Publications by authors named "Roberto Bossi"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Discovery of Entrectinib: A New 3-Aminoindazole As a Potent Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK), c-ros Oncogene 1 Kinase (ROS1), and Pan-Tropomyosin Receptor Kinases (Pan-TRKs) inhibitor.

J Med Chem 2016 Apr 30;59(7):3392-408. Epub 2016 Mar 30.

Oncology, Nerviano Medical Sciences Srl , Viale Pasteur 10, 20014 Nerviano, Milan, Italy.

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase responsible for the development of different tumor types. Despite the remarkable clinical activity of crizotinib (Xalkori), the first ALK inhibitor approved in 2011, the emergence of resistance mutations and of brain metastases frequently causes relapse in patients. Within our ALK drug discovery program, we identified compound 1, a novel 3-aminoindazole active on ALK in biochemical and in cellular assays. Its optimization led to compound 2 (entrectinib), a potent orally available ALK inhibitor active on ALK-dependent cell lines, efficiently penetrant the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in different animal species and highly efficacious in in vivo xenograft models. Moreover, entrectinib resulted to be strictly potent on the closely related tyrosine kinases ROS1 and TRKs recently found constitutively activated in several tumor types. Entrectinib is currently undergoing phase I/II clinical trial for the treatment of patients affected by ALK-, ROS1-, and TRK-positive tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b00064DOI Listing
April 2016

NMS-P937, a 4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-h]quinazoline derivative as potent and selective Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitor.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2011 May 21;21(10):2969-74. Epub 2011 Mar 21.

Nerviano Medical Sciences srl, Business Unit Oncology, Viale Pasteur 10, 20014 Nerviano, MI, Italy.

As part of our drug discovery effort, we identified and developed 4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-h]quinazoline derivatives as PLK1 inhibitors. We now report the optimization of this class that led to the identification of NMS-P937, a potent, selective and orally available PLK1 inhibitor. Also, in order to understand the source of PLK1 selectivity, we determined the crystal structure of PLK1 with NMS-P937. The compound was active in vivo in HCT116 xenograft model after oral administration and is presently in Phase I clinical trials evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2011.03.054DOI Listing
May 2011

Targeting the mitotic checkpoint for cancer therapy with NMS-P715, an inhibitor of MPS1 kinase.

Cancer Res 2010 Dec;70(24):10255-64

Department of Cell Biology-Oncology, Nerviano Medical Sciences, Viale Pasteur 10, Nerviano 20014, Italy.

MPS1 kinase is a key regulator of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), a mitotic mechanism specifically required for proper chromosomal alignment and segregation. It has been found aberrantly overexpressed in a wide range of human tumors and is necessary for tumoral cell proliferation. Here we report the identification and characterization of NMS-P715, a selective and orally bioavailable MPS1 small-molecule inhibitor, which selectively reduces cancer cell proliferation, leaving normal cells almost unaffected. NMS-P715 accelerates mitosis and affects kinetochore components localization causing massive aneuploidy and cell death in a variety of tumoral cell lines and inhibits tumor growth in preclinical cancer models. Inhibiting the SAC could represent a promising new approach to selectively target cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-2101DOI Listing
December 2010

Crystal structures of anaplastic lymphoma kinase in complex with ATP competitive inhibitors.

Biochemistry 2010 Aug;49(32):6813-25

Nerviano Medical Sciences S.r.l., Viale Pasteur 10, 20014 Nerviano (MI), Italy.

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the development of several human cancers and, as a result, is a recognized target for the development of small-molecule inhibitors for the treatment of ALK-positive malignancies. Here, we present the crystal structures of the unphosphorylated human ALK kinase domain in complex with the ATP competitive ligands PHA-E429 and NVP-TAE684. Analysis of these structures provides valuable information concerning the specific characteristics of the ALK active site as well as giving indications about how to obtain selective ALK inhibitors. In addition, the ALK-KD-PHA-E429 structure led to the identification of a potential regulatory mechanism involving a link made between a short helical segment immediately following the DFG motif and an N-terminal two-stranded beta-sheet. Finally, mapping of the activating mutations associated with neuroblastoma onto our structures may explain the roles these residues have in the activation process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi1005514DOI Listing
August 2010

Identification of 4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-h]quinazoline derivatives as a new class of orally and selective Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitors.

J Med Chem 2010 May;53(9):3532-51

Nerviano Medical Sciences Srl, Oncology, Viale Pasteur 10, 20014 Nerviano, (Mi), Italy.

Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is a fundamental regulator of mitotic progression whose overexpression is often associated with oncogenesis and therefore is recognized as an attractive therapeutic target in the treatment of proliferative diseases. Here we discuss the structure-activity relationship of the 4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-h]quinazoline class of compounds that emerged from a high throughput screening (HTS) campaign as potent inhibitors of Plk1 kinase. Furthermore, we describe the discovery of 49, 8-{[2-methoxy-5-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl]amino}-1-methyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-h]quinazoline-3-carboxamide, as a highly potent and specific ATP mimetic inhibitor of Plk1 (IC(50) = 0.007 microM) as well as its crystal structure in complex with the methylated Plk1(36-345) construct. Compound 49 was active in cell proliferation against different tumor cell lines with IC(50) values in the submicromolar range and active in vivo in the HCT116 xenograft model where it showed 82% tumor growth inhibition after repeated oral administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm901713nDOI Listing
May 2010

First Cdc7 kinase inhibitors: pyrrolopyridinones as potent and orally active antitumor agents. 2. Lead discovery.

J Med Chem 2009 Jan;52(2):293-307

Nerviano Medical Sciences Srl, Viale Pasteur 10, 20014 Nerviano, Milano, Italy.

Cdc7 kinase is a key regulator of the S-phase of the cell cycle, known to promote the activation of DNA replication origins in eukaryotic organisms. Cdc7 inhibition can cause tumor-cell death in a p53-independent manner, supporting the rationale for developing Cdc7 inhibitors for the treatment of cancer. In this paper, we conclude the structure-activity relationships study of the 2-heteroaryl-pyrrolopyridinone class of compounds that display potent inhibitory activity against Cdc7 kinase. Furthermore, we also describe the discovery of 89S, [(S)-2-(2-aminopyrimidin-4-yl)-7-(2-fluoro-ethyl)-1,5,6,7-tetrahydropyrrolo[3,2-c]pyridin-4-one], as a potent ATP mimetic inhibitor of Cdc7. Compound 89S has a Ki value of 0.5 nM, inhibits cell proliferation of different tumor cell lines with an IC50 in the submicromolar range, and exhibits in vivo tumor growth inhibition of 68% in the A2780 xenograft model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm800977qDOI Listing
January 2009

Identifying a recombinant alkyldihydroxyacetonephosphate synthase suited for crystallographic studies.

Protein Expr Purif 2007 Oct 31;55(2):343-51. Epub 2007 May 31.

Dipartimento di Genetica e Microbiologia, Università di Pavia, via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Alkyldihydroxyacetonephosphate is the building block for the biosynthesis of ether phospholipids, which are essential components of eukaryotic cell membranes and are involved in a variety of signaling processes. The metabolite is synthesized by alkyldihydroxyacetonephosphate synthase (ADPS), a peroxisomal flavoenzyme. Deficiency in ADPS activity causes rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 3, a very severe genetic disease. ADPS is unusual in that it uses a typical redox cofactor such as FAD to catalyze a non-redox reaction. With the goal of undertaking a structural investigation of the enzyme, we have characterized recombinant ADPS from different sources: Cavia porcellus, Drosophila melanogaster, Homo sapiens, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, and Dictyostelium discoideum. The protein from D. discoideum was found to be the best candidate for structural studies. We describe a protocol for expression and purification of large amounts of pure and stable enzyme in its holo (FAD-bound) form. A search of deletion mutants identified a protein variant that forms crystals diffracting up to 2A resolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pep.2007.05.012DOI Listing
October 2007

Effects of long-term nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy on morphology, function, and mucociliary clearance of nasal epithelium in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

Laryngoscope 2004 Aug;114(8):1431-4

Laboratory of Sleep Respiratory Disorders, Institute of Respiratory Diseases, University of Milan, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Istituto di Rico-vero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Milan, Italy.

Objectives/hypothesis: The objective was to investigate the possible modification of nasal mucosa function and mucociliary clearance in a group of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome receiving mechanical ventilation with long-term nasal continuous positive airway pressure (n-CPAP), without nasal diseases.

Study Design: The study design was experimental. Eight (six male and two female) nonsmoker patients were selected on the basis of two sleep questionnaires, were identified as needing n-CPAP therapy, and showed normal values of mucociliary transport time, ciliary beat frequency, and anterior rhinomanometry.

Methods: After a full polysomnographic examination, the authors recorded respiratory disturbance index (RDI), apnea/hypopnea index, nadir arterial oxygen saturation, and sleep stage. Every patient underwent pulmonary function test; arterial blood gas analysis; chest radiography; electrocardiography; ear, nose, and throat evaluation with rhinoscopy; anterior rhinomanometry; a saccharine test to measure the mucociliary transport time; and a brushing of nasal epithelium for study of ciliary beat frequency. All patients underwent polysomnographic examination in basal condition with overnight n-CPAP (without humidifier) and repeated this examination after 1 and 6 months with Auto CPAP (Autoset Res Care, Sidney, Australia) to titrate n-CPAP pressure and measure the new respiratory disturbance index.

Results: The mean basal respiratory disturbance index (number of respiratory events during sleep per hour of recording time) was 53.7 +/- 21.5 events/h; after 6 months of n-CPAP therapy (mean value, 7.5 +/- 0.7 cm H2O) the respiratory disturbance index was 5.7 +/- 3.76 events/h. Values for nasal resistance, mucociliary transport time, and ciliary beat frequency were normal before and after the ventilatory treatment.

Conclusion: In the study group of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, the nocturnal use of n-CPAP without humidifier did not modify the function and mucociliary clearance of nasal epithelium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005537-200408000-00022DOI Listing
August 2004

A covalent modification of NADP+ revealed by the atomic resolution structure of FprA, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis oxidoreductase.

Biochemistry 2002 Jul;41(28):8807-18

Dipartimento di Genetica e Microbiologia, Università di Pavia, via Abbiategrasso 207, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

FprA is a mycobacterial oxidoreductase that catalyzes the transfer of reducing equivalents from NADPH to a protein acceptor. We determined the atomic resolution structure of FprA in the oxidized (1.05 A resolution) and NADPH-reduced (1.25 A resolution) forms. The comparison of these FprA structures with that of bovine adrenodoxin reductase showed no significant overall differences. Hence, these enzymes, which belong to the structural family of the disulfide oxidoreductases, are structurally conserved in very distant organisms such as mycobacteria and mammals. Despite the conservation of the overall fold, the details of the active site of FprA show some peculiar features. In the oxidized enzyme complex, the bound NADP+ exhibits a covalent modification, which has been identified as an oxygen atom linked through a carbonylic bond to the reactive C4 atom of the nicotinamide ring. Mass spectrometry has confirmed this assignment. This NADP+ derivative is likely to form by oxidation of the NADP+ adduct resulting from nucleophilic attack by an active-site water molecule. A Glu-His pair is well positioned to activate the attacking water through a mechanism analogous to that of the catalytic triad in serine proteases. The NADP+ nicotinamide ring exhibits the unusual cis conformation, which may favor derivative formation. The physiological significance of this reaction is presently unknown. However, it could assist with drug-design studies in that the modified NADP+ could serve as a lead compound for the development of specific inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi025858aDOI Listing
July 2002

Structural studies on the synchronization of catalytic centers in glutamate synthase.

J Biol Chem 2002 Jul 19;277(27):24579-83. Epub 2002 Apr 19.

Department of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Pavia, via Abbiategrasso 207, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

The complex iron-sulfur flavoprotein glutamate synthase (GltS) plays a prominent role in ammonia assimilation in bacteria, yeasts, and plants. GltS catalyzes the formation of two molecules of l-glutamate from 2-oxoglutarate and l-glutamine via intramolecular channeling of ammonia. GltS has the impressive ability of synchronizing its distinct catalytic centers to avoid wasteful consumption of l-glutamine. We have determined the crystal structure of the ferredoxin-dependent GltS in several ligation and redox states. The structures reveal the crucial elements in the synchronization between the glutaminase site and the 2-iminoglutarate reduction site. The structural data combined with the catalytic properties of GltS indicate that binding of ferredoxin and 2-oxoglutarate to the FMN-binding domain of GltS induce a conformational change in the loop connecting the two catalytic centers. The rearrangement induces a shift in the catalytic elements of the amidotransferase domain, such that it becomes activated. This machinery, over a distance of more than 30 A, controls the ability of the enzyme to bind and hydrolyze the ammonia-donating substrate l-glutamine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M202541200DOI Listing
July 2002

Structure of FAD-bound L-aspartate oxidase: insight into substrate specificity and catalysis.

Biochemistry 2002 Mar;41(9):3018-24

Dipartimento di Genetica e Microbiologia, Università di Pavia, via Abbiategrasso 207, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

L-Aspartate oxidase (Laspo) catalyzes the conversion of L-Asp to iminoaspartate, the first step in the de novo biosynthesis of NAD(+). This bacterial pathway represents a potential drug target since it is absent in mammals. The Laspo R386L mutant was crystallized in the FAD-bound catalytically competent form and its three-dimensional structure determined at 2.5 A resolution in both the native state and in complex with succinate. Comparison of the R386L holoprotein with the wild-type apoenzyme [Mattevi, A., Tedeschi, G., Bacchella, L., Coda, A., Negri, A., and Ronchi, S. (1999) Structure 7, 745-756] reveals that cofactor incorporation leads to the ordering of two polypeptide segments (residues 44-53 and 104-141) and to a 27 degree rotation of the capping domain. This motion results in the formation of the active site cavity, located at the interface between the capping domain and the FAD-binding domain. The structure of the succinate complex indicates that the cavity surface is decorated by two clusters of H-bond donors that anchor the ligand carboxylates. Moreover, Glu121, which is strictly conserved among Laspo sequences, is positioned to interact with the L-Asp alpha-amino group. The architecture of the active site of the Laspo holoenzyme is remarkably similar to that of respiratory fumarate reductases, providing strong evidence for a common mechanism of catalysis in Laspo and flavoproteins of the succinate dehydrogenase/fumarate reductase family. This implies that Laspo is mechanistically distinct from other flavin-dependent amino acid oxidases, such as the prototypical D-amino acid oxidase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi015939rDOI Listing
March 2002