positive effects on cerebral lesions identified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Materials And Methods: The Brave Dreams trial ( identifier NCT01371760) was a multicenter, randomized, parallel group, double-blind, sham-controlled trial to assess the efficacy of jugular venoplasty in MS patients with CCSVI. Between August 2012 and March 2016, 130 patients (mean age 39.9±10.6 years; 81 women) with relapsing/remitting (n=115) or secondary/progressive (n=15) MS were randomized 2:1 to venography plus angioplasty (n=86) or venography (sham; n=44). Patients and study personnel (except the interventionist) were masked to treatment assignment. MRI data acquired at 6 and 12 months after randomization were compared to the preoperative scan for new and/or >30% enlargement of T2 lesions plus new gadolinium enhancement of pre-existing lesions. The relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated and compared. In a secondary assessment, venograms of patients who underwent venous angioplasty were graded as "favorable" (n=38) or "unfavorable" (n=30) for dilation according to the Giaquinta grading system by 4 investigators blinded to outcomes. These subgroups were also compared.

Results: Of the 130 patients enrolled, 125 (96%) completed the 12-month MRI follow-up. Analysis showed that the likelihood of being free of new cerebral lesions at 1 year was significantly higher after venoplasty compared to the sham group (RR 1.42, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.01, p=0.032). Patients with favorable venograms had a significantly higher probability of being free of new cerebral lesions than patients with unfavorable venograms (RR 1.82, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.83, p=0.005) or patients in the sham arm (RR 1.66, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.37, p=0.005).

Conclusion: Expanded analysis of the Brave Dreams data that included secondary/progressive MS patients in addition to the relapsing/remitting patients analyzed previously showed that venoplasty decreases new cerebral lesions at 1 year. Secondary analysis confirmed the efficacy of the Giaquinta grading system in selecting patients appropriate for venoplasty who were more likely to be free from accumulation of new cerebral lesions at MRI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1526602819890110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6970429PMC
February 2020

A rare case of ileo-ileal intussusception due to a bleeding lipomatous mass treated by laparoscopic ileal resection.

Ann Ital Chir 2019 May 2;8. Epub 2019 May 2.

Introduction: Adult intussusception is a rare cause of bowel obstruction with atypical presentation. It can be associated with primary or secondary intestinal tumors and, rarely, with lipomatous masses.

Case Report: We report the case of a 69-year old man presenting with a history of gastrointestinal bleeding and anemia. Upper and lower endoscopies were negative for bleeding. On abdominal contrast enhanced computerized tomography (CT) scan, a trans-omental hernia in the right lower abdominal quadrant was diagnosed with no active bleeding or evidence of tumor. On exploratory laparoscopy we detected an ileo-ileal intussusception caused by a submucosal mass in the distal ileum, which was reduced and we then performed a segmental resection of the involved small bowel tract. The patient fully recovered by postoperative day 3 when he was discharged home. Final pathology confirmed an ileal lipoma.

Conclusion: Ileal intussusception caused by lipoma is a rare condition, which can be diagnosed with endoscopy, barium enema, and abdominal ultrasound or CT scanning, but preoperative diagnosis may be difficult. The treatment of choice is the reduction of the intussusception and the resection (laparoscopic or open) of the involved tract.

Key Words: Intussusception, Lipoma, Ileum, Laparoscopy, Bleeding.
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May 2019

A rare case of intralobar pulmonary sequestration: combined endovascular and video-assisted thoracoscopic approach.

AME Case Rep 2018 6;2:19. Epub 2018 May 6.

Department of Morphology, Experimental Medicine and Surgery, Section of Chirurgia 1, Section of Pathology, Sant'Anna Hospital, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

Pulmonary sequestration is a congenital malformation characterized by cystic, non-functioning embryonic lung tissue supplied by an abnormal systemic artery. It's a rare disease widely variable in clinical presentation and severity, depending mostly on the degree of lung involvement and location in the thoracic cavity. Most patients have recurrent infections and inflammatory conditions in the affected lobe. Surgical resection continues to be the gold standard of therapy and in this context anatomical resection is the procedure of choice and yields excellent long-term results. There are few studies reporting the use of combined endovascular and thoracoscopic approaches for pulmonary sequestration. We describe a case of intralobar pulmonary sequestration located in the lower lobe of the right lung, which was treated with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) after endovascular embolization of systemic artery arising from celiac trunk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/acr.2018.04.01DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6155656PMC
May 2018

Efficacy and Safety of Extracranial Vein Angioplasty in Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Neurol 2018 01;75(1):35-43

Scientific Director's Office, Carlo Besta Foundation and Neurological Institute, Milan, Italy.

Importance: Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is characterized by restricted venous outflow from the brain and spinal cord. Whether this condition is associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) and whether venous percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is beneficial in persons with MS and CCSVI is controversial.

Objective: To determine the efficacy and safety of venous PTA in patients with MS and CCSVI.

Design, Setting, And Participants: We analyzed 177 patients with relapsing-remitting MS; 62 were ineligible, including 47 (26.6%) who did not have CCSVI on color Doppler ultrasonography screening. A total of 115 patients were recruited in the study timeframe. All patients underwent a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled, parallel-group trial in 6 MS centers in Italy. The trial began in August 2012 and concluded in March 2016; data were analyzed from April 2016 to September 2016. The analysis was intention to treat.

Interventions: Patients were randomly allocated (2:1) to either venous PTA or catheter venography without venous angioplasty (sham).

Main Outcomes And Measures: Two primary end points were assessed at 12 months: (1) a composite functional measure (ie, walking control, balance, manual dexterity, postvoid residual urine volume, and visual acuity) and (2) a measure of new combined brain lesions on magnetic resonance imaging, including the proportion of lesion-free patients. Combined lesions included T1 gadolinium-enhancing lesions plus new or enlarged T2 lesions.

Results: Of the included 115 patients with relapsing-remitting MS, 76 were allocated to the PTA group (45 female [59%]; mean [SD] age, 40.0 [10.3] years) and 39 to the sham group (29 female [74%]; mean [SD] age, 37.5 [10.6] years); 112 (97.4%) completed follow-up. No serious adverse events occurred. Flow restoration was achieved in 38 of 71 patients (54%) in the PTA group. The functional composite measure did not differ between the PTA and sham groups (41.7% vs 48.7%; odds ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.34-1.68; P = .49). The mean (SD) number of combined lesions on magnetic resonance imaging at 6 to 12 months were 0.47 (1.19) in the PTA group vs 1.27 (2.65) in the sham group (mean ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.15-0.91; P = .03: adjusted P = .09) and were 1.40 (4.21) in the PTA group vs 1.95 (3.73) in the sham group at 0 to 12 months (mean ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.32-1.63; P = .45; adjusted P = .45). At follow-up after 6 to 12 months, 58 of 70 patients (83%) in the PTA group and 22 of 33 (67%) in the sham group were free of new lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (odds ratio, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.11-6.28; P = .03; adjusted P = .09). At 0 to 12 months, 46 of 73 patients (63.0%) in the PTA group and 18 of 37 (49%) in the sham group were free of new lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (odds ratio, 1.80; 95% CI, 0.81-4.01; P = .15; adjusted P = .30).

Conclusion And Relevance: Venous PTA has proven to be a safe but largely ineffective technique; the treatment cannot be recommended in patients with MS.

Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01371760.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2017.3825DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5833494PMC
January 2018

A case of subcutaneous sarcoidosis: considerations on genetic characterization, clinical presentation and course.

G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2017 Apr;152(2):188-190

Section of Dermatology and Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy -

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0392-0488.16.05323-2DOI Listing
April 2017

Pseudoaneurysm secondary to transvesical prostatectomy.

Indian J Urol 2016 Apr-Jun;32(2):164-5

Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital "St. Anna", Ferrara, Italy.

Pseudoaneurysms associated with the internal pudendal artery is rare and may occur as a complication of prostatic surgery or or pelvic trauma. We present images of the first case in literature of an isolated pseudoaneurysm secondary to transvesical prostatic adenomectomy, which was successfully treated by transarterial coil embolization. This complication can be difficult to diagnose, manage, and cause significant postoperative bleeding. Management requires as a multidisciplinary approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-1591.174783DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4831510PMC
April 2016

An unusual case of acute respiratory failure in a patient with pulmonary veins stenosis late after catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: a case report and the review of the literature.

BMC Pulm Med 2015 Oct 24;15:128. Epub 2015 Oct 24.

Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, Section of Anesthesia and Intensive care, University of Ferrara, Via Aldo Moro, 8, Ferrara, 44121, Italy.

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) can be treated with percutaneous catheter ablation procedures into the left atrium. Pulmonary veins stenosis (PV) stenosis is a severe complication of this procedure.

Case Presentation: we report a case of late hemoptysis secondary to severe PV stenosis in a man who underwent AF ablation 9 months before onset of symptoms. He presented four episodes of bleeding and developed an acute respiratory failure (ARF). Parameters of respiratory mechanics and medical investigation did not show any abnormalities. Only computed tomography (CT) angiography showed stenosis of 3 out of 4 native PVs. PV balloon dilatation in all affected PVs and a stent was implanted in 1 of the 3 PVs with full restoration of respiratory function during 1 year follow-up.

Conclusion: PV stenosis may be the underlying cause of recurrent haemoptysis after AF ablation in the presence of normal respiratory parameters. This diagnosis can be confirmed by means of CT angiography and magnetic resonance imaging can provide accurate localization of stenosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-015-0121-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4620024PMC
October 2015

Changes of cine cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in patients with multiple sclerosis treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty: a case-control study.

J Vasc Interv Radiol 2013 Jun 21;24(6):829-38. Epub 2013 Mar 21.

Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14203, USA.

Purpose: To investigate characteristics of cine phase contrast-calculated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and velocity measures in patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS) receiving standard medical treatment who had been diagnosed with chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA).

Materials And Methods: This case-controlled, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-blinded study included 15 patients with RR MS who presented with significant stenoses (≥50% lumen reduction on catheter venography) in the azygous or internal jugular veins. Eight patients underwent PTA in addition to medical therapy immediately following baseline assessments (case group) and seven had delayed PTA after 6 months of medical therapy alone (control group). CSF flow and velocity measures were quantified over 32 phases of the cardiac cycle by a semiautomated method. Outcomes were compared between groups at baseline and at 6 and 12 months of the study by mixed-effect model analysis.

Results: At baseline, no significant differences in CSF flow or velocity measures were detected between groups. At month 6, significant improvement in flow (P<.001) and velocity (P = .013) outcomes were detected in the immediate versus the delayed group, and persisted to month 12 (P = .001 and P = .021, respectively). Within-group flow comparisons from baseline to follow-up showed a significant increase in the immediate group (P = .033) but a decrease in the delayed group (P = .024). Altered CSF flow and velocity measures were associated with worsening of clinical and MR outcomes in the delayed group.

Conclusions: PTA in patients with MS with CCSVI increased CSF flow and decreased CSF velocity, which are indicative of improved venous parenchyma drainage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvir.2013.01.490DOI Listing
June 2013

Ultrasound diagnosis of renal infarction: case report and review of the literature.

Arch Ital Urol Androl 2012 Dec;84(4):242-4

Urology Unit, Arcispedale S. Anna, Ferrara, Italy.

Renal infarction secondary to thromboembolism is usually a sequela of cardiac disease, the heart being the source of systemic arterial emboli in up to 94% of cases; the three major causes are: atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction and rheumatic mitral stenosis. Renal infarction is often confused with other conditions due to similar presenting symptoms. This leads to delay in initiating treatment and significantly decreases the chances of renal salvage. We report a sonographic diagnosis in 39-year-old man, with risk factors for thrombosis, without a prior history of thromboembolism.
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December 2012

Efficacy and safety of venous angioplasty of the extracranial veins for multiple sclerosis. Brave dreams study (brain venous drainage exploited against multiple sclerosis): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2012 Oct 3;13:183. Epub 2012 Oct 3.

Vascular Diseases Center, University of Ferrara, C.so Giovecca 203, 44100 Ferrara, Italy.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with a disabling progressive course. Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) has recently been described as a vascular condition characterized by restricted venous outflow from the brain, mainly due to blockages of the internal jugular and azygos veins. Despite a wide variability among studies, it has been found to be associated with MS. Data from a few small case series suggest possible improvement of the clinical course and quality of life by performing percutaneous balloon angioplasty (PTA) of the stenotic veins.

Study Design And Methods: This is a multicenter, randomized, parallel group, blinded, sham-controlled trial to assess the efficacy and safety of PTA. Participants with relapsing remitting MS or secondary progressive MS and a sonographic diagnosis of CCSVI will be enrolled after providing their informed consent. Each participant will be centrally randomized to receive catheter venography and PTA or catheter venography and sham PTA. Two primary end points with respect to efficacy at 12 months are (1) a combined end point obtained through the integration of five functional indicators, walking, balance, manual dexterity, bladder control, and visual acuity, objectively measured by instruments; and (2) number of new brain lesions measured by T2-weighted MRI sequences. Secondary end points include annual relapse rate, change in Expanded Disability Status Scale score, proportion of patients with zero, one or two, or more than two relapses; fatigue; anxiety and depression; general cognitive state; memory/attention/calculus; impact of bladder incontinence; and adverse events. Six hundred seventy-nine patients will be recruited. The follow-up is scheduled at 12 months. Patients, treating neurologists, trained outcome assessors, and the statistician in charge of data analysis will be masked to the assigned treatment.

Discussion: The study will provide an answer regarding the efficacy of PTA on patients' functional disability in balance, motor, sensory, visual and bladder function, cognitive status, and emotional status, which are meaningful clinical outcomes, beyond investigating the effects on inflammation. In fact, an important part of patients' expectations, sustained and amplified by anecdotal data, has to do precisely with these functional aspects.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01371760.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1745-6215-13-183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3567958PMC
October 2012

Venous angioplasty in multiple sclerosis: neurological outcome at two years in a cohort of relapsing-remitting patients.

Funct Neurol 2012 Jan-Mar;27(1):55-9

Department of Neurological Science, Bellaria Hospital, Bologna, Italy.

An open study was conducted with the aim of reporting long-term clinical outcome of endovascular treatment for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Twenty-nine patients with clinically definite relapsing-remitting MS underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for CCSVI, outside a clinical relapse. All the patients were regularly observed over at least two years before the first endovascular treatment and for at least two years after it (mean post-procedure follow up 30.6±6.1 months). The following clinical outcome measures were used: annual relapse rate and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score. All the patients were observed intensively (mean 6 hours) on the day of the endovascular treatment to monitor for possible complications (bleeding, shock, heart attack, death). We compared the annual relapse rate before and after treatment (in the two years before and the two years after the first endovascular treatment) and the EDSS score recorded two years before versus two years after the treatment. Overall, 44 endovascular procedures were performed in the 29 patients, without complications. Thirteen of the 29 patients (45%) underwent more than one treatment session because of venous re-stenosis: 11 and two patients underwent two and three endovascular treatments respectively. The annual relapse rate of MS was significantly lower post-procedure (0.45±0.62 vs 0.76±0.99; p=0.021), although it increased in four patients. The EDSS score two years after treatment was significantly lower compared to the EDSS score recorded at the examination two years before treatment (1.98±0.92 vs 2.27±0.93; p=0.037), although it was higher in four patients. Endovascular treatment of concurrent CCSVI seems to be safe and repeatable and may reduce annual relapse rates and cumulative disability in patients with relapsing-remitting MS. Randomized controlled studies are needed to further assess the clinical effects of endovascular treatment of CCSVI in MS.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3812752PMC
August 2012

Heparin surface stent-graft for the treatment of a carotid pseudoaneurysm.

Ann Vasc Surg 2010 Oct 6;24(7):952.e9-952.e12. Epub 2010 Jul 6.

Unit of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, S. Anna University Hospital, Ferrara, Italy.

Carotid pseudoaneurysms are a rare consequence of carotid surgery, trauma, and infection. Historically, carotid aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms were treated surgically. However, endovascular techniques have recently become a valid alternative for the treatment of carotid pseudoaneurysms. The case of a 57-year-old male patient with a pseudoaneurysm of the right internal carotid artery is described. The patient came to our unit with a painless and pulsatile mass in the neck, which was growing slowly. Five years earlier, he had undergone surgery on a saccular aneurysm located on the distal extracranial segment of the right internal carotid artery. The pseudoaneurysm was successfully treated with a heparin surface Viabahn stent-graft system (Gore AL, Flagstaff, AZ). Heparin surface stent-grafts can be used for the treatment of carotid lesions and may offer protection against intimal hyperplasia and thrombosis. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2010.02.046DOI Listing
October 2010

A prospective open-label study of endovascular treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency.

J Vasc Surg 2009 Dec;50(6):1348-58.e1-3

Vascular Diseases Center, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

Objective: Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is characterized by combined stenoses of the principal pathways of extracranial venous drainage, including the internal jugular veins (IJVs) and the azygous (AZY) vein, with development of collateral circles and insufficient drainage shown by increased mean transit time in cerebral magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion studies. CCSVI is strongly associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). This study evaluated the safety of CCSVI endovascular treatment and its influence on the clinical outcome of the associated MS.

Methods: Sixty-five consecutive patients with CCSVI, subdivided by MS clinical course into 35 with relapsing remitting (RR), 20 with secondary progressive (SP), and 10 with primary progressive (PP) MS, underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). Mean follow-up was 18 months. Vascular outcome measures were postoperative complications, venous pressure, and patency rate. Neurologic outcome measures were cognitive and motor function assessment, rate of MS relapse, rate of MR active positive-enhanced gadolinium MS lesions (Gad+), and quality of life (QOL) MS questionnaire.

Results: Outpatient endovascular treatment of CCSVI was feasible, with a minor and negligible complication rate. Postoperative venous pressure was significantly lower in the IJVs and AZY (P < .001). The risk of restenosis was higher in the IJVs compared with the AZY (patency rate: IJV, 53%; AZY, 96%; odds ratio, 16; 95% confidence interval, 3.5-72.5; P < .0001). CCSVI endovascular treatment significantly improved MS clinical outcome measures, especially in the RR group: the rate of relapse-free patients changed from 27% to 50% postoperatively (P < .001) and of MR Gad+ lesions from 50% to 12% (P < .0001). The Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite at 1 year improved significantly in RR patients (P < .008) but not in PP or SP. Physical QOL improved significantly in RR (P < .01) and in PP patients (P < .03), with a positive trend in SP (P < .08). Mental QOL showed significant improvement in RR (P < .003) and in PP (P < .01), but not in SP.

Conclusions: PTA of venous strictures in patients with CCSVI is safe, and especially in patients with RR, the clinical course positively influenced clinical and QOL parameters of the associated MS compared with the preoperative assessment. Restenosis rates are elevated in the IJVs but very promising in the AZY, suggesting the need to improve endovascular techniques in the former. The results of this pilot study warrant a subsequent randomized control study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2009.07.096DOI Listing
December 2009

Venous collateral circulation of the extracranial cerebrospinal outflow routes.

Curr Neurovasc Res 2009 Aug 1;6(3):204-12. Epub 2009 Aug 1.

Vascular Diseases Center, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

A new nosologic vascular pattern that is defined by chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) has been strongly associated with multiple sclerosis. The picture is characterized by significant obstacles of the main extracranial cerebrospinal veins, the jugular and the azygous system, and by the opening of substitute circles. The significance of collateral circle is still neglected. To the contrary, substitute circles are alternative pathways or vicarious venous shunts, which permit the drainage and prevent intracranial hypertension. In accordance with the pattern of obstruction, even the intracranial and the intrarachidian veins can also become substitute circles; they permit redirection of the deviated flow, piping the blood toward available venous segments outside the central nervous system. We review the complex gross and radiological anatomy of collateral circulation found activated by the means of EchoColor-Doppler and selective venography in the event of CCSVI, focusing particularly on the suboccipital cavernous sinus (SCS), the condylar venous system, the pterygoid plexus, the thyroid veins, and the emiazygous-lumbar venous anastomosis with the left renal vein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/156720209788970054DOI Listing
August 2009

The value of cerebral Doppler venous haemodynamics in the assessment of multiple sclerosis.

J Neurol Sci 2009 Jul 13;282(1-2):21-7. Epub 2009 Jan 13.

Vascular Diseases Center, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

Iron stores in the white and deep grey matter in course of multiple sclerosis (MS) have never been explained and could be related to abnormalities in venous drainage, but this possibility has never before been investigated. From an initial cohort of 320 subjects, after application of exclusion criteria, we selected 109 patients affected by MS, and 177 controls respectively composed by age- and sex-matched, healthy aged, and patients affected by other neurological diseases. They blindly underwent transcranial and extracranial Color-Doppler sonographic examination (TCCS-ECD), aimed at investigating five parameters related to normal cerebral venous outflow haemodynamics. Overall we analyzed 1430 TCSS-ECD parameters. In controls we found 861 normal parameters of cerebral venous return vs. 24 anomalous, whereas in MS 288 parameters were normal and 257 anomalous, respectively. Consequently, each of the considered Doppler haemodynamic parameters, when compared to revised McDonald criteria as a gold standard of MS diagnosis, showed separately a highly significant sensitivity and a noteworthy specificity. However, the detection >or=2 parameters in the same subject, never observed in controls, perfectly overlapped the diagnosis of MS (value, 95%CI: sensitivity 100%, 97-100; specificity 100%, 98-100; positive predictive value 100%, 97-100, negative predictive value 100%, 98-100; p<0.0001). Moreover, this study demonstrates a significant impairment of cerebral venous drainage in patients affected by MS, a mechanism potentially related to increased iron stores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2008.11.027DOI Listing
July 2009

Intracranial venous haemodynamics in multiple sclerosis.

Curr Neurovasc Res 2007 Nov;4(4):252-8

Vascular Diseases Center, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

In multiple sclerosis (MS) plaques are known to be venocentric; in addition, MS lesions and peripheral venous disorders share a number of key features. To date, however, despite the anatomical relationship between MS lesions and the venous system, no information on the intracranial venous haemodynamics of MS is available. Eighty-nine consecutive MS patients (58 relapsing-remitting, 31 secondary progressive) matched with 60 controls underwent transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCS). We assessed, in supine as well as in sitting positions, the direction of flow at the activation of the thoracic pump in the deep middle cerebral veins (dMCVs), and in the transverse sinus (TS). In the dMCVs, we also measured peak systolic velocity (PSV), peak diastolic velocity (PDV), as well as the resistance index (RI). Reflux/bidirectional flow rate was significantly higher in the MS population determining also significant differences in PDV, characterized by negative values (16.2+/-1 cm/sec in controls vs. -1.3 +/-2.6 cm/sec in MS, respectively, p<0.0001). Consequently, RI was dramatically increased in the MS group, affecting impedance of cerebral venous drainage (0.48+/-0.04 in controls vs. 1.1 +/-0.08 in MS, respectively p<0.0001). Therefore, the detection of reflux directed toward the subcortical grey matter was significantly associated to highest disability scores (p < 0.0001). Our study of MS patients demonstrated significant haemodynamic alterations detected in veins anatomically related to plaque disposition. Our findings should contribute towards understanding the role of altered venous flow and tissue drainage in the MS inflammatory chain, as well as in the neurodegenerative process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/156720207782446298DOI Listing
November 2007

A kit formulation for the preparation of 188Re-lipiodol: preclinical studies and preliminary therapeutic evaluation in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.

Nucl Med Commun 2004 Jul;25(7):691-9

Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

A lyophilized kit formulation for the efficient labelling of lipiodol with generator-produced rhenium-188 is described. The preliminary preparation of the lipophilic complex bis-(diethyldithiocarbamato)nitrido rhenium-188 (188ReN-DEDC) was carried out using a two-vial kit containing S-methyl-N-methyl-dithiocarbazate, SnCl2 and sodium oxalate in the first vial, and diethyldithiocarbamate and a carbonate buffer in the second vial. After mixing of the reaction solution with lipiodol, the complex 188ReN-DEDC was quantitatively extracted and retained by this hydrophobic substance, thus allowing the stable incorporation of the beta-emitting radionuclide. The radiochemical purity of the complex 188ReN-DEDC was 97+/-2%. The activity extracted into the lipiodol phase was 96+/-3% of the initial activity, indicating that the complex 188ReN-DEDC was almost quantitatively removed from the aqueous reaction solution. In vitro stability studies in human plasma, at 37 degrees C, demonstrated the release of less than 15% of the activity within three half-lives. The biodistribution of Re-lipiodol in non-tumour-bearing Wistar rats at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h after intraportal venous injection showed one-third of total activity in the liver at 6 h, declining to 2% retention at 72 h. Bowel uptake at 6 and 24 h declined to low levels at 48 and 72 h. Renal activity peaked at 1.7%, diminishing to 0.6% over 48 h. Rat whole body gamma imaging showed gut activity in addition to hepatic uptake at 6 and 24 h, but only liver was evident from 48 to 72 h. Kidneys were not demonstrable at any imaging time point. In nine patients, activity was localized in the tumours immediately following intrahepatic arterial injection. Computed tomography/single-photon emission computed tomography (CT/SPECT) imaging at 1 and 24 h confirmed the retention of 188Re-lipiodol in the hepatoma, with minimal gut uptake and no lung activity over 24 h. These patients were subsequently treated with activities of 2.5-5 GBq of 188Re-lipiodol fractions without adverse effects. Six patients followed for up to 2 years in the pilot study achieved stable disease and there was objective partial response in one patient. Repeated treatments were performed on two to three occasions in three patients without evident toxicity. An additional patient given 6 GBq of 188Re-lipiodol demonstrated myelosuppression, which recovered with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) and platelet support. It is concluded that 188Re-lipiodol, prepared using our novel kit formulation, is stable in vivo and provides safe and effective therapy of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma when given via the hepatic artery, either alone or in combination with transarterial chemoembolization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.mnm.0000130241.22068.45DOI Listing
July 2004

Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger disease) in a female mild smoker treated with spinal cord stimulation.

Am J Med Sci 2004 Jun;327(6):365-8

Section of Internal Medicine, Gerontology and Geriatrics, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

The authors report the case of a 42-year-old female mild smoker admitted to the Hospital of Ferrara for the onset of asymptomatic necrotic ulcerations localized to the second, third, and fourth toes of left foot. Physical examination showed asphygmia of inferior limb distal peripheral pulses, with localized extremity marbleized and cyanotic skin at the level of the left foot, where necrotic ulcers were present at the second, third, and fourth toes. Doppler ultrasonography and angiography revealed a severe obliterating arteriopathy of bilateral distal arterial circulation. Both blood chemistry panel (including autoimmune and hypercoagulable profile) and diagnostic examination findings were normal. Thus, the patient met several criteria to be diagnosed with Buerger disease. After an attempt at medical therapy with the intravenous administration of the prostaglandin-analogue iloprost, given the young age and the lack of viable distal target vessels for bypass grafting, a spinal cord stimulator was implanted. More than 2 years later, the patient has a normal life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00000441-200406000-00014DOI Listing
June 2004

Budd-Chiari syndrome associated with systemic lupus erithematosus: diagnostic imaging and percutaneous treatment.

Radiol Med 2003 May-Jun;105(5-6):519-23

Istituto di Radiologia, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

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September 2003
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