Publications by authors named "Robert U Newton"

319 Publications

Acute Effects of High-intensity Resistance Exercise on Cognitive Function.

J Sports Sci Med 2021 Sep 3;20(3):391-397. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of an acute bout of high-intensity resistance exercise on measures of cognitive function. Ten men (Mean ± SD: age = 24.4 ± 3.2 yrs; body mass = 85.7 ± 11.8 kg; height = 1.78 ± 0.08 m; 1 repetition maximum (1RM) = 139.0 ± 24.1 kg) gave informed consent and performed a high-intensity 6 sets of 10 repetitions of barbell back squat exercise at 80% 1RM with 2 minutes rest between sets. The Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) was completed to assess various cognitive domains during the familiarization period, immediately before, and immediately after the high-intensity resistance exercise bout. The repeated measures ANOVAs for throughput scores (r·m) demonstrated significant mean differences for the Mathematical Processing task (MTH; < 0.001, η = 0.625) where pairwise comparisons demonstrated that the post-fatigue throughput (32.0 ± 8.8 r·m) was significantly greater than the pre-fatigue (23.8 ± 7.4 r·m, = 0.003, = 1.01) and the familiarization throughput (26.4 ± 5.3 r·m, = 0.024, = 0.77). The Coded Substitution-Delay task also demonstrated significant mean differences (CDD; = 0.027, η = 0.394) with pairwise comparisons demonstrating that the post-fatigue throughput (49.3 ± 14.4 r·m) was significantly less than the pre-fatigue throughput (63.2 ± 9.6 r·m, = 0.011, = 1.14). The repeated measures ANOVAs for reaction time (ms) demonstrated significant mean differences for MTH ( < 0.001, η = 0.624) where pairwise comparisons demonstrated that the post-fatigue reaction time (1885.2 ± 582.8 ms) was significantly less than the pre-fatigue (2518.2 ± 884.8 ms, = 0.005, = 0.85) and familiarization (2253.7 ± 567.6 ms, = 0.009, = 0.64) reaction times. The Go/No-Go task demonstrated significant mean differences (GNG; = 0.031, η = 0.320) with pairwise comparisons demonstrating that the post-fatigue (285.9 ± 16.3 ms) was significantly less than the pre-fatigue (298.5 ± 12.1 ms, = 0.006, = 0.88) reaction times. High-intensity resistance exercise may elicit domain-specific influences on cognitive function, characterized by the facilitation of simple cognitive tasks and impairments of complex cognitive tasks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.52082/jssm.2021.391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8256515PMC
September 2021

Effects of exercise during radiotherapy on physical function and treatment-related side effects in men with prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Exercise Medicine Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, Australia; School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, Australia.

Background: Radiotherapy is a commonly used treatment for prostate cancer; however, the side effects may negatively impact on quality of life and cause patients to be less physically active. While exercise has been shown to mitigate radiotherapy-related fatigue in men with prostate cancer during radiotherapy, other adverse effects of treatment such as physical deconditioning, urinary symptoms or sexual dysfunction have not been systematically reviewed in this patient population. Thus, the purpose of this review was to investigate the effect of exercise on physical function and treatment-related side effects in men with prostate cancer undergoing radiotherapy.

Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, CINAHL Plus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science databases in December 2020. Included studies were randomised controlled trials examining the effects of aerobic and/or resistance exercise interventions on measures of physical function and treatment-related side effects in prostate cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Meta-analysis was performed on outcomes that were reported in two or more studies.

Results: Seven publications from 6 randomised controlled trials involving 391 prostate cancer patients were included. Patients had stage I-IV cancer with a Gleason score of ≤6 to 10. Exercise resulted in consistent significant benefits for physical function in terms of cardiovascular fitness (SMD=0.83; 95% CI, 0.31 to 1.36; p<.01) and muscle function (SMD=1.30; 95% CI, 0.53 to 2.07; p<.01). Furthermore, there was a significant positive impact of exercise on urinary toxicity (SMD=-0.71; 95% CI, -1.25 to -0.18; p<.01), but not on intestinal (p=.21) or hormonal toxicity (p=.41), depression (p=.45) or sleep symptoms (p=.88).

Conclusion: Based on the current evidence, exercise in men with prostate cancer undergoing radiotherapy improves physical function and mitigates urinary toxicity. The impact of exercise on other treatment-related side effects are less clear and require further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.06.034DOI Listing
July 2021

Publisher Correction: Exercise-induced myokines and their effect on prostate cancer.

Nat Rev Urol 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Exercise Medicine Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41585-021-00501-0DOI Listing
July 2021

Physical Activity and Self-Reported Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in the Aboriginal Population in Perth, Australia, Measured Using an Adaptation of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ).

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 06 2;18(11). Epub 2021 Jun 2.

School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA 6027, Australia.

Complex, ongoing social factors have led to a context where metabolic syndrome (MetS) is disproportionately high in Aboriginal Australians. MetS is characterised by insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, high blood-sugar and low HDL-C. This descriptive study aimed to document physical activity levels, including domains and intensity and sedentary behaviour, and MetS risk factors in the Perth Aboriginal (predominately Noongar) community. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ), together with a questionnaire on self-reported MetS risk factors, was circulated to community members for completion during 2014 ( = 129). Data were analysed using chi-squared tests. The average (SD) age was 37.8 years (14) and BMI of 31.4 (8.2) kg/m. Occupational, transport-related and leisure-time physical activity (PA) and sedentary intensities were reported across age categories. The median (interquartile range) daily sedentary time was 200 (78, 435), 240 (120, 420) and 180 (60, 300) minutes for the 18-25, 26-44 and 45+ year-olds, respectively ( = 0.973). An in-depth understanding of the types, frequencies and intensities of PA reported for the Perth Aboriginal community is important to implementing targeted strategies to reduce the prevalence of chronic disease in this context. Future efforts collaborating with community should aim to reduce the risk factors associated with MetS and improve quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8199758PMC
June 2021

Summated training and match load predictors of salivary immunoglobulin-A, alpha-amylase, testosterone, cortisol and T:C profile changes in elite-level professional football players: A longitudinal analysis.

Eur J Sport Sci 2021 Jul 16:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia.

We examined how summated training and match load measures relate to salivary immunological and hormonal profile changes in professional football players. Data were collected from 18 elite-level professional male football players from one English Championship team across a complete 40 wk competitive season. Daily training (micro-technology) and match (computerised tracking) measures of total, high-speed and high-metabolic load running distance and sprint, acceleration, deceleration and sRPE load were converted into exponentially weighted moving average "acute" (7d), "chronic" (28d) and acute:chronic composite load measures. Bi-weekly morning saliva samples were analysed for immunoglobulin-A, alpha-amylase, testosterone, cortisol and testosterone:cortisol. A two-stage data reduction technique using partial least squares modelling and a backward stepwise selection procedure determined the most parsimonious model for each salivary variable. Testosterone had non-linear relationships with chronic total (= 0.015; Cohen's D: large), high-metabolic load (= 0.001;small) and high-speed (= 0.001;trivial) running distance and linear relationships with chronic sRPE (= 0.002;moderate ↓) and acute:chronic high-speed running distance (= 0.001; trivial ↑). Cortisol had a non-linear relationship with chronic high-speed running distance (= 0.001;trivial). Testosterone:cortisol had non-linear relationships with chronic decelerations (= 0.039;small) and chronic summated acceleration and deceleration load (= 0.039;small). Non-linear relationships typically indicated optimal hormonal responses at squad mean loads. No load variables clearly related to salivary immunoglobulin-A or alpha-amylase changes. We conclude that chronic total and high-intensity load measures relate to hormonal changes and might be useful indicators of player readiness. Acute load variables were not related to immunological or hormonal changes and consequently, should not be used as surrogate measures of player readiness in isolation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2021.1949638DOI Listing
July 2021

Exercise-induced myokines and their effect on prostate cancer.

Nat Rev Urol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Exercise Medicine Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, Australia.

Exercise is recognized by clinicians in the field of clinical oncology for its potential role in reducing the risk of certain cancers and in reducing the risk of disease recurrence and progression; yet, the underlying mechanisms behind this reduction in risk are not fully understood. Studies applying post-exercise blood serum directly to various types of cancer cell lines provide insight that exercise might have a role in inhibiting cancer growth via altered soluble and cell-free blood contents. Myokines, which are cytokines produced by muscle and secreted into the bloodstream, might offer multiple benefits to cellular metabolism (such as a reduction in insulin resistance, improved glucose uptake and reduced adiposity), and blood myokine levels can be altered with exercise. Alterations in the levels of myokines such as IL-6, IL-15, IL-10, irisin, secreted protein acidic risk in cysteine (SPARC), myostatin, oncostatin M and decorin might exert a direct inhibitory effect on cancer growth via inhibiting proliferation, promoting apoptosis, inducing cell-cycle arrest and inhibiting the epithermal transition to mesenchymal cells. The association of insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia and hyperlipidaemia with obesity can create a tumour-favourable environment; exercise-induced myokines can manipulate this environment by regulating adipose tissue and adipocytes. Exercise-induced myokines also have a critical role in increasing cytotoxicity and the infiltration of immune cells into the tumour.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41585-021-00476-yDOI Listing
June 2021

Demonstrating the value of early economic evaluation alongside clinical trials: Exercise medicine for men with metastatic prostate cancer.

Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 2021 Jun 21:e13479. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Centre for the Business and Economics of Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ecc.13479DOI Listing
June 2021

Hormonal stress responses of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I in highly resistance trained women and men.

Growth Horm IGF Res 2021 Aug 6;59:101407. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

The purpose of this study was to examine the responses of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGFI) to intense heavy resistance exercise in highly trained men and women to determine what sex-dependent responses may exist. Subjects were highly resistance trained men (N = 8, Mean ± SD; age, yrs., 21 ± 1, height, cm, 175.3 ± 6.7, body mass, kg, 87.0 ± 18.5, % body fat, 15.2 ± 5.4, squat X body mass, 2.1 ± 0.4; and women (N = 7; Mean ± SD, age, yrs. 24 ± 5, height, cm 164.6 ± 6.7, body mass, kg 76.4 ± 8.8, % body fat, 26.9 ± 5.3, squat X body mass, 1.7 ± 0.6). An acute resistance exercise test protocol (ARET) consisted of 6 sets of 10 repetitions at 80% of the 1 RM with 2 min rest between sets was used as the stressor. Blood samples were obtained pre-exercise, after 3 sets, and then immediately after exercise (IP), 5, 15, 30, and 70 min post-exercise for determination of blood lactate (HLa), and plasma glucose, insulin, cortisol, and GH. Determination of plasma concentrations of IGFI, IGF binding proteins 1, 2, and 3 along with molecular weight isoform factions were determined at pre, IP and 70 min. GH significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased at all time points with resting concentrations significantly higher in women. Significant increases were observed for HLa, glucose, insulin, and cortisol with exercise and into recovery with no sex-dependent observations. Women showed IGF-I values that were higher than men at all times points with both seeing exercise increases. IGFBP-1 and 2 showed increase with exercise with no sex-dependent differences. IGFBP-3 concentrations were higher in women at all-time points with no exercise induced changes. Both women and men saw an exercise induced increase with significantly higher values in GH in only the mid-range (30-60 kD) isoform.  Only women saw an exercise induced increase with significantly higher values for IGF fractions only in the mid-range (30-60 kD) isoform, which were significantly greater than the men at the IP and 70 min post-exercise time points. In conclusion, the salient findings of this investigation were that in highly resistance trained men and women, sexual dimorphisms exist but appear different from our prior work in untrained men and women and appear to support a sexual dimorphism related to compensatory aspects in women for anabolic mediating mechanisms in cellular interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ghir.2021.101407DOI Listing
August 2021

Feasibility and efficacy of a multicomponent exercise medicine programme in patients with pancreatic cancer undergoing neoadjuvant therapy (the EXPAN trial): study protocol of a dual-centre, two-armed phase I randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open Gastroenterol 2021 06;8(1)

Exercise Medicine Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia.

Introduction: Exercise is emerging as a therapy in oncology for its physical and psychosocial benefits and potential effects on chemotherapy tolerability and efficacy. However, evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) supporting exercise in patients with borderline resectable or locally advanced pancreatic cancer (PanCa) undergoing neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) are lacking.

Methods And Analysis: The EXPAN trial is a dual-centre, two-armed, phase I RCT. Forty patients with borderline resectable or locally advanced PanCa undergoing NAT will be randomised equally to an exercise intervention group (individualised exercise+standard NAT) or a usual care control group (standard NAT). The exercise intervention will be supervised and consist of moderate to vigorous intensity resistance and aerobic-based training undertaken two times a week for 45-60 min per session for a maximum period of 6 months. The primary outcome is feasibility. Secondary outcomes are patient-related and treatment-related endpoints, objectively measured physical function, body composition, psychological health and quality of life. Assessments will be conducted at baseline, prior to potential alteration of treatment (~4 months postbaseline), at completion of the intervention (maximum 6 months postbaseline) and 3-month and 6-month postintervention (maximum 9 and 12 months postbaseline).

Ethics And Dissemination: The EXPAN trial has been approved by Edith Cowan University (reference no.: 2020-02011-LUO), Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital (reference no.: RGS 03956) and St John of God Subiaco Hospital (reference no.: 1726). The study results will be presented at national/international conferences and submitted for publications in peer-reviewed journals.

Trial Registration Number: ACTRN12620001081909.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgast-2021-000642DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8186755PMC
June 2021

Using Exercise and Nutrition to Alter Fat and Lean Mass in Men with Prostate Cancer Receiving Androgen Deprivation Therapy: A Narrative Review.

Nutrients 2021 May 14;13(5). Epub 2021 May 14.

Exercise Medicine Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Perth 6027, WA, Australia.

Fat mass (FM) gain and lean mass (LM) loss are common side effects for patients with prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Excess FM has been associated with an increased risk of developing obesity-related comorbidities, exacerbating prostate cancer progression, and all-cause and cancer-specific mortality. LM is the predominant contributor to resting metabolic rate, with any loss impacting long-term weight management as well as physical function. Therefore, reducing FM and preserving LM may improve patient-reported outcomes, risk of disease progression, and ameliorate comorbidity development. In ADT-treated patients, exercise and nutrition programs can lead to improvements in quality of life and physical function; however, effects on body composition have been variable. The aim of this review was to provide a descriptive overview and critical appraisal of exercise and nutrition-based interventions in prostate cancer patients on ADT and their effect on FM and LM. Our findings are that FM gain and LM loss are side effects of ADT that could be reduced, prevented, or even reversed with the implementation of a combined exercise and nutrition program. However, the most effective combination of specific exercise and nutrition prescriptions are yet to be determined, and thus should be a focus for future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13051664DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8156712PMC
May 2021

Radiotherapy before or during androgen-deprivation therapy does not blunt the exercise-induced body composition protective effects in prostate cancer patients: A secondary analysis of two randomized controlled trials.

Exp Gerontol 2021 08 27;151:111427. Epub 2021 May 27.

Exercise Medicine Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia; School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia.

Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) contributes to lean mass loss and adiposity increases in prostate cancer patients. Radiotherapy during ADT might act synergistically and further worsen body composition. Previous investigations have shown that resistance training is an effective method of preserving body composition during ADT, however, most have not accounted for direct or indirect effects of other therapies, such as radiotherapy. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine training adaptations of the tissue composition in patients receiving radiation therapy (RT) prior or during ADT.

Methods: Analyses were performed by combining data from two previous trials for a total of 131 prostate cancer patients who underwent a combination of resistance and aerobic exercise training (N = 70, age: 68.9 ± 6.6y, RT-before: 13%, RT-during: 14%) or usual care (N = 61, age: 67.5 ± 7.9y, RT-before: 16%, RT-during: 20%) for 3 months upon ADT onset. Whole-body lean mass (LM), fat percentage and appendicular LM were determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and lower-leg muscle area and density by peripheral computed tomography at baseline (onset of ADT) and at 3 months post-intervention. Covariates included RT prior and during the intervention, demographic characteristics, physical symptoms, and chronic conditions.

Results: Radiotherapy before or during the intervention did not affect body composition. Only the usual care group experienced a significant decrease in whole-body LM (-994 ± 150 g, P < 0.001) and appendicular LM (-126 ± 19 g, P < 0.001), and an increase in whole-body fat percentage (1% ± 0.1%, P < 0.001). There was no change in lower-leg muscle area or density in either group.

Conclusion: We suggest that radiation prior to and during ADT does not interfere with the beneficial effects of exercise training on body composition in men with prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2021.111427DOI Listing
August 2021

An integrated multicomponent care model for men affected by prostate cancer: A feasibility study of TrueNTH Australia.

Psychooncology 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Faculty of Health, Cancer and Palliative Care Outcomes Centre, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of implementing an integrated multicomponent survivorship care model for men affected by prostate cancer.

Methods: Using a single arm prospective cohort study design, men with prostate cancer were recruited from two regional public hospitals in Australia for a 6-months program that provided information and decision support, exercise and nutrition management, specialised clinical support, and practical support through localised and central care coordination. Carers of the men were also invited to the program. Data were collected from multiple sources to evaluate: (1) recruitment capability and participant characteristics; (2) appropriateness and feasibility of delivering the specific intervention components using an electronic care management tool; and (3) suitability of data collection procedures and proposed outcome measures.

Results: Of the 105 eligible men, 51 (consent rate 49%) participated in the program. Of the 31 carers nominated by the men, 13 consented (consent rate 42%). All carers and 50 (98%) men completed the program. Most (92%) men were newly diagnosed with localised prostate cancer. All men attended initial screening and assessment for supportive care needs; a total of 838 episodes of contact/consultation were made by the intervention team either in person (9%) or remotely (91%). The intervention was implemented as proposed with no adverse events. The proposed outcome measures and evaluation procedures were found to be appropriate.

Conclusions: Our results support the feasibility of implementing this integrated multicomponent care model for men affected by prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pon.5729DOI Listing
May 2021

Patients and carers' perspectives of participating in a pilot tailored exercise program during chemoradiotherapy for high grade glioma: A qualitative study.

Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 2021 Apr 20:e13453. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Medical Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Objective: To describe glioblastoma patients' and carers' perspectives of participating in a tailored exercise intervention during chemoradiotherapy.

Methods: A pilot study was conducted to evaluate if exercise was a feasible and safe therapy in patients with glioblastoma undergoing chemoradiotherapy. Patients received a supervised exercise intervention involving an individualised prescription of moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise twice weekly, performed at the hospital when they attended for treatment. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants and their carers. Recordings were analysed using thematic analysis.

Results: 19 patients and 15 carers participated. Benefits and challenges of participating in the exercise intervention were described. Benefits included an individually tailored exercise program, improvements in health, regaining a sense of control, interacting with people, keeping active and benefits for carers. Challenges included managing symptoms associated with diagnosis and treatment, juggling treatment and exercise, and difficulties engaging in the program.

Conclusion: Patients and carers expressed positive perceptions and experiences of participating in exercise during chemoradiotherapy; however, some challenges were experienced. These results support the quantitative pilot study which demonstrated that supervised exercise is feasible, safe and well tolerated by patients receiving chemoradiotherapy for glioblastoma. Randomised controlled trials now need to be conducted with this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ecc.13453DOI Listing
April 2021

Body weight, fat mass and metabolic complications during androgen deprivation therapy: should urologists recommend exercise and diet to help patients overcome toxicities?

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Exercise Medicine Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41391-021-00363-yDOI Listing
April 2021

Exercise Medicine in the Management of Pancreatic Cancer: A Systematic Review.

Pancreas 2021 03;50(3):280-292

Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the health-related effects of exercise in patients with pancreatic cancer (PanCa) through a systematic review of current evidence. Studies were obtained through searching PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL Plus, and Cochrane Library databases with additional hand searches. All intervention-based studies were included if it involved (1) adult patients with PanCa, (2) exercise training, and (3) findings in quality of life, cancer-related fatigue, psychological distress, and physical function. The review protocol was registered in PROSPERO: CRD42020154684. Seven trials described in 9 publications were included consisting of 201 patients with early-stage and advanced PanCa. Participants were required to perform supervised and/or home-based, low- to moderate-intensity resistance and/or aerobic exercise for 12 to 35 weeks or duration of neoadjuvant therapy. There were no exercise-related adverse events with a reported retention rate of 71% to 90% and exercise attendance of 64% to 96%. The programs were consistently associated with improvements in cancer-related fatigue, psychological distress, and physical function, with mixed effects on quality of life. Exercise training seems to be safe and feasible and may have a beneficial effect on various physical and psychological outcomes in patients with PanCa. Further work with rigorous study designs is required to consolidate and advance current findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPA.0000000000001753DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8041568PMC
March 2021

Development of a scale assessing retired older adults' attitudes to volunteering.

Australas J Ageing 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

School of Psychology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Objective: Given positive attitudes to volunteering are likely to be associated with support for volunteering and individual participation, this study aimed to develop and test a 10-item 'attitudes to formal volunteering' scale for retired older adults that could be used to inform intervention efforts.

Method: A sample of 801 Australian retirees (62% female; mean age: 71.9 years) completed a survey that included the attitude scale, demographic items and questions assessing engagement in volunteering.

Results: A principal component analysis identified two factors (general attitude to volunteering and attitude to participating in volunteering) that together accounted for 64% of the variance in attitude scores. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated the two-factor model was an excellent fit to the data. Cronbach's alphas for both factors were >0.80, and both were positively associated with volunteering engagement.

Conclusion: The proposed scale is a potentially useful instrument for measuring attitudes to volunteering among retired older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajag.12907DOI Listing
March 2021

The Influence of Mental Fatigue on Sessional Ratings of Perceived Exertion in Elite Open and Closed Skill Sports Athletes.

J Strength Cond Res 2021 Apr;35(4):963-969

School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Washington, Australia.

Abstract: Coyne, JOC, Coutts, AJ, Newton, RU, and Haff, GG. The influence of mental fatigue on sessional ratings of perceived exertion in elite open and closed skill sports athletes. J Strength Cond Res 35(4): 963-969, 2021-The main purpose of this investigation was to examine influence of mental fatigue on sessional ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE) over a training week in elite athletes in open skill (OS, i.e., more unpredictable and externally paced sports) and closed skill (CS, i.e., more predictable and internally paced) sports. Visual analogue scales for mental fatigue, sRPE (CR-10 scale), and training duration were collected from an OS group (n = 27) of basketball and volleyball athletes and a CS group (n = 28) of weightlifting and track and field athletes during a typical training week 5 months before the 2016 Olympic Games. These variables were then examined using repeated measure correlations and linear mixed models with the level of significance set for the study at p < 0.05. There was a small significant correlation between mental fatigue and sRPE in the OS group (r = 0.23, p < 0.01), but not in the CS group (r = -0.07, p = 0.38). Mental fatigue had trivial influence on sRPE during individual sessions, but had a moderate effect on total sRPE over a week (p < 0.001, f2 = 0.265) when accounting for type of sport, training duration, and injury/illness burden. It seems mental fatigue may not significantly influence sRPE in individual training sessions, but may potentially have a cumulative effect that may affect the sRPE over a training week. This suggests monitoring mental fatigue independently of other training load (TL) measures may be worthwhile for strength and conditioning specialists and sports coaches to manage their athletes and researchers conducting studies into TL and performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003980DOI Listing
April 2021

The Aussie-FIT process evaluation: feasibility and acceptability of a weight loss intervention for men, delivered in Australian Football League settings.

Psychol Health 2021 Mar 9:1-20. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Physical Activity and Well-being Research Group, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.

Objective: This process evaluation aimed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of Aussie-FIT, a group-based weight loss intervention for men with overweight and obesity in Australia.

Design: Process data and data collected from: (1) six-participant focus groups (= 24), (2) coach interviews ( = 4), (3) audio recordings of Aussie-FIT sessions and (4) post-program participant surveys (= 93) were analysed.

Main Outcome Measures: We explored the feasibility and acceptability of program setting and context, recruitment strategies, factors impacting implementation and mechanisms of impact.

Results: Recruitment via Australian Football League (AFL) clubs was highly effective; 426 men expressed interest within 3 days of advertising, 130 men took part. Program attendance was not consistently recorded by coaches. Coach interviews indicated a 'core group of men' participated in each session (typically 10-12 of 15 men). Program delivery proved feasible in the AFL context. Program acceptability and satisfaction were high. Internalisation of autonomous motives was identified as driving behaviour change. Behaviour change to support maintained weight loss was facilitated through habit formation, goal setting and effective management of multiple goals.

Conclusion: Aussie-FIT sets a blueprint for future weight loss interventions that utilise behaviour change strategies and principles of self-determined motivation to support men to lose weight.

Trial Registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12617000515392.

Supplemental data for this article is available online at https://doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2021.1890730.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2021.1890730DOI Listing
March 2021

Relationships Between Different Internal and External Training Load Variables and Elite International Women's Basketball Performance.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2021 Feb 25;16(6):871-880. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Purpose: To investigate the relationships between internal and external training load (TL) metrics with elite international women's basketball performance.

Methods: Sessional ratings of perceived exertion, PlayerLoad™/minute, and training duration were collected from 13 elite international-level female basketball athletes (age 29.0 [3.7] y, stature 186.0 [9.8] cm, body mass 77.9 [11.6] kg) during the 18 weeks prior to the International Basketball Federation Olympic qualifying event for the 2016 Rio Olympic Games. Training stress balance, differential load, and the training efficiency index were calculated with 3 different smoothing methods. These TL metrics and their change in the last 21 days prior to competition were examined for their relationship to competition performance as coach ratings of performance.

Results: For a number of TL variables, there were consistent significant small to moderate correlations with performance and significant small to large differences between successful and unsuccessful performances. However, these differences were only evident for external TL when using exponentially weighted moving averages to calculate TL. The variable that seemed most sensitive to performance was the change in training efficiency index in the last 21 days prior to competition (performance r = .47-.56, P < .001 and difference between successful and unsuccessful performance P < .001, f2 = 0.305-0.431).

Conclusions: Internal and external TL variables were correlated with performance and distinguished between successful and unsuccessful performances among the same players during international women's basketball games. Manipulating TL in the last 3 weeks prior to competition may be worthwhile for basketball players' performance, especially in internal TL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2020-0495DOI Listing
February 2021

Longitudinal associations between formal volunteering and well-being among retired older people: follow-up results from a randomized controlled trial.

Aging Ment Health 2021 Feb 11:1-8. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

The George Institute for Global Health, Newtown, Australia.

Volunteering has been identified as a potential mechanism for improving the psychosocial health of older adults. Utilizing a randomized controlled trial approach, the present study assessed the extent to which commencing volunteering can improve psychosocial health outcomes for older people. Fully retired Australian adults aged 60+ years (= 445) were assessed at baseline and allocated to either the intervention or control arms of the trial. Those in the intervention condition were asked to participate in at least 60 min of formal volunteering per week for 6 months. Per-protocol analyses were conducted comparing psychosocial outcomes for those who complied with the intervention condition (= 73) to outcomes for those who complied with the control condition (= 112). Those who complied with the intervention condition demonstrated significant improvements in life satisfaction, purpose in life, and personal growth scores over a 12-month period relative to those in the control condition who did no volunteering. Findings provide evidence of a causal relationship between commencing volunteering and improvements in psychosocial health among older adults and indicate that encouraging participation in this activity could constitute an effective healthy aging intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2021.1884845DOI Listing
February 2021

Psychological distress in men with prostate cancer undertaking androgen deprivation therapy: modifying effects of exercise from a year-long randomized controlled trial.

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Exercise Medicine Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, Australia.

Objectives: To assess the long-term effects of various exercise modes on psychological distress in men with prostate cancer on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT).

Patients And Methods: 135 prostate cancer patients aged 43-90 years on ADT were randomized to twice weekly supervised impact loading and resistance exercise (ImpRes), supervised aerobic and resistance exercise (AerRes), and usual care/delayed supervised aerobic exercise (DelAer) for 12 months, and completed measures of psychological distress using the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18). BSI-18 provides three subscales for anxiety, depression, and somatisation, as well as the global severity index (GSI) where higher scores indicate higher distress.

Results: Following the intervention, somatization was not different to baseline, however, there were significant interactions (p < 0.01) for depression, anxiety, and the GSI. In ImpRes, depression was reduced at 12 months compared to baseline and 6 months (0.78 ± 1.39 vs. 1.88 ± 3.24 and 1.48 ± 2.65, p < 0.001), as was the GSI (3.67 ± 4.34 vs. 5.94 ± 7.46 and 4.64 ± 4.73, p < 0.001) with anxiety reduced compared to baseline (1.08 ± 1.54 vs. 1.98 ± 2.56). Depression and the GSI decreased (p < 0.05) in AerRes at 6 months but increased by 12 months, while in DelAer the GSI was reduced at 12 months compared to 6 months (3.78 ± 3.94 vs. 5.25 ± 4.22, p = 0.031). Men with the highest level of anxiety, depression, somatization, and the GSI improved the most with exercise (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Various supervised exercise modes (aerobic, resistance and impact loading) are effective in reducing psychological distress in men with prostate cancer on ADT. Those with the highest level of psychological distress improved the most. Supervised exercise should be prescribed to improve psychological health in prostate cancer patients on ADT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41391-021-00327-2DOI Listing
February 2021

Effect of Exercise Adjunct to Radiation and Androgen Deprivation Therapy on Patient-Reported Treatment Toxicity in Men With Prostate Cancer: A Secondary Analysis of 2 Randomized Controlled Trials.

Pract Radiat Oncol 2021 May-Jun;11(3):215-225. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Exercise Medicine Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, Australia; School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, Australia; School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia. Electronic address:

Purpose: Physical inactivity, in addition to clinical factors, has been associated with higher levels of late pelvic symptoms in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) after radiation therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a structured multicomponent exercise program comprised of aerobic and resistance training as well as impact loading on the prevalence and severity of symptoms commonly resulting from androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and pelvic radiation therapy.

Methods And Materials: We performed a secondary analysis of pooled data from 2 randomized controlled trials that investigated the role of exercise on treatment-related side effects in patients with PCa receiving ADT. Patients were included in the analysis if they had undergone radiation therapy during the intervention in addition to ADT. Patient-reported quality of life and functional and symptom scales were assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and PR25 before and after 6 months of exercise or usual care (UC).

Results: One-hundred and fifteen patients with PCa receiving ADT, aged 47 to 84 years, who also underwent radiation therapy were included in the analysis (exercise, n = 72; UC, n = 43). There was a significant reduction in physical functioning (P = .019) and increased fatigue (P = .007) in the control group, with no change observed in the exercise group. Similarly, there was a trend toward reduced sexual activity in the control group (P = .064), with a mean adjusted change of -7.1 points. Furthermore, the prevalence of clinically important pain at 6 months was lower in the exercise group compared with UC (18.1 vs 37.2%, P = .022). No between-group differences were found for urinary (P = .473) or hormonal treatment-related symptoms (P = .552).

Conclusions: Exercise during concomitant hormone and radiation treatment for men with PCa may mitigate some adverse changes in patient-reported fatigue, physical functioning, and possibly sexual activity. The promotion and provision of exercise to counter a range of treatment-related adverse effects in patients with PCa undergoing radiation therapy and ADT should be actively encouraged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prro.2021.01.005DOI Listing
February 2021

Moderators of the effect of psychosocial interventions on fatigue in women with breast cancer and men with prostate cancer: Individual patient data meta-analyses.

Psychooncology 2020 11 3;29(11):1772-1785. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: Psychosocial interventions can reduce cancer-related fatigue effectively. However, it is still unclear if intervention effects differ across subgroups of patients. These meta-analyses aimed at evaluating moderator effects of (a) sociodemographic characteristics, (b) clinical characteristics, (c) baseline levels of fatigue and other symptoms, and (d) intervention-related characteristics on the effect of psychosocial interventions on cancer-related fatigue in patients with non-metastatic breast and prostate cancer.

Methods: Data were retrieved from the Predicting OptimaL cAncer RehabIlitation and Supportive care (POLARIS) consortium. Potential moderators were studied with meta-analyses of pooled individual patient data from 14 randomized controlled trials through linear mixed-effects models with interaction tests. The analyses were conducted separately in patients with breast (n = 1091) and prostate cancer (n = 1008).

Results: Statistically significant, small overall effects of psychosocial interventions on fatigue were found (breast cancer: β = -0.19 [95% confidence interval (95%CI) = -0.30; -0.08]; prostate cancer: β = -0.11 [95%CI = -0.21; -0.00]). In both patient groups, intervention effects did not differ significantly by sociodemographic or clinical characteristics, nor by baseline levels of fatigue or pain. For intervention-related moderators (only tested among women with breast cancer), statistically significant larger effects were found for cognitive behavioral therapy as intervention strategy (β = -0.27 [95%CI = -0.40; -0.15]), fatigue-specific interventions (β = -0.48 [95%CI = -0.79; -0.18]), and interventions that only targeted patients with clinically relevant fatigue (β = -0.85 [95%CI = -1.40; -0.30]).

Conclusions: Our findings did not provide evidence that any selected demographic or clinical characteristic, or baseline levels of fatigue or pain, moderated effects of psychosocial interventions on fatigue. A specific focus on decreasing fatigue seems beneficial for patients with breast cancer with clinically relevant fatigue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pon.5522DOI Listing
November 2020

Resistance Training Load Effects on Muscle Hypertrophy and Strength Gain: Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 06;53(6):1206-1216

Exercise Research Laboratory, School of Physical Education, Physiotherapy and Dance, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, BRAZIL.

Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the effect of resistance training (RT) performed until volitional failure with low, moderate, and high loads on muscle hypertrophy and muscle strength in healthy adults and to assess the possible participant-, design-, and training-related covariates that may affect the adaptations.

Methods: Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science databases were searched. Including only studies that performed sets to volitional failure, the effects of low- (>15 repetitions maximum (RM)), moderate- (9-15 RM), and high-load (≤8 RM) RTs were examined in healthy adults. Network meta-analysis was undertaken to calculate the standardized mean difference (SMD) between RT loads in overall and subgroup analyses involving studies deemed of high quality. Associations between participant-, design-, and training-related covariates with SMD were assessed by univariate and multivariate network meta-regression analyses.

Results: Twenty-eight studies involving 747 healthy adults were included. Although no differences in muscle hypertrophy between RT loads were found in overall (P = 0.113-0.469) or subgroup analysis (P = 0.871-0.995), greater effects were observed in untrained participants (P = 0.033) and participants with some training background who undertook more RT sessions (P = 0.031-0.045). Muscle strength improvement was superior for both high-load and moderate-load compared with low-load RT in overall and subgroup analysis (SMD, 0.60-0.63 and 0.34-0.35, respectively; P < 0.001-0.003), with a nonsignificant but superior effect for high compared with moderate load (SMD, 0.26-0.28, P = 0.068).

Conclusions: Although muscle hypertrophy improvements seem to be load independent, increases in muscle strength are superior in high-load RT programs. Untrained participants exhibit greater muscle hypertrophy, whereas undertaking more RT sessions provides superior gains in those with previous training experience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126497PMC
June 2021

Evaluating a web- and telephone-based personalised exercise intervention for individuals living with metastatic prostate cancer (ExerciseGuide): protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial.

Pilot Feasibility Stud 2021 Jan 11;7(1):21. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Freemasons Foundation Centre for Men's Health, School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Introduction: Preliminary research has shown the effectiveness of supervised exercise-based interventions in alleviating sequela resulting from metastatic prostate cancer. Despite this, many individuals do not engage in sufficient exercise to gain the benefits. There are many barriers, which limit the uptake of face-to-face exercise in this population including lack of suitable facilities, remoteness, and access to experts, significant fatigue, urinary incontinence and motivation. Technology-enabled interventions offer a distance-based alternative. This protocol describes a pilot two-armed randomised controlled study that will investigate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an online exercise and behavioural change tool (ExerciseGuide) amongst individuals with metastatic prostate cancer.

Methods: Sixty-six participants with histologically diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer will be randomised into either the 8-week intervention or a wait-list control. The intervention arm will have access to a tailored website, remote supervision, and tele-coaching sessions to enhance support and adherence. Algorithms will individually prescribe resistance and aerobic exercise based upon factors such as metastasis location, pain, fatigue, confidence and current exercise levels. Behavioural change strategies and education on exercise benefits, safety and lifestyle are also tailored through the website. The primary outcome will be intervention feasibility (safety, usability, acceptability, and adherence). Secondary exploratory outcomes include changes in physical activity, quality of life, sleep, and physical function. Outcomes will be measured at baseline and week 9.

Discussion: The study aims to determine the potential feasibility of an online remotely monitored exercise intervention developed for individuals with metastatic prostate cancer. If feasible, this pilot intervention will inform the design and implementation of further distance-based interventions.

Trial Registration: ANZCTR, ACTRN12614001268639 . Registered 10 December 2018, https://anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12618001979246.aspx.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40814-020-00763-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7798256PMC
January 2021

Salivary Immunoendocrine and Self-report Monitoring Profiles across an Elite-Level Professional Football Season.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 05;53(5):918-927

School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, AUSTRALIA.

Purpose: This investigation examined the longitudinal changes and interrelationships of salivary and self-report monitoring measures across a professional football season.

Methods: Measures were collected biweekly from 18 senior professional male players across a 6-wk preseason and eight 5-wk in-season mesocycles and analyzed using a linear mixed-effects model.

Results: Analysis identified a small (P = 0.003) cross-season suppression of salivary immunoglobulin A, small reductions to salivary α-amylase (P = 0.047) and salivary cortisol (P = 0.007), and trivial changes to salivary testosterone (P > 0.05). The testosterone/cortisol ratio typically responded inversely to changes in player workload. Self-report measures of fatigue (P = 0.030), sleep quality (P = 0.003), and muscle soreness (P = 0.005) improved (ES = small) across the first half of the season. Fatigue and sleep measures were most consistently related to hormonal measures (R2 = 0.43-0.45). For these relationships, increases in cortisol were associated with compromised self-report responses, whereas increases in testosterone/cortisol were associated with improved responses. Nonlinear relationships were identified for fatigue with immunoglobulin A (P = 0.017; ES = trivial) and testosterone (P = 0.012; ES = trivial), for sleep quality with testosterone (P < 0.001; ES = trivial), for muscle soreness with testosterone (P = 0.012; ES = trivial), and for the self-report inventory sum with testosterone (P = 0.027; ES = trivial). For these relationships, self-report responses were optimal at mean immunoglobulin A and testosterone levels, and very low levels (-2 SD) exerted the most compromising effects.

Conclusions: Players can experience a chronic cross-season suppression of mucosal immunity. Salivary immunoglobulin A, testosterone, cortisol, and testosterone/cortisol measures relate to self-report measures of fatigue, sleep quality, and muscle soreness. In-season reductions in testosterone, cortisol, and testosterone/cortisol or increases in cortisol among elite football players could be used to indicate the need for reduced workload, which might lead to improved well-being.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002553DOI Listing
May 2021

Exercise intervention and sexual function in advanced prostate cancer: a randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Support Palliat Care 2020 Dec 16. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Exercise Medicine Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia.

Objectives: Treatments for prostate cancer such as androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), surgery and radiation therapy can adversely affect sexual, urinary and bowel function. Preliminary research has demonstrated the efficacy of exercise to preserve sexual function in men with localised prostate cancer receiving ADT, though this has yet to be investigated in a metastatic setting. We examined the effects of a 12-week exercise programme comprising resistance, aerobic and flexibility training on sexual health and function in men with advanced prostate cancer.

Methods: Patients with prostate cancer (70.0±8.4 year; body mass index 28.7±4.0 kg/m) with bone metastases (rib/thoracic spine, 66.7%; lumbar spine, 43.9%; pelvis, 75.4%; femur, 40.4%; humerus, 24.6%; other sites, 70.2%) were randomly assigned to supervised exercise 3 days/week (n=28) or usual care (n=29). Sexual health and function were assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function, the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite and the EORTC-PR25 at baseline and 12 weeks.

Results: Patients attended 89% of planned sessions and there were no adverse events. After adjusting for baseline values, there was no significant difference between groups for any measure of sexual function and activity (p>0.05). Additionally, there was no significant difference between groups for urinary and bowel function assessed by the EORTC-PR25 (p>0.05).

Conclusions: A short-term programme of supervised exercise does not appear to enhance indices of sexual health and function in men with advanced prostate cancer. Limitations of the intervention included the conservative modular exercise programme, which deliberately avoided loading bone metastatic sites.

Trial Registration Number: ACTRN12611001158954.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjspcare-2020-002706DOI Listing
December 2020

An Exploratory Study of the Relative Effects of Various Protective Factors on Depressive Symptoms Among Older People.

Front Public Health 2020 12;8:579304. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

The George Institute for Global Health: Australia, Newtown, NSW, Australia.

The present study investigated the relative importance of various factors found to be negatively associated with depressive symptoms in older adults and assessed the potential moderating effect of sociodemographic characteristics for each factor. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Psychological, social, and physical health measures relating to the following factors were also administered: personal growth, purpose in life, self-esteem, self-efficacy, social support, self-rated health, life satisfaction, and physical activity. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the most important factors associated with depressive symptoms, and moderation analyses were employed to identify any moderating effects of sociodemographic factors. Life satisfaction, self-esteem, and purpose in life were found to be negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Only one moderating effect was observed-the negative relationship between life satisfaction and depressive symptoms was significantly stronger among the younger respondents. These findings suggest that strategies for the prevention or amelioration of depressive symptoms across subgroups of the senior population could be optimized by focusing on enhancing life satisfaction, self-esteem, and purpose in life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.579304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7690559PMC
May 2021

Relationships Between Internal Training Load in a Taper With Elite Weightlifting Performance Calculated Using Different Moving Average Methods.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2020 Dec 4;16(3):342-352. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Purpose: A simple and 2 different exponentially weighted moving average methods were used to investigate the relationships between internal training load and elite weightlifting performance.

Methods: Training impulse data (sessional ratings of perceived exertion × training duration) were collected from 21 elite weightlifters (age = 26.0 [3.2] y, height = 162.2 [11.3] cm, body mass = 72.2 [23.8] kg, previous 12-mo personal best total 96.3% [2.7%] of world record total) during the 8 weeks prior to the 2016 Olympic Games qualifying competition. The amount of training modified or cancelled due to injury/illness was also collected. The training stress balance (TSB) and acute to chronic workload ratio (ACWR) were calculated with the 3 moving average methods. Along with the amount of modified training, TSB and ACWR across the moving average methods were then examined for their relationship to competitive performance.

Results: There were no consistent associations between performance and training load on the day of competition. The volatility (SD) of the ACWR in the last 21 days preceding the competition was moderately correlated with performance across moving average methods (r = -.41 to .48, P = .03-.07). TSB and ACWR volatility in the last 21 days were also significantly lower for successful performers but only as a simple moving average (P = .03 and .03, g = 1.15 and 1.07, respectively).

Conclusions: Practitioners should consider restricting change and volatility in an athlete's TSB or ACWR in the last 21 days prior to a major competition. In addition, a simple moving average seemed to better explain elite weightlifting performance than the exponentially weighted moving averages in this investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2020-0002DOI Listing
December 2020

What is the minimal dose for resistance exercise effectiveness in prostate cancer patients? Systematic review and meta-analysis on patient-reported outcomes.

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2021 Jun 20;24(2):465-481. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Exercise Medicine Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia.

Background: Active treatments for prostate cancer are well known to result in several adverse effects such as fatigue, depression and anxiety symptoms, impacting the overall quality of life (QoL) and wellbeing of a considerable proportion of patients. Resistance-based exercise interventions have shown positive effects to reduce or mitigate these treatment-related side effects. However, the minimal dosage required to derive these benefits is unknown. We systematically reviewed the resistance training effects in prostate cancer patients to determine the minimal dosage regarding the exercise components (mode, duration, volume and intensity) on fatigue, QoL, depression and anxiety.

Methods: Using PRISMA guidelines, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science databases were searched. Eligible randomised controlled trials examined prostate cancer patients undertaking resistance-based exercise programs during or following treatment. Meta-analysis was undertaken when more than three studies were included. Associations between resistance exercise components and its effects were tested by meta-regression analysis.

Results: Eighteen trials involving 1112 men with prostate cancer were included. Resistance-based exercise programs resulted in significant effects on fatigue (effect size = -0.3, 95% CI: -0.4 to -0.2, P < 0.001) and QoL (effect size = 0.2, 95% CI: 0.0 to 0.4, P = 0.018), with significant effects in specific questionnaires and domains of these outcomes. Resistance-based exercise effects on depression (effect size = -0.3, 95% CI: -0.7 to 0.0) and anxiety symptoms (effect size = -0.3, 95% CI: -0.5 to 0.0) were positive but not significant (P = 0.071 to 0.077). Meta-regression indicated no significant association between resistance exercise components with fatigue and QoL outcomes (P = 0.186-0.689).

Conclusions: Low volume resistance exercise undertaken at a moderate-to-high intensity is sufficient to achieve significant fatigue and QoL benefits for men with prostate cancer and also mitigate depression and anxiety symptoms. A lower resistance exercise dosage than usually prescribed may help enhance adherence by reducing exercise barriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41391-020-00301-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8134054PMC
June 2021