Publications by authors named "Roberta Lizio"

59 Publications

Measures of resting state EEG rhythms for clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease: Recommendations of an expert panel.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Psychology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

The Electrophysiology Professional Interest Area (EPIA) and Global Brain Consortium endorsed recommendations on candidate electroencephalography (EEG) measures for Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials. The Panel reviewed the field literature. As most consistent findings, AD patients with mild cognitive impairment and dementia showed abnormalities in peak frequency, power, and "interrelatedness" at posterior alpha (8-12 Hz) and widespread delta (< 4 Hz) and theta (4-8 Hz) rhythms in relation to disease progression and interventions. The following consensus statements were subscribed: (1) Standardization of instructions to patients, resting state EEG (rsEEG) recording methods, and selection of artifact-free rsEEG periods are needed; (2) power density and "interrelatedness" rsEEG measures (e.g., directed transfer function, phase lag index, linear lagged connectivity, etc.) at delta, theta, and alpha frequency bands may be use for stratification of AD patients and monitoring of disease progression and intervention; and (3) international multisectoral initiatives are mandatory for regulatory purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alz.12311DOI Listing
April 2021

EEG measures for clinical research in major vascular cognitive impairment: recommendations by an expert panel.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 Mar 10;103:78-97. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing (CHeBA), School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales; Neuropsychiatric Institute, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

Vascular contribution to cognitive impairment (VCI) and dementia is related to etiologies that may affect the neurophysiological mechanisms regulating brain arousal and generating electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. A multidisciplinary expert panel reviewed the clinical literature and reached consensus about the EEG measures consistently found as abnormal in VCI patients with dementia. As compared to cognitively unimpaired individuals, those VCI patients showed (1) smaller amplitude of resting state alpha (8-12 Hz) rhythms dominant in posterior regions; (2) widespread increases in amplitude of delta (< 4 Hz) and theta (4-8 Hz) rhythms; and (3) delayed N200/P300 peak latencies in averaged event-related potentials, especially during the detection of auditory rare target stimuli requiring participants' responses in "oddball" paradigms. The expert panel formulated the following recommendations: (1) the above EEG measures are not specific for VCI and should not be used for its diagnosis; (2) they may be considered as "neural synchronization" biomarkers to enlighten the relationships between features of the VCI-related cerebrovascular lesions and abnormalities in neurophysiological brain mechanisms; and (3) they may be tested in future clinical trials as prognostic biomarkers and endpoints of interventions aimed at normalizing background brain excitability and vigilance in wakefulness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2021.03.003DOI Listing
March 2021

Stacked autoencoders as new models for an accurate Alzheimer's disease classification support using resting-state EEG and MRI measurements.

Clin Neurophysiol 2021 Jan 15;132(1):232-245. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Elettronica e Informatica, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Objective: This retrospective and exploratory study tested the accuracy of artificial neural networks (ANNs) at detecting Alzheimer's disease patients with dementia (ADD) based on input variables extracted from resting-state electroencephalogram (rsEEG), structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) or both.

Methods: For the classification exercise, the ANNs had two architectures that included stacked (autoencoding) hidden layers recreating input data in the output. The classification was based on LORETA source estimates from rsEEG activity recorded with 10-20 montage system (19 electrodes) and standard sMRI variables in 89 ADD and 45 healthy control participants taken from a national database.

Results: The ANN with stacked autoencoders and a deep leaning model representing both ADD and control participants showed classification accuracies in discriminating them of 80%, 85%, and 89% using rsEEG, sMRI, and rsEEG + sMRI features, respectively. The two ANNs with stacked autoencoders and a deep leaning model specialized for either ADD or control participants showed classification accuracies of 77%, 83%, and 86% using the same input features.

Conclusions: The two architectures of ANNs using stacked (autoencoding) hidden layers consistently reached moderate to high accuracy in the discrimination between ADD and healthy control participants as a function of the rsEEG and sMRI features employed.

Significance: The present results encourage future multi-centric, prospective and longitudinal cross-validation studies using high resolution EEG techniques and harmonized clinical procedures towards clinical applications of the present ANNs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2020.09.015DOI Listing
January 2021

Chronic BACE-1 Inhibitor Administration in TASTPM Mice (APP KM670/671NL and PSEN1 M146V Mutation): An EEG Study.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Nov 28;21(23). Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology "V Erspamer", Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy.

Objective: In this exploratory study, we tested whether electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms may reflect the effects of a chronic administration (4 weeks) of an anti-amyloid β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 inhibitor (BACE-1; ER-901356; Eisai Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) in TASTPM (double mutation in APP KM670/671NL and PSEN1 M146V) producing Alzheimer's disease (AD) amyloid neuropathology as compared to wild type (WT) mice.

Methods: Ongoing EEG rhythms were recorded from a bipolar frontoparietal and two monopolar frontomedial (prelimbic) and hippocampal channels in 11 WT Vehicle, 10 WT BACE-1, 10 TASTPM Vehicle, and 11 TASTPM BACE-1 mice (males; aged 8/9 months old at the beginning of treatment). Normalized EEG power (density) was compared between the first day (Day 0) and after 4 weeks (Week 4) of the BACE-1 inhibitor (10 mg/Kg) or vehicle administration in the 4 mouse groups. Frequency and magnitude of individual EEG delta and theta frequency peaks (IDF and ITF) were considered during animal conditions of behaviorally passive and active wakefulness. Cognitive status was not tested.

Results: Compared with the WT group, the TASTPM group generally showed a significantly lower reactivity in frontoparietal ITF power during the active over the passive condition ( < 0.05). Notably, there was no other statistically significant effect (e.g., additional electrodes, recording time, and BACE-1 inhibitor).

Conclusions: The above EEG biomarkers reflected differences between the WT and TASTPM groups, but no BACE-1 inhibitor effect. The results suggest an enhanced experimental design with the use of younger mice, longer drug administrations, an effective control drug, and neuropathological amyloid markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7730584PMC
November 2020

Abnormalities of Cortical Sources of Resting State Alpha Electroencephalographic Rhythms are Related to Education Attainment in Cognitively Unimpaired Seniors and Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Mar;31(4):2220-2237

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology "Vittorio Erspamer", Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

In normal old (Nold) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) persons, a high cognitive reserve (CR) makes them more resistant and resilient to brain neuropathology and neurodegeneration. Here, we tested whether these effects may affect neurophysiological oscillatory mechanisms generating dominant resting state electroencephalographic (rsEEG) alpha rhythms in Nold and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD (ADMCI). Data in 60 Nold and 70 ADMCI participants, stratified in higher (Edu+) and lower (Edu-) educational attainment subgroups, were available in an Italian-Turkish archive. The subgroups were matched for age, gender, and education. RsEEG cortical sources were estimated by eLORETA freeware. As compared to the Nold-Edu- subgroup, the Nold-Edu+ subgroup showed greater alpha source activations topographically widespread. On the contrary, in relation to the ADMCI-Edu- subgroup, the ADMCI-Edu+ subgroup displayed lower alpha source activations topographically widespread. Furthermore, the 2 ADMCI subgroups had matched cerebrospinal AD diagnostic biomarkers, brain gray-white matter measures, and neuropsychological scores. The current findings suggest that a high CR may be related to changes in rsEEG alpha rhythms in Nold and ADMCI persons. These changes may underlie neuroprotective effects in Nold seniors and subtend functional compensatory mechanisms unrelated to brain structure alterations in ADMCI patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa356DOI Listing
March 2021

Abnormalities of Cortical Sources of Resting State Delta Electroencephalographic Rhythms Are Related to Epileptiform Activity in Patients With Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment Not Due to Alzheimer's Disease.

Front Neurol 2020 23;11:514136. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology "Vittorio Erspamer", Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

In the present exploratory and retrospective study, we hypothesized that cortical sources of resting state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms might be more abnormal in patients with epileptiform EEG activity (spike-sharp wave discharges, giant spikes) and amnesic mild cognitive impairment not due to Alzheimer's disease (noADMCI-EEA) than matched noADMCI patients without EEA (noADMCI-noEEA). Clinical, neuroimaging, neuropsychological, and rsEEG data in 32 noADMCI and 30 normal elderly (Nold) subjects were available in a national archive. Age, gender, and education were carefully matched among them. No subject had received a clinical diagnosis of epilepsy. Individual alpha frequency peak (IAF) was used to determine the delta, theta, and alpha frequency bands of rsEEG rhythms. Fixed beta and gamma bands were also considered. Regional rsEEG cortical sources were estimated by eLORETA freeware. Area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves indexed the accuracy of eLORETA solutions in the classification between noADMCI-EEA and noADMCI-noEEA individuals. As novel findings, EEA was observed in 41% of noADMCI patients. Furthermore, these noADMCI-EEA patients showed higher temporal delta source activities as compared to noADMCI-no EEA patients and Nold subjects. Those activities discriminated individuals of the two NoADMCI groups with an accuracy of about 70%. The significant percentage of noADMCI-EEA patients showing EEA and marked abnormalities in temporal rsEEG rhythms at delta frequencies suggest a substantial role of underlying neural hypersynchronization mechanisms in their brain dysfunctions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.514136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7644902PMC
October 2020

Resting-state electroencephalographic delta rhythms may reflect global cortical arousal in healthy old seniors and patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia.

Int J Psychophysiol 2020 Dec 17;158:259-270. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology "Vittorio Erspamer", Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Extending Başar's theory of event-related EEG oscillations, here we hypothesize that even in quiet wakefulness, transient increases in delta rhythms may enhance global cortical arousal as revealed by the desynchronization of alpha rhythms in normal (Nold) seniors with some derangement in Alzheimer's disease dementia (ADD). Clinical and EEG datasets in 100 ADD and 100 Nold individuals matched as demography, education, and gender were taken from an international archive. Standard delta (< 4 Hz) and alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz) bands were used for the main analysis, while alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), beta1 (13-20 Hz), beta2 (20-35 Hz), and gamma (35-40 Hz) served as controls. In the interpretation, the higher the alpha1 power (density), the lower that arousal. As expected, when compared to the Nold group, the ADD group showed higher global (scalp) power density at the delta-theta band and lower global power density at the alpha-beta bands. As novel findings, we observed that: (1) in the Nold group, the global delta and alpha1-2 power were negatively and linearly correlated; (2) in the ADD group, this correlation was just marginal; and (3) in both Nold and AD groups, the EEG epochs with the highest delta power (median value for stratification) were associated with the lowest global alpha1 power. This effect was related to eLORETA freeware solutions showing maximum alpha1 source activations in posterior cortical regions. These results suggest that even in quiet wakefulness, delta and alpha rhythms are related to each other, and ADD partially affects this cross-band neurophysiological mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2020.08.012DOI Listing
December 2020

Abnormalities of resting-state EEG in patients with prodromal and overt dementia with Lewy bodies: Relation to clinical symptoms.

Clin Neurophysiol 2020 Nov 23;131(11):2716-2731. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Istanbul Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: Here we tested if cortical sources of resting state electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms may differ in sub-groups of patients with prodromal and overt dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) as a function of relevant clinical symptoms.

Methods: We extracted clinical, demographic and rsEEG datasets in matched DLB patients (N = 60) and control Alzheimer's disease (AD, N = 60) and healthy elderly (Nold, N = 60) seniors from our international database. The eLORETA freeware was used to estimate cortical rsEEG sources.

Results: As compared to the Nold group, the DLB and AD groups generally exhibited greater spatially distributed delta source activities (DLB > AD) and lower alpha source activities posteriorly (AD > DLB). As compared to the DLB "controls", the DLB patients with (1) rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorders showed lower central alpha source activities (p < 0.005); (2) greater cognitive deficits exhibited higher parietal and central theta source activities as well as higher central, parietal, and occipital alpha source activities (p < 0.01); (3) visual hallucinations pointed to greater parietal delta source activities (p < 0.005).

Conclusions: Relevant clinical features were associated with abnormalities in spatial and frequency features of rsEEG source activities in DLB patients.

Significance: Those features may be used as neurophysiological surrogate endpoints of clinical symptoms in DLB patients in future cross-validation prospective studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2020.09.004DOI Listing
November 2020

Ongoing Electroencephalographic Rhythms Related to Exploratory Movements in Transgenic TASTPM Mice.

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 ;78(1):291-308

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology "V Erspamer", Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: The European PharmaCog study (http://www.pharmacog.org) has reported a reduction in delta (1-6 Hz) electroencephalographic (EEG) power (density) during cage exploration (active condition) compared with quiet wakefulness (passive condition) in PDAPP mice (hAPP Indiana V717F mutation) modeling Alzheimer's disease (AD) amyloidosis and cognitive deficits.

Objective: Here, we tested the reproducibility of that evidence in TASTPM mice (double mutation in APP KM670/671NL and PSEN1 M146V), which develop brain amyloidosis and cognitive deficits over aging. The reliability of that evidence was examined in four research centers of the PharmaCog study.

Methods: Ongoing EEG rhythms were recorded from a frontoparietal bipolar channel in 29 TASTPM and 58 matched "wild type" C57 mice (range of age: 12-24 months). Normalized EEG power was calculated. Frequency and amplitude of individual delta and theta frequency (IDF and ITF) peaks were considered during the passive and active conditions.

Results: Compared with the "wild type" group, the TASTPM group showed a significantly lower reduction in IDF power during the active over the passive condition (p < 0.05). This effect was observed in 3 out of 4 EEG recording units.

Conclusion: TASTPM mice were characterized by "poor reactivity" of delta EEG rhythms during the cage exploration in line with previous evidence in PDAPP mice. The reliability of that result across the centers was moderate, thus unveiling pros and cons of multicenter preclinical EEG trials in TASTPM mice useful for planning future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-190351DOI Listing
January 2020

Late-Onset Epilepsy With Unknown Etiology: A Pilot Study on Neuropsychological Profile, Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers, and Quantitative EEG Characteristics.

Front Neurol 2020 15;11:199. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Neurology Clinic, University of Perugia-S. Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Perugia, Italy.

Despite the fact that epilepsy has been associated with cognitive decline, neuropsychological, neurobiological, and neurophysiological features in patients with late-onset epilepsy of unknown etiology (LOEU) are still unknown. This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the neuropsychological profile, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and resting-state quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG) cortical rhythms in LOEU patients with mild cognitive impairment (LOEU-MCI) and with normal cognition (LOEU-CN), compared to non-epileptic MCI (NE-MCI) and cognitively normal (CN) controls. Consecutive patients in two clinical Units diagnosed with LOEU-CN (19), LOEU-MCI (27), and NE-MCI (21) were enrolled, and compared to age and sex-matched cognitively normal subjects CN (11). Patients underwent standardized comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation and CSF core AD biomarkers assessment (i.e., CSF Aβ42, phospho-tau and total tau, classified through A/T/(N) system). Recordings of resting-state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms were collected and cortical source estimation of delta (<4 Hz) to gamma (>30 Hz) bands with exact Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (eLORETA) was performed. Most LOEU patients had an MCI status at seizure onset (59%). Patients with LOEU-MCI performed significantly worse on measures of global cognition, visuo-spatial abilities, and executive functions compared to NE-MCI patients ( < 0.05). Regarding MCI subtypes, multiple-domain MCI was 3-fold more frequent in LOEU-MCI than in NE-MCI patients (OR 3.14, 95%CI 0.93-10.58, = 0.06). CSF Aβ42 levels were lower in the LOEU-MCI compared with the LOEU-CN group. Finally, parietal and occipital sources of alpha (8-12 Hz) rhythms were less active in the LOEU-MCI than in the NE-MCI and CN groups, while the opposite was true for frontal and temporal cortical delta sources. MCI status was relatively frequent in LOEU patients, involved multiple cognitive domains, and might have been driven by amyloidosis according to CSF biomarkers. LOEU-MCI status was associated with abnormalities in cortical sources of EEG rhythms related to quiet vigilance. Future longitudinal studies should cross-validate our findings and test the predictive value of CSF and EEG variables.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174783PMC
April 2020

Abnormal cortical neural synchronization mechanisms in quiet wakefulness are related to motor deficits, cognitive symptoms, and visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease patients: an electroencephalographic study.

Neurobiol Aging 2020 07 12;91:88-111. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Department of Biophysics, International School of Medicine, Istanbul Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Compared with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) shows peculiar clinical manifestations related to vigilance (i.e., executive cognitive deficits and visual hallucinations) that may be reflected in resting-state electroencephalographic rhythms. To test this hypothesis, clinical and resting-state electroencephalographic rhythms in age-, sex-, and education-matched PD patients (N = 136) and Alzheimer's disease patients (AD, N = 85), and healthy older participants (Nold, N = 65), were available from an international archive. Electroencephalographic sources were estimated by eLORETA software. The results are as follows: (1) compared to the Nold participants, the AD and PD patients showed higher widespread delta source activities (PD > AD) and lower posterior alpha source activities (AD > PD); (2) the PD patients with the most pronounced motor deficits exhibited very low alpha source activities in widespread cortical regions; (3) the PD patients with the strongest cognitive deficits showed higher alpha source activities in widespread cortical regions; and (4) compared to the PD patients without visual hallucinations, those with visual hallucinations were characterized by higher posterior alpha sources activities. These results suggest that in PD patients resting in quiet wakefulness, abnormalities in cortical neural synchronization at alpha frequencies are differently related to cognitive, motor, and visual hallucinations. Interestingly, parallel PD neuropathological processes may have opposite effects on cortical neural synchronization mechanisms generating cortical alpha rhythms in quiet wakefulness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2020.02.029DOI Listing
July 2020

Resting-state posterior alpha rhythms are abnormal in subjective memory complaint seniors with preclinical Alzheimer's neuropathology and high education level: the INSIGHT-preAD study.

Neurobiol Aging 2020 06 1;90:43-59. Epub 2020 Feb 1.

GRC n° 21, Alzheimer Precision Medicine (APM), AP-HP, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Sorbonne University, Paris, France.

Cognitive reserve is present in Alzheimer's disease (AD) seniors with high education attainment making them clinically resilient to extended brain neuropathology and neurodegeneration. Here, we tested whether subjective memory complaint (SMC) seniors with AD neuropathology and high education attainment of the prospective INSIGHT-preAD cohort (Paris) may present abnormal eyes-closed resting state posterior electroencephalographic rhythms around individual alpha frequency peak, typically altered in AD patients. The SMC participants negative to amyloid PET AD markers (SMCneg) with high (over low-moderate) education level showed higher posterior alpha 2 power density (possibly "neuroprotective"). Furthermore, amyloid PET-positive SMC (SMCpos) participants with high (over low-moderate) education level showed higher temporal alpha 3 power density (possibly "neuroprotective") and lower posterior alpha 2 power density (possibly "compensatory"). This effect may reflect cognitive reserve as no differences in brain gray-white matter, and cognitive functions were observed between these SMCpos/SMCneg subgroups. Preclinical Alzheimer's neuropathology may interact with education attainment and neurophysiological mechanisms generating cortical alpha rhythms around individual alpha frequency peak (i.e., alpha 2 and 3) in quiet wakefulness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2020.01.012DOI Listing
June 2020

What electrophysiology tells us about Alzheimer's disease: a window into the synchronization and connectivity of brain neurons.

Neurobiol Aging 2020 01 19;85:58-73. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Electrophysiology provides a real-time readout of neural functions and network capability in different brain states, on temporal (fractions of milliseconds) and spatial (micro, meso, and macro) scales unmet by other methodologies. However, current international guidelines do not endorse the use of electroencephalographic (EEG)/magnetoencephalographic (MEG) biomarkers in clinical trials performed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), despite a surge in recent validated evidence. This position paper of the ISTAART Electrophysiology Professional Interest Area endorses consolidated and translational electrophysiological techniques applied to both experimental animal models of AD and patients, to probe the effects of AD neuropathology (i.e., brain amyloidosis, tauopathy, and neurodegeneration) on neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning neural excitation/inhibition and neurotransmission as well as brain network dynamics, synchronization, and functional connectivity, reflecting thalamocortical and corticocortical residual capacity. Converging evidence shows relationships between abnormalities in EEG/MEG markers and cognitive deficits in groups of AD patients at different disease stages. The supporting evidence for the application of electrophysiology in AD clinical research as well as drug discovery pathways warrants an international initiative to include the use of EEG/MEG biomarkers in the main multicentric projects planned in AD patients, to produce conclusive findings challenging the present regulatory requirements and guidelines for AD studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2019.09.008DOI Listing
January 2020

Sleep deprivation and Modafinil affect cortical sources of resting state electroencephalographic rhythms in healthy young adults.

Clin Neurophysiol 2019 09 1;130(9):1488-1498. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology "Erspamer", Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; Hospital San Raffaele Cassino, Cassino, FR, Italy. Electronic address:

Objective: It has been reported that sleep deprivation affects the neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning the vigilance. Here, we tested the following hypotheses in the PharmaCog project (www.pharmacog.org): (i) sleep deprivation may alter posterior cortical delta and alpha sources of resting state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms in healthy young adults; (ii) after the sleep deprivation, a vigilance enhancer may recover those rsEEG source markers.

Methods: rsEEG data were recorded in 36 healthy young adults before (Pre-sleep deprivation) and after (Post-sleep deprivation) one night of sleep deprivation. In the Post-sleep deprivation, these data were collected after a single dose of PLACEBO or MODAFINIL. rsEEG cortical sources were estimated by eLORETA freeware.

Results: In the PLACEBO condition, the sleep deprivation induced an increase and a decrease in posterior delta (2-4 Hz) and alpha (8-13 Hz) source activities, respectively. In the MODAFINIL condition, the vigilance enhancer partially recovered those source activities.

Conclusions: The present results suggest that posterior delta and alpha source activities may be both related to the regulation of human brain arousal and vigilance in quiet wakefulness.

Significance: Future research in healthy young adults may use this methodology to preselect new symptomatic drug candidates designed to normalize brain arousal and vigilance in seniors with dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2019.06.007DOI Listing
September 2019

Football Players Do Not Show "Neural Efficiency" in Cortical Activity Related to Visuospatial Information Processing During Football Scenes: An EEG Mapping Study.

Front Psychol 2019 26;10:890. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology "Vittorio Erspamer", Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

This study tested the hypothesis of cortical neural efficiency (i.e., reduced brain activation in experts) in the visuospatial information processing related to football (soccer) scenes in football players. Electroencephalographic data were recorded from 56 scalp electrodes in 13 football players and eight matched non-players during the observation of 70 videos with football actions lasting 2.5 s each. During these videos, the central fixation target changed color from red to blue or vice versa. The videos were watched two times. One time, the subjects were asked to estimate the distance between players during each action (FOOTBALL condition, visuospatial). Another time, they had to estimate if the fixation target was colored for a longer time in red or blue color (CONTROL condition, non-visuospatial). The order of the two conditions was pseudo-randomized across the subjects. Cortical activity was estimated as the percent reduction in power of scalp alpha rhythms (about 8-12 Hz) during the videos compared with a pre-video baseline (event-related desynchronization, ERD). In the FOOTBALL condition, a prominent and bilateral parietal alpha ERD (i.e., cortical activation) was greater in the football players than non-players ( < 0.05) in contrast with the neural efficiency hypothesis. In the CONTROL condition, no significant alpha ERD difference was observed. No difference in behavioral response time and accuracy was found between the two groups in any condition. In conclusion, a prominent parietal cortical activity related to visuospatial processes during football scenes was greater in the football players over controls in contrast with the neural efficiency hypothesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00890DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6497783PMC
April 2019

Abnormalities of functional cortical source connectivity of resting-state electroencephalographic alpha rhythms are similar in patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's and Lewy body diseases.

Neurobiol Aging 2019 05 24;77:112-127. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Biophysics, International School of Medicine, Istanbul Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Previous evidence has shown different resting-state eyes-closed electroencephalographic delta (<4 Hz) and alpha (8-10.5 Hz) source connectivity in subjects with dementia due to Alzheimer's (ADD) and Lewy body (DLB) diseases. The present study tested if the same differences may be observed in the prodromal stages of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here, clinical and resting-state eyes-closed electroencephalographic data in age-, gender-, and education-matched 30 ADMCI, 23 DLBMCI, and 30 healthy elderly (Nold) subjects were available in our international archive. Mini-Mental State Evaluation (MMSE) score was matched in the ADMCI and DLBMCI groups. The eLORETA freeware estimated delta and alpha source connectivity by the tool called lagged linear connectivity (LLC). Area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROCC) indexed the classification accuracy among individuals. Results showed that widespread interhemispheric and intrahemispheric LLC solutions in alpha sources were abnormally lower in both MCI groups compared with the Nold group, but with no differences were found between the 2 MCI groups. AUROCCs of LLC solutions in alpha sources exhibited significant accuracies (0.72-0.75) in the discrimination of Nold versus ADMCI-DLBMCI individuals, but not between the 2 MCI groups. These findings disclose similar abnormalities in ADMCI and DLBMCI patients as revealed by alpha source connectivity. It can be speculated that source connectivity mostly reflects common cholinergic impairment in prodromal state of both AD and DLB, before a substantial dopaminergic derangement in the dementia stage of DLB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2019.01.013DOI Listing
May 2019

Two-Year Longitudinal Monitoring of Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients with Prodromal Alzheimer's Disease Using Topographical Biomarkers Derived from Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Electroencephalographic Activity.

J Alzheimers Dis 2019 ;69(1):15-35

IRCCS SDN, Napoli, Italy.

Auditory "oddball" event-related potentials (aoERPs), resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) connectivity, and electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms were tested as longitudinal functional biomarkers of prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Data were collected at baseline and four follow-ups at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months in amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients classified in two groups: "positive" (i.e., "prodromal AD"; n = 81) or "negative" (n = 63) based on a diagnostic marker of AD derived from cerebrospinal samples (Aβ42/P-tau ratio). A linear mixed model design was used to test functional biomarkers for Group, Time, and Group×Time effects adjusted by nuisance covariates (only data until conversion to dementia was used). Functional biomarkers that showed significant Group effects ("positive" versus "negative", p < 0.05) regardless of Time were 1) reduced rsfMRI connectivity in both the default mode network (DMN) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), both also giving significant Time effects (connectivity decay regardless of Group); 2) increased rsEEG source activity at delta (<4 Hz) and theta (4-8 Hz) rhythms and decreased source activity at low-frequency alpha (8-10.5 Hz) rhythms; and 3) reduced parietal and posterior cingulate source activities of aoERPs. Time×Group effects showed differential functional biomarker progression between groups: 1) increased rsfMRI connectivity in the left parietal cortex of the DMN nodes, consistent with compensatory effects and 2) increased limbic source activity at theta rhythms. These findings represent the first longitudinal characterization of functional biomarkers of prodromal AD relative to "negative" aMCI patients based on 5 serial recording sessions over 2 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-180158DOI Listing
September 2020

Levodopa may affect cortical excitability in Parkinson's disease patients with cognitive deficits as revealed by reduced activity of cortical sources of resting state electroencephalographic rhythms.

Neurobiol Aging 2019 01 30;73:9-20. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Department of Neurology, University of Istanbul-Medipol, Istanbul, Turkey.

We hypothesized that dopamine neuromodulation might affect cortical excitability in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients set in quiet wakefulness, as revealed by resting state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms at alpha frequencies (8-12 Hz). Clinical and rsEEG rhythms in PD with dementia (N = 35), PD with mild cognitive impairment (N = 50), PD with normal cognition (N = 35), and normal (N = 50) older adults were available from an international archive. Cortical rsEEG sources were estimated by exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography. Compared with the normal older group, the PD groups showed reduced occipital alpha sources and increased widespread delta (<4 Hz) sources. Widespread frontal and temporal alpha sources exhibited an increase in PD with dementia compared with PD with mild cognitive impairment and PD with normal cognition groups, as function of dopamine depletion severity, typically greater in the former than the latter groups. A daily dose of levodopa induced a widespread reduction in cortical delta and alpha sources in a subgroup of 13 PD patients under standard chronic dopaminergic regimen. In PD patients in quiet wakefulness, alpha cortical source activations may reflect an excitatory effect of dopamine neuromodulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2018.08.010DOI Listing
January 2019

Plasma Aβ42 as a Biomarker of Prodromal Alzheimer's Disease Progression in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: Evidence from the PharmaCog/E-ADNI Study.

J Alzheimers Dis 2019 ;69(1):37-48

Laboratory of Neuroimaging and Alzheimer's Epidemiology, IRCCS Istituto Centro San Giovanni di Dio Fatebenefratelli, Brescia, Italy.

It is an open issue whether blood biomarkers serve to diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD) or monitor its progression over time from prodromal stages. Here, we addressed this question starting from data of the European FP7 IMI-PharmaCog/E-ADNI longitudinal study in amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients including biological, clinical, neuropsychological (e.g., ADAS-Cog13), neuroimaging, and electroencephalographic measures. PharmaCog/E-ADNI patients were classified as "positive" (i.e., "prodromal AD" n = 76) or "negative" (n = 52) based on a diagnostic cut-off of Aβ42/P-tau in cerebrospinal fluid as well as APOE ε 4 genotype. Blood was sampled at baseline and at two follow-ups (12 and 18 months), when plasma amyloid peptide 42 and 40 (Aβ42, Aβ40) and apolipoprotein J (clusterin, CLU) were assessed. Linear Mixed Models found no significant differences in plasma molecules between the "positive" (i.e., prodromal AD) and "negative" groups at baseline. In contrast, plasma Aβ42 showed a greater reduction over time in the prodromal AD than the "negative" aMCI group (p = 0.048), while CLU and Aβ40 increased, but similarly in the two groups. Furthermore, plasma Aβ42 correlated with the ADAS-Cog13 score both in aMCI patients as a whole and the prodromal AD group alone. Finally, CLU correlated with the ADAS-Cog13 only in the whole aMCI group, and no association with ADAS-Cog13 was found for Aβ40. In conclusion, plasma Aβ42 showed disease progression-related features in aMCI patients with prodromal AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-180321DOI Listing
September 2020

Different Abnormalities of Cortical Neural Synchronization Mechanisms in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment due to Alzheimer's and Chronic Kidney Diseases: An EEG Study.

J Alzheimers Dis 2018 ;65(3):897-915

Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation - Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation Unit, Aldo Moro University of Bari, Bari, Italy.

This study tested whether resting state alpha rhythms (8-13 Hz) may characterize mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (ADMCI) compared with MCI due to chronic kidney disease (CKDMCI). Clinical and resting state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms from 40 ADMCI, 29 CKDMCI, and 45 cognitively normal elderly (Nold) subjects were available in a national archive. Age, gender, and education were matched in the three groups, and Mini-Mental State Evaluation (MMSE) score was paired in the ADMCI and CKDMCI groups. Delta (<4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha 1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha 2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta 1 (13-20 Hz), beta 2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz) cortical sources were estimated by eLORETA freeware and classified across individuals by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROCC). Compared with Nold group, posterior alpha 1 source activities were more reduced in ADMCI than CKDMCI group. In contrast, widespread delta source activities were greater in CKDMCI than ADMCI group. These source activities correlated with the MMSE score and correctly classified between Nold and all MCI individuals (AUROCC = 0.8-0.85) and between ADMCI and CKDMCI subjects (AUROCC = 0.75). These results suggest that early AD affects cortical neural synchronization at alpha frequencies underpinning brain arousal and low vigilance in the quiet wakefulness. In contrast, CKD may principally affect cortical neural synchronization at the delta frequencies. Future prospective cross-validation studies will have to test these candidate rsEEG markers for clinical applications and drug discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-180245DOI Listing
August 2019

Functional cortical source connectivity of resting state electroencephalographic alpha rhythms shows similar abnormalities in patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

Clin Neurophysiol 2018 04 31;129(4):766-782. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Department of Neurosciences, Dokuz Eylül University, Izmir, Turkey; Department of Neurology, Dokuz Eylül University Medical School, Izmir, Turkey.

Objective: This study tested the hypothesis that markers of functional cortical source connectivity of resting state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms may be abnormal in subjects with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's (ADMCI) and Parkinson's (PDMCI) diseases compared to healthy elderly subjects (Nold).

Methods: rsEEG data had been collected in ADMCI, PDMCI, and Nold subjects (N = 75 for any group). eLORETA freeware estimated functional lagged linear connectivity (LLC) from rsEEG cortical sources. Area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve indexed the accuracy in the classification of Nold and MCI individuals.

Results: Posterior interhemispheric and widespread intrahemispheric alpha LLC solutions were abnormally lower in both MCI groups compared to the Nold group. At the individual level, AUROC curves of LLC solutions in posterior alpha sources exhibited moderate accuracies (0.70-0.72) in the discrimination of Nold vs. ADMCI-PDMCI individuals. No differences in the LLC solutions were found between the two MCI groups.

Conclusions: These findings unveil similar abnormalities in functional cortical connectivity estimated in widespread alpha sources in ADMCI and PDMCI. This was true at both group and individual levels.

Significance: The similar abnormality of alpha source connectivity in ADMCI and PDMCI subjects might reflect common cholinergic impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2018.01.009DOI Listing
April 2018

Abnormalities of Resting State Cortical EEG Rhythms in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment Due to Alzheimer's and Lewy Body Diseases.

J Alzheimers Dis 2018 ;62(1):247-268

Department of Biophysics, Istanbul Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey.

The present study tested the hypothesis that cortical sources of resting state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms reveal different abnormalities in cortical neural synchronization in groups of patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (ADMCI) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLBMCI) as compared to cognitively normal elderly (Nold) subjects. Clinical and rsEEG data in 30 ADMCI, 23 DLBMCI, and 30 Nold subjects were available in an international archive. Age, gender, and education were carefully matched in the three groups. The Mini-Mental State Evaluation (MMSE) score was matched between the ADMCI and DLBMCI groups. Individual alpha frequency peak (IAF) was used to determine the delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3 frequency band ranges. Fixed beta1, beta2, and gamma bands were also considered. eLORETA estimated the rsEEG cortical sources. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROCC) classified these sources across individuals. Compared to Nold, IAF showed marked slowing in DLBMCI and moderate in ADMCI. Furthermore, the posterior alpha 2 and alpha 3 source activities were more abnormal in the ADMCI than the DLBMCI group, while widespread delta source activities were more abnormal in the DLBMCI than the ADMCI group. The posterior delta and alpha sources correlated with the MMSE score and correctly classified the Nold and MCI individuals (area under the ROCC >0.85). In conclusion, the ADMCI and DLBMCI patients showed different features of cortical neural synchronization at delta and alpha frequencies underpinning brain arousal and vigilance in the quiet wakefulness. Future prospective cross-validation studies will have to test the clinical validity of these rsEEG markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-170703DOI Listing
March 2019

Abnormalities of resting-state functional cortical connectivity in patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's and Lewy body diseases: an EEG study.

Neurobiol Aging 2018 05 30;65:18-40. Epub 2017 Dec 30.

IBG, Departments of Neurology and Neurosciences, Dokuz Eylül University, Izmir, Turkey.

Previous evidence showed abnormal posterior sources of resting-state delta (<4 Hz) and alpha (8-12 Hz) rhythms in patients with Alzheimer's disease with dementia (ADD), Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD), and Lewy body dementia (DLB), as cortical neural synchronization markers in quiet wakefulness. Here, we tested the hypothesis of additional abnormalities in functional cortical connectivity computed in those sources, in ADD, considered as a "disconnection cortical syndrome", in comparison with PDD and DLB. Resting-state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms had been collected in 42 ADD, 42 PDD, 34 DLB, and 40 normal healthy older (Nold) participants. Exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA) freeware estimated the functional lagged linear connectivity (LLC) from rsEEG cortical sources in delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands. The area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve indexed the classification accuracy between Nold and diseased individuals (only values >0.7 were considered). Interhemispheric and intrahemispheric LLCs in widespread delta sources were abnormally higher in the ADD group and, unexpectedly, normal in DLB and PDD groups. Intrahemispheric LLC was reduced in widespread alpha sources dramatically in ADD, markedly in DLB, and moderately in PDD group. Furthermore, the interhemispheric LLC in widespread alpha sources showed lower values in ADD and DLB than PDD groups. At the individual level, AUROC curves of LLC in alpha sources exhibited better classification accuracies for the discrimination of ADD versus Nold individuals (0.84) than for DLB versus Nold participants (0.78) and PDD versus Nold participants (0.75). Functional cortical connectivity markers in delta and alpha sources suggest a more compromised neurophysiological reserve in ADD than DLB, at both group and individual levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2017.12.023DOI Listing
May 2018

Abnormalities of Cortical Neural Synchronization Mechanisms in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment due to Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases: An EEG Study.

J Alzheimers Dis 2017 ;59(1):339-358

Department of Neurology, University of Istanbul-Medipol, Istanbul, Turkey.

The aim of this retrospective and exploratory study was that the cortical sources of resting state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms might reveal different abnormalities in cortical neural synchronization in groups of patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (ADMCI) and Parkinson's disease (PDMCI) as compared to healthy subjects. Clinical and rsEEG data of 75 ADMCI, 75 PDMCI, and 75 cognitively normal elderly (Nold) subjects were available in an international archive. Age, gender, and education were carefully matched in the three groups. The Mini-Mental State Evaluation (MMSE) was matched between the ADMCI and PDMCI groups. Individual alpha frequency peak (IAF) was used to determine the delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3 frequency band ranges. Fixed beta1, beta2, and gamma bands were also considered. eLORETA estimated the rsEEG cortical sources. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) classified these sources across individuals. Results showed that compared to the Nold group, the posterior alpha2 and alpha3 source activities were more abnormal in the ADMCI than the PDMCI group, while the parietal delta source activities were more abnormal in the PDMCI than the ADMCI group. The parietal delta and alpha sources correlated with MMSE score and correctly classified the Nold and diseased individuals (area under the ROC = 0.77-0.79). In conclusion, the PDMCI and ADMCI patients showed different features of cortical neural synchronization at delta and alpha frequencies underpinning brain arousal and vigilance in the quiet wakefulness. Future prospective cross-validation studies will have to test these rsEEG markers for clinical applications and drug discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-160883DOI Listing
April 2018

Abnormalities of cortical neural synchronization mechanisms in patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's and Lewy body diseases: an EEG study.

Neurobiol Aging 2017 07 5;55:143-158. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

Department of Neurology, University of Istanbul-Medipol, Istanbul, Turkey.

The aim of this retrospective exploratory study was that resting state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms might reflect brain arousal in patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease dementia (ADD), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), and dementia with Lewy body (DLB). Clinical and rsEEG data of 42 ADD, 42 PDD, 34 DLB, and 40 healthy elderly (Nold) subjects were available in an international archive. Demography, education, and Mini-Mental State Evaluation score were not different between the patient groups. Individual alpha frequency peak (IAF) determined the delta, theta, alpha 1, alpha 2, and alpha 3 frequency bands. Fixed beta 1, beta 2, and gamma bands were also considered. rsEEG cortical sources were estimated by means of the exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic source tomography and were then classified across individuals, on the basis of the receiver operating characteristic curves. Compared to Nold, IAF showed marked slowing in PDD and DLB and moderate slowing in ADD. Furthermore, all patient groups showed lower posterior alpha 2 source activities. This effect was dramatic in ADD, marked in DLB, and moderate in PDD. These groups also showed higher occipital delta source activities, but this effect was dramatic in PDD, marked in DLB, and moderate in ADD. The posterior delta and alpha sources allowed good classification accuracy (approximately 0.85-0.90) between the Nold subjects and patients, and between ADD and PDD patients. In quiet wakefulness, delta and alpha sources unveiled different spatial and frequency features of the cortical neural synchronization underpinning brain arousal in ADD, PDD, and DLB patients. Future prospective cross-validation studies should test these rsEEG markers for clinical applications and drug discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2017.03.030DOI Listing
July 2017

Classification of Healthy Subjects and Alzheimer's Disease Patients with Dementia from Cortical Sources of Resting State EEG Rhythms: A Study Using Artificial Neural Networks.

Front Neurosci 2016 26;10:604. Epub 2017 Jan 26.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology "Vittorio Erspamer", University of Rome "La Sapienza"Rome, Italy; Department of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele PisanaRome, Italy.

Previous evidence showed a 75.5% best accuracy in the classification of 120 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with dementia and 100 matched normal elderly (Nold) subjects based on cortical source current density and linear lagged connectivity estimated by eLORETA freeware from resting state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms (Babiloni et al., 2016a). Specifically, that accuracy was reached using the ratio between occipital delta and alpha1 current density for a linear univariate classifier (receiver operating characteristic curves). Here we tested an innovative approach based on an artificial neural network (ANN) classifier from the same database of rsEEG markers. Frequency bands of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz Hz), alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz), and alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz). ANN classification showed an accuracy of 77% using the most 4 discriminative rsEEG markers of source current density (parietal theta/alpha 1, temporal theta/alpha 1, occipital theta/alpha 1, and occipital delta/alpha 1). It also showed an accuracy of 72% using the most 4 discriminative rsEEG markers of source lagged linear connectivity (inter-hemispherical occipital delta/alpha 2, intra-hemispherical right parietal-limbic alpha 1, intra-hemispherical left occipital-temporal theta/alpha 1, intra-hemispherical right occipital-temporal theta/alpha 1). With these 8 markers combined, an accuracy of at least 76% was reached. Interestingly, this accuracy based on 8 (linear) rsEEG markers as inputs to ANN was similar to that obtained with a single rsEEG marker (Babiloni et al., 2016a), thus unveiling their information redundancy for classification purposes. In future AD studies, inputs to ANNs should include other classes of independent linear (i.e., directed transfer function) and non-linear (i.e., entropy) rsEEG markers to improve the classification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2016.00604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5266711PMC
January 2017

Functional and effective brain connectivity for discrimination between Alzheimer's patients and healthy individuals: A study on resting state EEG rhythms.

Clin Neurophysiol 2017 Apr 22;128(4):667-680. Epub 2016 Oct 22.

IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, Rome, Italy; Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Rome "La Sapienza", Rome, Italy.

Objective: This exploratory study provided a proof of concept of a new procedure using multivariate electroencephalographic (EEG) topographic markers of cortical connectivity to discriminate normal elderly (Nold) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) individuals.

Method: The new procedure was tested on an existing database formed by resting state eyes-closed EEG data (19 exploring electrodes of 10-20 system referenced to linked-ear reference electrodes) recorded in 42 AD patients with dementia (age: 65.9years±8.5 standard deviation, SD) and 42 Nold non-consanguineous caregivers (age: 70.6years±8.5 SD). In this procedure, spectral EEG coherence estimated reciprocal functional connectivity while non-normalized directed transfer function (NDTF) estimated effective connectivity. Principal component analysis and computation of Mahalanobis distance integrated and combined these EEG topographic markers of cortical connectivity. The area under receiver operating curve (AUC) indexed the classification accuracy.

Results: A good classification of Nold and AD individuals was obtained by combining the EEG markers derived from NDTF and coherence (AUC=86%, sensitivity=0.85, specificity=0.70).

Conclusion: These encouraging results motivate a cross-validation study of the new procedure in age- and education-matched Nold, stable and progressing mild cognitive impairment individuals, and de novo AD patients with dementia.

Significance: If cross-validated, the new procedure will provide cheap, broadly available, repeatable over time, and entirely non-invasive EEG topographic markers reflecting abnormal cortical connectivity in AD patients diagnosed by direct or indirect measurement of cerebral amyloid β and hyperphosphorylated tau peptides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2016.10.002DOI Listing
April 2017

Cortical sources of resting state EEG rhythms are related to brain hypometabolism in subjects with Alzheimer's disease: an EEG-PET study.

Neurobiol Aging 2016 12 31;48:122-134. Epub 2016 Aug 31.

Department of Integrated Imaging, IRCCS SDN, Napoli, Italy; Department of Motor Sciences and Healthiness, University of Naples Parthenope, Naples, Italy.

Cortical sources of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) delta (2-4 Hz) and low-frequency alpha (8-10.5 Hz) rhythms show abnormal activity (i.e., current density) in patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we hypothesized that abnormality of this activity is related to relevant disease processes as revealed by cortical hypometabolism typically observed in AD patients by fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Resting state eyes-closed EEG data were recorded in 19 AD patients with dementia and 40 healthy elderly (Nold) subjects. EEG frequency bands of interest were delta and low-frequency alpha. EEG sources were estimated in these bands by low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography images were recorded only in the AD patients, and cortical hypometabolism was indexed by the so-called Alzheimer's discrimination analysis tool (PALZ) in the frontal association, ventromedial frontal, temporoparietal association, posterior cingulate, and precuneus areas. Results showed that compared with the Nold group, the AD group pointed to higher activity of delta sources and lower activity of low-frequency alpha sources in a cortical region of interest formed by all cortical areas of the PALZ score. In the AD patients, there was a positive correlation between the PALZ score and the activity of delta sources in the cortical region of interest (p < 0.05). These results suggest a relationship between resting state cortical hypometabolism and synchronization of cortical neurons at delta rhythms in AD patients with dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2016.08.021DOI Listing
December 2016