Publications by authors named "Roberto Castellucci"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The safety and feasibility of the simultaneous use of 180-W GreenLight laser for prostate vaporization during concomitant surgery.

Arch Ital Urol Androl 2020 Dec 17;92(4). Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Urology, Private Hospital Villa Stuart, Rome.

Objectives: To explore the safety and feasibility of photo-selective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) with GreenLight XPS 180 Watt laser (GL-180- W XPS) combined with other surgical procedures.

Material And Methods: Data on patients in whom GL-180-W XPS was performed to relieve lower urinary tract symptoms/ benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH) symptoms were extracted from a multi-institutional database (2011-2016). Patients were stratified into two groups. In the first all patients who had GL-180-W XPS with a concomitant procedure during the same surgical session were included as cases while those who underwent GL-180-W XPS PVP only were included as control.

Results: A total of 487 patients were included. Fifty-eight (11.9%) patients underwent concomitant procedures. Multivariable linear regression models failed to find an association between concomitant procedures and longer laser time (p = 0.4). Similarly, multivariable linear regression models failed to find an association between concomitant procedures and laser time even when the analyses were repeated and stratified into endoscopic (p = 0.6) and open/laparoscopic (p = 0.4) procedures. Multivariable logistic regression models failed to demonstrate any association between concomitant procedures and early complications (OR:1.39, CI: 0.379-2.44, p = 0.2), late complications (OR:1.84, CI:0.78-3.98; p = 0.1) and acute urinary retention (OR:1.84, CI:0.78-3.98; p = 0.1). When the analyses were repeated and the concomitant procedures stratified into endoscopic and open/laparoscopic ones, they yielded virtually the same results.

Conclusions: GL-180-W XPS PVP could be safely performed in concomitant endoscopic or open/laparoscopic surgery. These results should be taken into consideration in the counseling of the patient who might choose to undergo simultaneous procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/aiua.2020.4.297DOI Listing
December 2020

Bladder cancer: do we need contrast injection for MRI assessment of muscle invasion? A prospective multi-reader VI-RADS approach.

Eur Radiol 2020 Nov 19. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, "G. d'Annunzio" University, Via Luigi Polacchi 11, 66100, Chieti, Italy.

Objectives: (1) To investigate whether a contrast-free biparametric MRI (bp-MRI) including T2-weighted images (T2W) and diffusion-weighted images (DWI) can be considered an accurate alternative to the standard multiparametric MRI (mp-MRI), consisting of T2, DWI, and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging for the muscle-invasiveness assessment of bladder cancer (BC), and (2) to evaluate how the diagnostic performance of differently experienced readers is affected according to the type of MRI protocol.

Methods: Thirty-eight patients who underwent a clinically indicated bladder mp-MRI on a 3-T scanner were prospectively enrolled. Trans-urethral resection of bladder was the gold standard. Two sets of images, set 1 (bp-MRI) and set 2 (mp-MRI), were independently reviewed by four readers. Descriptive statistics, including sensitivity and specificity, were calculated for each reader. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed, and the areas under the curve (AUCs) were calculated for the bp-MRI and the standard mp-MRI. Pairwise comparison of the ROC curves was performed.

Results: The AUCs for bp- and mp-MRI were respectively 0.91-0.92 (reader 1), 0.90 (reader 2), 0.95-0.90 (reader 3), and 0.90-0.87 (reader 4). Sensitivity was 100% for both protocols and specificity ranged between 79.31 and 89.66% and between 79.31 and 83.33% for bp-MRI and mp-MRI, respectively. No significant differences were shown between the two MRI protocols (p > 0.05). No significant differences were shown accordingly to the reader's experience (p > 0.05).

Conclusions: A bp-MRI protocol consisting of T2W and DWI has comparable diagnostic accuracy to the standard mp-MRI protocol for the detection of muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The experience of the reader does not significantly affect the diagnostic performance using VI-RADS.

Key Points: • The contrast-free MRI protocol shows a comparable accuracy to the standard multiparametric MRI protocol in the bladder cancer muscle-invasiveness assessment. • VI-RADS classification helps non-expert radiologists to assess the muscle-invasiveness of bladder cancer. • DCE should be carefully interpreted by less experienced readers due to inflammatory changes representing a potential pitfall.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07473-6DOI Listing
November 2020

Outcomes of minimally invasive partial nephrectomy among very elderly patients: report from the RESURGE collaborative international database.

Cent European J Urol 2020 8;73(3):273-279. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Unit of Urology, Division of Experimental Oncology, Urological Research Institute (URI), IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.

The aim of the study was to perform a comprehensive investigation of clinical outcomes of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) or laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) in elderly patients presenting with a renal mass. The REnal SURGery in Elderly (RESURGE) collaborative database was queried to identify patients aged 75 or older diagnosed with cT1-2 renal mass and treated with RAPN or LPN. Study outcomes were: overall complications (OC); warm ischemia time (WIT) and 6-month estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); positive surgical margins (PSM), disease recurrence (REC), cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and other-cause mortality (OCM). Descriptive statistics, Kaplan-Meier, smoothed Poisson plots and logistic and linear regression models (MVA) were used. Overall, 216 patients were included in this analysis. OC rate was 34%, most of them being of low Clavien grade. Median WIT was 17 minutes and median 6-month eGFR was 54 ml/min/1.73 m. PSM rate was 5%. After a median follow-up of 20 months, the 5-year rates of REC, CSM and OCM were 4, 4 and 5%, respectively. At MVA predicting perioperative morbidity, RAPN relative to LPN (odds ratio [OR] 0.33; p <0.0001) was associated with lower OC rate. At MVA predicting functional outcomes, RAPN relative to LPN was associated with shorter WIT (estimate [EST] -4.09; p <0.0001), and with higher 6-month eGFR (EST 6.03; p = 0.01). In appropriately selected patients with small renal masses, minimally-invasive PN is associated with acceptable perioperative outcomes. The use of a robotic approach over a standard laparoscopic approach can be advantageous with respect to clinically relevant outcomes, and it should be preferred when available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5173/ceju.2020.0179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7587491PMC
September 2020

A non-randomized prospective study on the diagnostic performance of perineal prostatic biopsy, directed via diffusion nuclear resonance, in patients with suspected prostate cancer and previous negative transrectal prostate biopsy.

Urologia 2021 Feb 14;88(1):69-76. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Urology Department, University Hospital "La Paz", Madrid, Spain.

Background: A definition of the best strategy is necessary to optimize the follow-up of patients with previous negative transrectal guided ultrasound biopsy (TRUS-GB) and the persistence of raised prostate-specific antigen (PSA).The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prostate cancer (PCa) diagnostic rate of targeted transperineal ultrasound guided biopsy (TPUS-GB) with cognitive multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) registration with concurrent systematic biopsy in patients with previous negative systematic TRUS-GB and persistently elevated PSA levels.

Materials And Methods: In this prospective study conducted at the University Infanta Sofia Hospital from April 2016 to November 2017, patients with one previous negative systematic TRUS-GB and persistently high PSA levels were referred for mpMRI prostate scans. All patients underwent systematic TPUS-GB and those patients with suspicious findings on mpMRI scans, Pirads 3 and 4-5, underwent a subsequent cognitive guidance mpMRI-TPUS-GB.

Results: In total, 71 patients were included in this study. Suspicious findings on mpMRI scans prior to TPUS-GB were found in 50 patients (70.4%). 16 patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer (22.5%), of whom 14 (87.5%) had a mpMRI scan with Pirads 3 or Pirads 4-5. Patients with Pirads 3, 4 or 5 showed negative results in almost all cores taken by concurrent systematic TPUS-GB.

Conclusions: Cognitive mpMRI-TPUS fusion biopsy is a useful tool to diagnose PCa in patients with previous negative prostate biopsy. The samples obtained from the suspicious areas in the mpMRI detect more cases of intermediate and high risk PCa compared to the samples obtained at random or from non-suspicious areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0391560320962888DOI Listing
February 2021

Management of erectile dysfunction following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: a systematic review.

Minerva Urol Nefrol 2020 Oct 4;72(5):543-554. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

European Associations of Urology-European Society of Residents in Urology (EAU-ESRU).

Introduction: We aimed to summarize evidences about the efficacy of available treatments for erectile disfunction after robotic assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP).

Evidence Acquisition: A systematic literature review searching on PubMed (Medline), Scopus, and Web of Science databases was performed in December 2019. PRISMA guidelines were followed. Population consisted of patients with erectile disfunction after RARP (P), conservative and surgical intervention were considered of interest (I). No comparator was considered mandatory (C). Outcomes of interest were the recovery of erectile function after conservative treatments and sexual function after surgical treatments (O).

Evidence Synthesis: Eleven studies were included. Seven studies focused on the use of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5i) alone (five studies) or associated with other treatments (two studies). All the studies confirmed the efficacy of PDE5i, while the most promising association is with vacuum pump erectile devices. Two studies investigated topical treatments, namely low intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy and alprostadil. Low intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy may be a promising option in patients in whom nerve-sparing surgery was performed. The use of alprostadil could be an effective alternative to intracorporeal injection in those who underwent non-nerve-sparing surgery. One study focused and confirmed the efficacy of penile implants. Furthermore, one study reported the efficacy of a multi-modal treatment with preoperative medication, showing the benefits of a multimodal approach.

Conclusions: Penile rehabilitation with PDE5i is effective after nerve sparing RARP. The association of PDE5i with vacuum devices could led to a faster recovery. A multimodal approach with preoperative specific care seems to be effective to fasten erectile function recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0393-2249.20.03780-7DOI Listing
October 2020

Could Bladder Multiparametric MRI Be Introduced in Routine Clinical Practice? Role of the New VI-RADS Score: Results From a Prospective Study.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2020 10 13;18(5):409-415.e1. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, G. d'Annunzio University of Chieti, Urology Unit, SS Annunziata Hospital, Chieti, Italy.

Background: The Vesical Imaging Reporting and Data System (VI-RADS) was recently introduced as a standardized approach to reporting multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) for bladder cancer. We aimed to prospectively analyze its routine use and its diagnostic performance in discriminating non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC).

Patients And Methods: A total of 38 patients with diagnosis of suspect bladder cancer at cystoscopy underwent bladder mpMRI before transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB). Bladder tumors were categorized according to the VI-RADS. After TURB, the VI-RADS score was compared with histological report for each lesion separately. Receiving operating characteristic and decision curve analyses were used to assess its accuracy and clinical utility.

Results: A total of 68 lesions were included, of which 7 (10.3%) were MIBC. The pooled accuracy was 90.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 75.4%-98.7%). The best threshold was estimated as VI-RADS 4, showing a sensitivity of 85.7% (95% CI, 57.1%-100%) and a specificity of 86.9% (95% CI, 78.7%-95.1%). Decision curve analyses showed that using VI-RADS ≥4 improved the net benefit compared with any default strategy for threshold probabilities of MIBC up to ∼40%, which is a reasonable clinical threshold for planning further treatments.

Conclusions: Our prospective study shows that the use of VI-RADS as a standardized reporting method is appealing and could be considered in clinical practice owing to its high accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clgc.2020.03.002DOI Listing
October 2020

A drug safety evaluation of abiraterone acetate in the treatment of prostate cancer.

Expert Opin Drug Saf 2019 Sep;18(9):759-767

a Department of Urology, SS. Annunziata Hospital , Chieti , Italy.

: To evaluate the safety profile characteristics of abiraterone acetate (AA) in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa). : In this literature review the authors evaluate safety data from phase III trials investigating the combination of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone (AAP) in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. In particular, the aim was to clarify its toxicity profile, long-term exposure impact, and the correlation with general health-related quality of life (HRQoL). : Based on the studies reviewed, it appears that abiraterone acetate has favourable outcomes, is effective and well tolerated, mostly in asymptomatic or slightly symptomatic patients, and has recognised toxicity profile characteristics. Incidence of adverse events (AEs), such as mineralocorticoid- and corticosteroid-releated AEs, and hepatotoxicity is well known and widely described. Understanding the toxicity profile of AA could assist decision-making in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14740338.2019.1648428DOI Listing
September 2019

Partial versus radical nephrectomy in very elderly patients: a propensity score analysis of surgical, functional and oncologic outcomes (RESURGE project).

World J Urol 2020 Jan 1;38(1):151-158. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Division of Urology, VCU Health, 1200 East Broad st, Richmond, VA, 23298, USA.

Purpose: To compare the outcomes of PN to those of RN in very elderly patients treated for clinically localized renal tumor.

Patients And Methods: A purpose-built multi-institutional international database (RESURGE project) was used for this retrospective analysis. Patients over 75 years old and surgically treated for a suspicious of localized renal with either PN or RN were included in this database. Surgical, renal function and oncological outcomes were analyzed. Propensity scores for the predicted probability to receive PN in each patient were estimated by logistic regression models. Cox proportional hazard models were estimated to determine the relative change in hazard associated with PN vs RN on overall mortality (OM), cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and other-cause mortality (OCM).

Results: A total of 613 patients who underwent RN were successfully matched with 613 controls who underwent PN. Higher overall complication rate was recorded in the PN group (33% vs 25%; p = 0.01). Median follow-up for the entire cohort was 35 months (interquartile range [IQR] 13-63 months). There was a significant difference between RN and PN in median decline of eGFR (39% vs 17%; p < 0.01). PN was not correlated with OM (HR = 0.71; p = 0.56), OCM (HR = 0.74; p = 0.5), and showed a protective trend for CSM (HR = 0.19; p = 0.05). PN was found to be a protective factor for surgical CKD (HR = 0.28; p < 0.01) and worsening of eGFR in patients with baseline CKD. Retrospective design represents a limitation of this analysis.

Conclusions: Adoption of PN in very elderly patients with localized renal tumor does not compromise oncological outcomes, and it allows better functional preservation at mid-term (3-year) follow-up, relative to RN. Whether this functional benefit translates into a survival benefit remains to be determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-019-02665-2DOI Listing
January 2020

Outcomes of Partial and Radical Nephrectomy in Octogenarians - A Multicenter International Study (Resurge).

Urology 2019 Jul 23;129:139-145. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Division of Urology, VCU Health, Richmond, VA. Electronic address:

Objective: To analyze the outcomes of partial nephrectomy (PN) and radical nephrectomy (RN) in octogenarian patients.

Methods: The RESURGE (REnal SUrgery in the Eldely) multi-institutional database was queried to identify patients ≥80 years old who had undergone a PN or RN for a renal tumor. Multivariable binary logistic regression estimated the association between type of surgery and occurrence of complications. Multivariable Cox regression model assessed the association between type of surgery and All-Causes Mortality.

Results: The study analyzed 585 patients (median age 83 years, IQR 81-84), 364 of whom (62.2%) underwent RN and 221 (37.8%) PN. Patients undergoing RN were older (P = .0084), had larger tumor size (P < .0001) and higher clinical stage (P < .001). At multivariable analysis for complications, the only significant difference was found for lower risk of major postoperative complications for laparoscopic RN compared to open RN (OR: 0.42; P = .04). The rate of significant (>25%) decrease of eGFR in PN and RN was 18% versus 59% at 1 month, and 23% versus 65% at 6 months (P < .0001). After a median follow-up time of 39 months, 161 patients (31%) died, of whom 105 (20%) due to renal cancer.

Conclusion: In this patient population both RN and PN carry a non-negligible risk of complications. When surgical removal is indicated, PN should be preferred, whenever technically feasible, as it can offer better preservation of renal function, without increasing the risk of complications. Moreover, a minimally invasive approach should be pursued, as it can translate into lower surgical morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2019.03.009DOI Listing
July 2019

Trifecta Outcomes of Partial Nephrectomy in Patients Over 75 Years Old: Analysis of the REnal SURGery in Elderly (RESURGE) Group.

Eur Urol Focus 2020 09 22;6(5):982-990. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department ofUrology, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Partial nephrectomy (PN) in elderly patients is underutilized with concerns regarding risk of complications and potential for poor outcomes.

Objective: To evaluate quality and functional outcomes of PN in patients >75 yr using trifecta as a composite outcome of surgical quality.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Multicenter retrospective analysis of 653 patients aged >75 yr who underwent PN (REnal SURGery in Elderly [RESURGE] Group).

Intervention: PN.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Primary outcome was achievement of trifecta (negative margin, no major [Clavien ≥3] urological complications, and ≥90% estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] recovery). Secondary outcomes included chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage III and CKD upstaging. Multivariable analysis (MVA) was used to assess variables for achieving trifecta and functional outcomes. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (KMA) was used to calculate renal functional outcomes.

Results And Limitations: We analyzed 653 patients (mean age 78.4 yr, median follow-up 33 mo; 382 open, 157 laparoscopic, and 114 robotic). Trifecta rate was 40.4% (n=264). Trifecta patients had less transfusion (p<0.001), lower intraoperative (5.3% vs 27%, p<0.001) and postoperative (25.4% vs 37.8%, p=0.001) complications, shorter hospital stay (p=0.045), and lower ΔeGFR (p <0.001). MVA for predictive factors for trifecta revealed decreasing RENAL nephrometry score (odds ratio [OR] 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.51, p=0.007) as being associated with increased likelihood to achieve trifecta. Achievement of trifecta was associated with decreased risk of CKD upstaging (OR 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.32-0.62, p<0.001). KMA showed that trifecta patients had improved 5-yr freedom from CKD stage 3 (93.5% vs 57.7%, p<0.001) and CKD upstaging (84.3% vs 8.2%, p<0.001). Limitations include retrospective design.

Conclusions: PN in elderly patients can be performed with acceptable quality outcomes. Trifecta was associated with decreased tumor complexity and improved functional preservation.

Patient Summary: We looked at quality outcomes after partial nephrectomy in elderly patients. Acceptable quality outcomes were achieved, measured by a composite outcome called trifecta, whose achievement was associated with improved kidney functional preservation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euf.2019.02.010DOI Listing
September 2020

Abiraterone acetate for early stage metastatic prostate cancer: patient selection and special considerations.

Ther Clin Risk Manag 2018 6;14:2341-2347. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Urology, ASL02 Abruzzo, Chieti, Italy,

In recent years, therapeutic advances, together with new medication sequences and combinations, have improved outcomes for prostate cancer. For a long time, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the standard of care for newly diagnosed, metastatic prostate cancer, first as a standalone therapy and then in combination with taxane-based regimens. More recently, the addition of abiraterone acetate to ADT to achieve complete androgen blockade has proven beneficial for the treatment of metastatic hormone-resistant prostate cancer and metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC). In this review, we summarize recent findings on the early use of abiraterone in mHSPC and discuss survival benefits as reported in clinical trials. On the basis of existing data, abiraterone in combination with ADT could be considered a new standard of care for patients affected by mHSPC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S159824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6287515PMC
December 2018

Monocenter Experience with 532 Nm-Laser Photoselective-Vaporization of the Prostate by GreenLight XPS™ Laser: Is It Really an Endourological Joker Card?

Surg Technol Int 2018 06;32:164-172

Department of Urology, SS. Annunziata Hospital , "G.D'Annunzio" University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy.

Introduction: In our study, we reported on our monocenter experience with GreenLight (GL) Xcelerated Performance System (XPS)™ /MoXy™ laser fiber (American Medical Systems Inc., Minnetonka, Minnesota), examining its efficacy, safety, and its ability to effectively treat lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in benign prostate obstruction (BPO). We also explored and compared the three different endoscopic approaches used for GL treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), standard photovaporization (PVP), anatomical PVP, and GreenLight XPS™ enucleation of the prostate.

Materials And Methods: Between February 2013 and April 2017, 140 patients, with an average age of 67.7 years (range 47-85), were treated using the XPS™/MoXy™ system in a single-operative urologic center. The data were retrospectively analyzed with an assessment of the main intra- and postoperative outcomes at three, six, 12, and 18 months comparing both subjective (international prostate symptom score [IPSS]) and objective (uroflow [Qmax] parameters and prostate volume) parameters to the preoperative data. Patients underwent standard PVP, anatomical PVP, or prostate photo-selective en-bloc enucleation (PEBE) according to surgeon preferences.

Results: Median prostate volume (MPV) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were 69cc and 3.24 ng/dl, respectively. An indwelling catheter, at the time of surgery, was observed in 15% of men. Median operative-laser time and energy applied were 56.4 minutes, 26.5 minutes, and 245813 kJ. Outpatient surgery was feasible with median length of stay at 48 hours. Significant improvement in IPSS and Qmax are observed at all endpoints. No significant intraoperative complications were reported. When stratifying postoperative complications according to the Cavien-Dindo classification, only two cases of high-degree emerged (grades III-IV).

Conclusion: Our data confirm that in treating men with symptomatic benign prostate disease, the GreenLight XPS™/MoXy™ laser fiber is safe and able to achieve challenging results in terms of clinical outcomes and prostate volume reduction. Balance between functional outcomes and complications was great without statistically significant differences, in terms of outcomes, between the different surgical techniques.
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June 2018

Trifecta and Pentafecta Rates After Robotic Assisted Partial Nephrectomy: Comparative Study of Patients with Renal Masses <4 and ≥4 cm.

J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2018 Jul 1;28(7):799-803. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

2 Department of Urology, SS. Annunziata Hospital, "G. D'Annunzio" University of Chieti , Chieti, Italy .

Objectives: Robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) is preferred to radical nephrectomy because it guarantees superior functional outcomes in patients with small renal masses (RMs). Only a few studies so far have evaluated the feasibility of RAPN for the treatment of RM ≥4 cm. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and feasibility of RAPN based on a comparison of trifecta and pentafecta rates for RMs ≥4 cm.

Material And Methods: We retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data from an institutional database of patients undergoing RAPN from September 2013 to November 2016. Demographic and perioperative data were collected and statistically analyzed. Pentafecta is defined as achievement of trifecta (negative surgical margins, no postoperative complications, and warm ischemia time ≤25 minutes) with the addition of two other variables, namely, over 90% estimated glomerular filtration rate preservation and no chronic kidney disease stage progression 1 year after surgery.

Results: Overall, 123 patients underwent RAPN. Of those, 38 (30.9%) had RMs ≥4 cm. Trifecta was achieved in 72.9% of patients with RMs <4 cm and in 44.7% of those with ≥4 cm, whereas pentafecta was achieved by 23.5% of patients with RMs <4 cm and by 10.5% of those with RMs ≥4 cm. No significant predictive factors were found in connection with trifecta, whereas only one was found in connection with pentafecta, namely, age (odds ratio: 0.91; 95% confidence interval 0.85-0.98; P = .01).

Conclusions: RAPN may be considered a feasible and safe surgical approach ensuring good functional outcome even for patients with RMs ≥4 cm. Pentafecta rates after RAPN were comparable between RMs <4 and ≥4 cm in diameter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/lap.2017.0657DOI Listing
July 2018

Primary Vaginal Calculus in a Woman with Disability: Case Report and Literature Review.

J Endourol Case Rep 2017 1;3(1):182-185. Epub 2017 Dec 1.

Department of Urology, University G.D'Annunzio, Chieti, Italy.

Vaginal stones are rare and often unknown entities. Most urologists may never see a case in their careers. We present the case of a 34-year-old bedridden Caucasian woman with mental and physical disabilities who presented with a large primary vaginal calculus, which, surprisingly, had remained undiagnosed until the patient suffered a right renal colic caused by a ureteral stone. The vagina was completely filled and a digital examination was not possible. For this reason, the stone was removed using surgical pliers with some maneuvering. A vesicovaginal fistula was excluded, as well as foreign bodies or other nidi of infection. After, urethral lithotripsy was performed as planned. The postoperative course and follow-up were uneventful. Although vaginal calculi are extremely rare in literature, their differential diagnosis should be considered in women with incontinence and associated disabilities, paraplegia, or prolonged immobilization in recumbent position.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cren.2017.0100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5734135PMC
December 2017

Prospective nonrandomized study of diagnostic accuracy comparing prostate cancer detection by transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy to magnetic resonance imaging with subsequent MRI-guided biopsy in biopsy-naïve patients.

Minerva Urol Nefrol 2017 Dec;69(6):589-595

Department of Urology, University Hospital "Infanta Sofia", European University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Background: To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy in cancer prostate (PCa) of Multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) targeted biopsy compared to standard systematic transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (TRUSGB) in biopsy-naïve patients.

Methods: A total of 168 biopsy-naïve men with clinical suspicion of PCa due to elevated PSA levels and/or an abnormal digital rectal examination were consecutively enrolled from July 2011 to July 2014. All patients underwent TRUSGB. Patients with equivocal (Pi-rads 3) or suspicious lesion (Pi-rads 4-5), were additionally biopsied using two cores, by the same operator (cognitive technique).

Results: Among the 168 cases, mp-MRI was equivocal for PCa (Pi-rads 3) in 46 subjects (27.4%) and suspicious (Pi-rads 4, 5) in 40 cases (23.8%). Of the 69 patients with PCa, standard TRUSGB showed Gleason ≥7 in 75% of patients with Pirads 3 and 77.8% in cases with Pirads 4-5 on mp-MRI. Among the 40 patients with Pi-rads 4-5 lesion on the MRI, cognitive mp-MRI-guided biopsy (MRCGB) detected a higher number of cases of PCa with a Gleason score equal or superior to 7 (90%) with a higher negative predictive value (97.5%) than cases with Pi-rads 3 lesion or subjects with TRUSGB alone.

Conclusions: mp-MRI followed by selective biopsy seems to be a valuable tool to improve the diagnosis of intermediate and high risk PCa compared to standard TRUSGB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0393-2249.17.02845-4DOI Listing
December 2017

Multiple chromophobe and clear cell renal cancer in a patient affected by Birt-Hogg-Dubè syndrome: a case report.

Urologia 2017 Apr 16;84(2):116-120. Epub 2016 Dec 16.

Department of Urology, Humanitas Gavazzeni Hospital, Bergamo - Italy.

Objectives: Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS) is a rare autosomal dominant characterized by the presence of fibrofolliculomas and/or trichodiscomas, pulmonary cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax, and renal tumors. The syndrome is linked to mutations in the FLCN gene, which is preferentially expressed in the skin, kidney, and lung. The aim of our paper is to describe a case of multiple bilateral renal cancer in a patient affected by BHDS.

Case Presentation: Patient subjected to enucleoresection seven kidney tumors discovered right after ultrasound performed for other reasons. Definitive histologic examination were as follows: multifocal type chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and clear cell. After 1 month, the patient was readmitted for spontaneous pneumothorax. After about a year, the patient was again subjected to resection of multiple renal tumors left. Histological examination proved that it was multifocal renal cell carcinoma, clear cell varieties. The genome analysis highlighted positive for mutation c. 1379_1380 of FLCN gene, BHDS gene. Currently, the patient is under close follow-up. After 1 year, the chest computed tomography (CT) confirmed the presence of minute air bubbles scattered on both sides. Instead, the abdominal CT was positive for a small round lesion 6 mm exophytic.

Conclusions: The BHDS is a rare syndrome whose management is extremely complex both in terms of oncological and functional. Kidney tumors associated with BHDS usually have a favorable clinical course. Present evidence suggests a close follow-up of the carriers of the genetic mutation patients whether or not they have expressed the lesions of disease given the high rate of recurrence of renal lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5301/uro.5000207DOI Listing
April 2017

A fatal mycotic sepsis after retrograde intrarenal surgery: a case report and literature review.

Urologia 2017 Apr 6;84(2):106-108. Epub 2016 May 6.

 Urology Department, San Pio da Pietrelcina Hospital, Vasto (Chieti) - Italy.

Purpose: The retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) is a procedure that sees an increase in its use every day and is supported by excellent results in terms of safety and feasibility. We report the first case of fatal mycotic septic complication in a neurological patient for renal stone disease.

Case Presentation: The case of a woman 44 year-old, with left solitary kidney and history of advanced multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, bedridden and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was described. She was hospitalized for the presence of recurrent lower urinary tract infections. The computed tomography (CT) scan control revealed a 1.7 cm obstructive renal pelvic stone and multiple stones in the bladder. After the refusal of a percutaneous approach, a RIRS was planned and done. No intraoperative complications were observed. In the postoperative period, she developed a urinary sepsis with progressive deterioration of the general conditions. She died 6 days after the RIRS for septic shock with a blood culture positive for Candida glabrata.

Discussion: A Pubmed search for fatal complications after RIRS shows only two cases not fully elucidated.

Conclusions: The use of flexible ureteroscopes and holmium lasers has a high succes rate;nevertheless, the possibility of a major complication should be kept in mind in order to evaluate all the risk factors, to adopt all the preventive measures for the safety of the patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5301/uro.5000173DOI Listing
April 2017

Leydig cell tumour and giant adrenal myelolipoma associated with adrenogenital syndrome: a case report with a review of the literature.

Urologia 2016 Jan-Mar;83(1):43-8. Epub 2015 Dec 4.

Department of Urology, Romolo Hospital, Rocca di Neto (Crotone) - Italy.

Context: Male patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) may develop bilateral testicular adrenal rest tumours (TARTs). These tumours, in most cases, regress with glucocorticoid therapy and their histological differentiation from Leydig-cell tumors is quite difficult.

Objective: The aim of this study was to differentiate the histological and clinical features of the TARTs from those of the Leydig-cell tumours.

Methods: The authors report a case of bilateral Leydig-cell tumour associated with giant bilateral adrenal myelolipoma in a male with adrenogenital syndrome who was submitted to a bilateral orchiectomy.

Results: Testicular neoplasia continue to grow despite adequate hormonal treatment and a bilateral orchiectomy was performed. The histopathological examination of the specimen ultimately confirmed the diagnosis of bilateral Leydig-cell tumour.

Conclusions: This case shows the importance of all the relevant examinations, blood chemistry analysis, and instrumental tests in the differential diagnosis of TARTs and other testicular tumours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5301/uro.5000162DOI Listing
April 2017

Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging 3T and prostate cancer: correlation with transperineal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy.

Arch Esp Urol 2015 Jun;68(5):493-501

Department of Urology. Universita 'G. D'annunzio'. Chieti. Italy.

Objectives: The aim of our study was to correlate the results obtained by 3T Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI3T) with those obtained by histological examination of samples of the trans-perineal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TPUS-B).

Methods: 34 patients were enrolled in the study. All patients had a clinical suspicion of cancer due to increased PSA and/or positive digital rectal examination. Patients were subjected to an MRSI 3T examination and subsequently to TPUS-B.

Results: Of the 22 (22/34) patients who presented abnormalities MRSI at 3T, 9 had a histological diagnosis of Prostate adenocarcinoma. Of the remaining 13 patients, 6 were found to be histologically positive for Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy and 7 Chronic Interstitial Inflammation or High Grade Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia. 12 (12/34) patients found to have no peripheral alterations in their prostate on 3T MRSI, none were positive for ADK or inflammation on histology. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 100%, 48%, 40% and 100% respectively.

Discussion: In this study, we correlated the values obtained from 3T MRSI with the results of histologically examined prostate biopsies. Our work shows that 72.8% of the voxels in which there was a change in ratio of Cit/(Cho + Cr), corresponded to areas of prostate tissue disease. Of these, 73.2% were positive for ADK and 26.8% for CII or HG PIN. In literature, it is noted that PCa can be distinguished from areas of benign tissue, in the peripheral zone, on the basis of the values of the ratio Cit/(Cho + Cr) (17), although some benign conditions, such as prostatitis or PINHG, can alter these values (18-19).

Conclusions: In conclusion, the use of MRSI 3T before performing prostate biopsies may represent a valid aid for the urologist in the diagnosis of PCa, allowing them to avoid unnecessary prostate biopsies that may be negative. Furthermore, it would also be possible to reduce the total number of biopsies, thus decreasing patient exposure to the unnecessary risks associated with biopsy.
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June 2015

Safety, efficacy and reliability of 180-W GreenLight laser technology for prostate vaporization: review of the literature.

World J Urol 2015 May 3;33(5):599-607. Epub 2015 Feb 3.

Urology Department, "G. D'Annunzio" University, Chieti, Italy.

Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of 180-W XPS GreenLight laser technology for photoselective prostate vaporization.

Patients And Methods: A systematic search of the electronic databases was performed. Inclusion criteria were: full-text peer-reviewed journal article, with original data analysis that evaluates the feasibility and the outcome only of 180-W XPS GL laser system. Data at baseline and during follow-up have been taken into account. Intra-operative and postoperative (functional results and complications) data were collected and analyzed.

Results: We found 165 articles in our research, among which only nine articles were selected (total 991 patients). A certain grade of variability is present in all the studies in terms of scientific design, sample size and methods of reporting functional results and complications. Nevertheless, a homogenous benefit for patients in terms of symptom score improvement, post-void residual volume reduction and urinary max flow rate improvement was shown. According to Clavien-Dindo classification, 292 (83.7%) adverse events were recorded ≤ grade 2. Adverse events ≥ grade 3 were 57 (16.3%), among which bleeding, urinary retention and residual obstructive tissue represented the wide majority. No mortality was reported. Male sexual function was poorly investigated.

Conclusions: The 180-W XPS GL laser technique is feasible and safe, with a remarkable clinical benefit. Long-term evidence on outcomes and complications are suitable even in the sphere of male sexuality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-015-1490-yDOI Listing
May 2015

Efficacy and safety of dutasteride for the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

World J Urol 2015 Mar 29;33(3):441-2. Epub 2014 Apr 29.

Urology Department, "S.Pio da Pietrelcina" Hospital, Via Anelli, 82, 66054, Vasto, Italy,

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-014-1300-yDOI Listing
March 2015

Recurrence and progression in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer using EORTC risk tables.

Urol Int 2012 19;89(1):61-6. Epub 2012 Jun 19.

Department of Urology, Chair and School of Urology, University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy. vmaltieri @ alice.it

Objectives: It was the aim of this study to evaluate the recurrence and progression at 1, 3 and 5 years in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) who underwent a transurethral resection of bladder cancer following intravesical adjuvant chemotherapy or immunotherapy if indicated and to compare them with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) risk tables.

Patients And Methods: Between 2002 and 2011, a total of 259 patients with NMIBC were treated with transurethral resection of bladder cancer. According to the clinical and pathological factors used by the EORTC scoring system, the patients were divided into four groups, and for each group, the probabilities of recurrence and progression were calculated.

Results: The recurrence and progression rates of NMIBC of our patients were similar to those in the EORTC risk score system. Moreover, in our sample group, we found a minimally significant reduction in the recurrence rate in the intermediate- and high-risk groups.

Conclusion: From the results obtained, we considered it essential to introduce the use of EORTC risk tables into our clinical practice to determine the recurrence and progression of NMIBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000336516DOI Listing
December 2012