Publications by authors named "Robert Stanton"

204 Publications

Risk of intracerebral haemorrhage from hypertension is greatest at an early age.

Eur Stroke J 2021 Mar 8;6(1):28-35. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Neurology & Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Introduction: The risk of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) associated with hypertension (HTN) is well documented. While the prevalence of HTN increases with age, the greatest odds ratio (OR) for HTN as a risk for ischemic stroke is at an early age. We sought to evaluate if the risk for ICH from HTN was higher in the youngest patients of each race.

Patients And Methods: The Ethnic/Racial Variations of ICH (ERICH) study is a prospective multicenter case-control study of ICH among whites, blacks, and Hispanics. Participants were divided into age groups based on race-specific quartiles. Cases in each race/age group were compared to controls using logistic regression (i.e., cases and controls unmatched). The probability of ICH among cases and controls for each race were compared against independent variables of HTN, quartile of age and interaction of quartile and age also using logistic regression.

Results: Overall, 2033 non-lobar ICH cases and 2060 controls, and 913 lobar ICH cases with 927 controls were included. ORs were highest in the youngest age quartile for non-lobar haemorrhage for blacks and Hispanics and highest in the youngest quartile for lobar haemorrhage for all races. The formal test of interaction between age and HTN was significant in all races for all locations with the exception of lobar ICH in whites (p = 0.2935).

Discussion: Hypertension is a strong independent risk factor for ICH irrespective of location among persons of younger age, consistent with the hypothesis that first exposure to HTN is a particularly sensitive time for all locations of ICH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2396987321994296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7995317PMC
March 2021

Value in Scoliosis Surgery: Coordinated Surgical and Anesthetic Techniques Avoid Blood Transfusion Without Fibrinolytic Medications or Red Blood Cell Salvage.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nemours Childrens Hospital, Orlando, FL 32827 Department of Internal Medicine, UMass Memorial Medical Center, Worcester, MA 01655 Department of Anesthesiology, Nemours Children's Hospital, University of Central Florida School of Medicine, Orlando, Florida 32827.

Study Design: Retrospective chart review.

Objective: To document the impact of coordinated surgical and anesthetic techniques on estimated blood loss (EBL) and subsequent need for transfusion.

Summary Of Background Data: Scoliosis surgery is typically associated with large quantities of blood loss, and consequently blood transfusion may be necessary. Many strategies have been employed to minimize blood loss, including blood collection with reinfusion ("cell-saver") and the use of antifibrinolytic drugs. We reviewed our experience with methods to minimize blood loss to show that transfusion should be a rare event.

Methods: One hundred and thirty consecutive cases of spine fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis utilizing pedicle screw fixation were reviewed from March 2013 to October 2019. The senior author was the primary surgeon for all cases. Data were collected from the electronic medical record, including age, sex, weight, number of instrumented levels, EBL, total fluids administered during surgery, pre- and postoperative hemoglobin, and procedure duration.

Results: The average EBL was 232 ± 152 ml (range 37-740 ml). The average preoperative hemoglobin was 13.4 ± 1.2 g/dl and the average postoperative hemoglobin (last measured before discharge) was 9.0 ± 1.2 g/dl. One patient received a transfusion of 270 ml homologous blood. Blood salvage and reinfusion ("cell-saver") was not used. No patient was managed with antifibrinolytic drugs.

Conclusion: Minimizing blood loss using a combination of surgical and anesthesia techniques can effectively eliminate the need for blood transfusion. The elimination of costly adjuncts increases the value of a complex orthopedic procedure.Level of Evidence: 5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000004026DOI Listing
March 2021

Forgotten first responders: Australian surf lifesavers and lifeguards.

Emerg Med Australas 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Appleton Institute - Adelaide Campus, Central Queensland University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

First responders often face traumatic and emotionally-taxing incidents in their role. Understanding their mental health and coping capacity is important for wellbeing and continued service delivery. Surf lifesavers and lifeguards are an under researched yet a vital part of the first responder workforce. The recent Senate Report on first responders explored mental health in the leading emergency services personnel in Australia and found a high incidence of mental health difficulties in those who worked or volunteered as emergency responders. However, a significant literature gap exists regarding mental health of surf lifesavers and lifeguards in both the international and Australian context. Here we propose a strategy to address this gap, at the individual, organisational and community level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1742-6723.13754DOI Listing
March 2021

PFRED: A computational platform for siRNA and antisense oligonucleotides design.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(1):e0238753. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Simulation and Modeling Sciences, Pfizer, Cambridge, MA, United States of America.

PFRED a software application for the design, analysis, and visualization of antisense oligonucleotides and siRNA is described. The software provides an intuitive user-interface for scientists to design a library of siRNA or antisense oligonucleotides that target a specific gene of interest. Moreover, the tool facilitates the incorporation of various design criteria that have been shown to be important for stability and potency. PFRED has been made available as an open-source project so the code can be easily modified to address the future needs of the oligonucleotide research community. A compiled version is available for downloading at https://github.com/pfred/pfred-gui/releases/tag/v1.0 as a java Jar file. The source code and the links for downloading the precompiled version can be found at https://github.com/pfred.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0238753PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7822268PMC
January 2021

As the Pandemic Progresses, How Does Willingness to Vaccinate against COVID-19 Evolve?

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jan 19;18(2). Epub 2021 Jan 19.

School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Building 7, Central Queensland University, Bruce Highway, Rockhampton, QLD 4702, Australia.

Controversy around the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines may lead to low vaccination rates. Survey data were collected in April and August 2020 from a total of 2343 Australian adults. A quarter ( = 575, 24%) completed both surveys. A generalized linear mixed model analysis was conducted to determine whether willingness to vaccinate changed in the repeated sample, and a multinominal logistic regression was conducted in all participants to determine whether willingness to vaccinate was associated with demographics, chronic disease, or media use. Willingness to vaccinate slightly decreased between April (87%) and August (85%) but this was not significant. Willingness to vaccinate was lower in people with a certificate or diploma (79%) compared to those with a Bachelor degree (87%), < 0.01 and lower in infrequent users of traditional media (78%) compared to frequent users of traditional media (89%), < 0.001. Women were more likely to be unsure if they would be willing to vaccinate (10%) compared to men (7%), < 0.01. There were no associations between willingness to vaccinate and age, chronic disease, or social media use. Promotion of a COVID-19 vaccine should consider targeting women, and people with a certificate or diploma, via non-traditional media channels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020797DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7832839PMC
January 2021

Role of Glucose Metabolism and Mitochondrial Function in Diabetic Kidney Disease.

Authors:
Robert C Stanton

Curr Diab Rep 2021 Jan 15;21(2). Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Kidney and Hypertension Section, Joslin Diabetes Center; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Harvard Medical School; Joslin Diabetes Center, One Joslin Place, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) continues to be the primary cause of chronic kidney disease in the USA and around the world. The numbers of people with DKD also continue to rise despite current treatments. Certain newer hypoglycemic drugs offer a promise of slowing progression, but it remains to be seen how effective these will be over time. Thus, continued exploration of the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of DKD is essential in order to discover new treatments. Hyperglycemia is the main cause of the cellular damage seen in DKD. But, exactly how hyperglycemia leads to the activation of processes that are ultimately deleterious is incompletely understood.

Recent Findings: Studies primarily over the past 10 years have provided novel insights into the interplay of hyperglycemia, glucose metabolic pathways, mitochondrial function, and the potential importance of what has been called the Warburg effect on the development and progression of DKD. This review will provide a brief overview of glucose metabolism and the hypotheses concerning the pathogenesis of DKD and then discuss in more detail the supporting data that indicate a role for the interplay of glucose metabolic pathways and mitochondrial function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-020-01372-2DOI Listing
January 2021

The Effect of Game-Related Contextual Factors on Sleep in Basketball Players.

J Strength Cond Res 2020 Dec 16;Publish Ahead of Print. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

School of Health, Medical, and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia; Human Exercise and Training Laboratory, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia; and Appleton Institute for Behavioural Science, Central Queensland University, Wayville, South Australia, Australia.

Abstract: Fox, JL, Scanlan, AT, Stanton, R, and Sargent, C. The effect of game-related contextual factors on sleep in basketball players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-The purpose of this study was to determine whether contextual factors including game location, game outcome, and score-line margin influence subsequent nightly sleep duration and quality in basketball players. Seven semiprofessional, male basketball players were monitored across one competitive season using self-reported sleep diaries and activity monitors. Linear mixed models and effect sizes (ESs) were used to compare sleep duration and quality following games based on game location (played at home or away venues), game outcome (win or loss), and score-line margin (balanced [≤ 8-point margin] or unbalanced [≥ 9-point margin]). Sleep onset was later following away games (ES = 0.79 ± 0.86 [moderate], p = 0.12), losses (ES = 0.63 ± 0.79 [moderate], p = 0.18), and unbalanced games (ES = 1.36 ± 0.90 [large], p = 0.01). Wake time was later following losses (ES = 1.14 ± 0.85 [moderate], p = 0.02). Sleep fragmentation was higher following wins (ES = 0.65 ± 0.74 [moderate], p = 0.17). Sleep efficiency was higher following losses (ES = 0.70 ± 0.80 [moderate], p = 0.14). All other differences in sleep variables yielded trivial-small ESs (p > 0.05). Because of the later sleep onset times of players, basketball practitioners should consider avoiding early morning travel or training sessions following away games, losses, and unbalanced games, to maintain similar nightly sleep durations in light of the contextual factors encountered. Basketball practitioners may also need to ensure player sleep is optimized following wins compared with losses given the lower quality observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003943DOI Listing
December 2020

The Association Between Sleep and In-Game Performance in Basketball Players.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2020 Dec 4;16(3):333-341. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Purpose: To investigate the associations between sleep and competitive performance in basketball.

Methods: A total of 7 semiprofessional, male players were monitored across the in-season. On nights prior to competition, sleep duration and quality were assessed using actigraphs and sleep diaries. The data were accumulated over 1 (night 1), 2 (nights 1-2 combined), 3 (nights 1-3 combined), and 4 (nights 1-4 combined) nights prior to competition. Performance was reported as player statistics (field goal and free-throw accuracy, rebounds, assists, steals, blocks, and turnovers) and composite performance statistics (offensive rating, defensive rating, and player efficiency). Linear regression analyses with cluster-robust standard errors using bootstrapping (1000 replications) were performed to quantify the association between sleep and performance.

Results: The night before competition, subjective sleep quality was positively associated with offensive rating and player efficiency (P < .05).

Conclusions: Strategies to increase subjective sleep quality the night before competition should be considered to increase the likelihood of successful in-game performance, given its association with composite performance metrics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2020-0025DOI Listing
December 2020

Ultrafast Removal of Phosphate from Eutrophic Waters Using a Cerium-Based Metal-Organic Framework.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Nov 16;12(47):52788-52796. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, New York 13699, United States.

Phosphate removal has become a critical need to mitigate the negative effect of water eutrophication, which is responsible for the overgrowth of toxic algal blooms and the significant ecological harm generated to aquatic ecosystems. However, some of the currently available adsorbents have low removal capacity and function optimally at specific pH ranges. Here, we present an example of a cerium-based metal-organic framework (MOF) as a high-capacity sorbent for phosphate removal from eutrophic waters. Specifically, a Ce(IV)-based UiO-66 analogue, Ce 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate (Ce-BDC), was selected due to its water stability, high surface area, microporous structure, and the high binding affinity of phosphate with its open metal sites. Mechanistic studies supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate the formation of a Ce-O-P bond through ion exchange between the terminal (nonbridging) hydroxyl groups at the missing linker sites and the phosphate adducts. Experimental results demonstrate that Ce-BDC is highly selective for phosphates over other common anions (Cl, Br, I, NO, HCO, SO) and stable in a broad pH range of (2-12), covering the relevant range for the treatment of contaminants in aquatic systems. The sorbent shows a fast removal rate, capturing significant amounts of phosphate within 4 min with a maximum adsorption capacity of 179 mg·g, outperforming other porous materials. These results show a remarkable adsorption capacity and fast kinetics compared with the current state-of-the-art crystalline porous materials. This study may advance the design of new microporous materials with high adsorption capabilities, good stability, and make a significant contribution to the development of future generation technology to mitigate the negative effects of water eutrophication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c16477DOI Listing
November 2020

Losing Sleep Over It: Sleep in Basketball Players Affected by Game But Not Training Workloads.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2020 Aug 18:1-8. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Purpose: To examine the impact of workload volume during training sessions and games on subsequent sleep duration and sleep quality in basketball players.

Methods: Seven semiprofessional male basketball players were monitored across preseason and in-season phases to determine training session and game workloads, sleep duration, and sleep quality. Training and game data were collected via accelerometers, heart-rate monitors, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and reported as PlayerLoad™ (PL), summated heart-rate zones, and session RPE (sRPE). Sleep duration and sleep quality were measured using wrist-worn activity monitors in conjunction with self-report sleep diaries. For daily training sessions and games, all workload data were independently sorted into tertiles representing low, medium, and high workload volumes. Sleep measures following low, medium, and high workloads and control nights (no training/games) were compared using linear mixed models.

Results: Sleep onset time was significantly later following medium and high PL and sRPE game workloads compared with control nights (P < .05). Sleep onset time was significantly later following low, medium, and high summated heart-rate-zones game workloads, compared with control nights (P < .05). Time in bed and sleep duration were significantly shorter following high PL and sRPE game workloads compared with control nights (P < .05). Following low, medium, and high training workloads, sleep duration and quality were similar to control nights (P > .05).

Conclusions: Following high PL and sRPE game workloads, basketball practitioners should consider strategies that facilitate longer time in bed, such as napping and/or adjusting travel or training schedules the following day.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2019-0676DOI Listing
August 2020

Effect of COVID-19 on Emergent Stroke Care: A Regional Experience.

Stroke 2020 09 8;51(9):e2111-e2114. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Neurology (J.H., E.S., E.A., R. J. S., J.P.B., S. L. D., M.L.F., A. W. G., P.S., P.K.), University of Cincinnati, OH.

Background And Purpose: Anecdotal evidence suggests that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic mitigation efforts may inadvertently discourage patients from seeking treatment for stroke with resultant increased morbidity and mortality. Analysis of regional data, while hospital capacities for acute stroke care remained fully available, offers an opportunity to assess this. We report regional Stroke Team acute activations and reperfusion treatments during COVID-19 mitigation activities.

Methods: Using case log data prospectively collected by a Stroke Team exclusively serving ≈2 million inhabitants and 30 healthcare facilities, we retrospectively reviewed volumes of consultations and reperfusion treatments for acute ischemic stroke. We compared volumes before and after announcements of COVID-19 mitigation measures and the prior calendar year.

Results: Compared with the 10 weeks prior, stroke consultations declined by 39% (95% CI, 32%-46%) in the 5 weeks after announcement of statewide school and restaurant closures in Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana. Results compared with the prior year and time trend analyses were consistent. Reperfusion treatments also appeared to decline by 31% (95% CI, 3%-51%), and specifically thrombolysis by 33% (95% CI, 4%-55%), but this finding had less precision.

Conclusions: Upon the announcement of measures to mitigate COVID-19, regional acute stroke consultations declined significantly. Reperfusion treatment rates, particularly thrombolysis, also appeared to decline qualitatively, and this finding requires further study. Urgent public education is necessary to mitigate a possible crisis of avoiding essential emergency care due to COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.030499DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7359904PMC
September 2020

Routine circumcision? The role of prepuce in syndactyly repair.

J Pediatr Urol 2020 Aug 14;16(4):497-499. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

Division of Pediatric Urology, Nemours Children's Hospital, Orlando, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Circumcisions are among the most commonly performed procedures in the pediatric population, but the value of the preputial skin often goes unrecognized as a potential graft (Ehrlichman et al., 2018). We highlight three patients who underwent coordinated circumcision and use of the excised preputial skin as a graft for syndactyly repair. Syndactyly, a condition where fingers are fused together, is often repaired utilizing skin from the groin region, which can result in unwanted hair growth and subcutaneous fat growth. The utilization of the prepuce is a convenient alternative that may have fewer undesirable qualities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2020.06.006DOI Listing
August 2020

"If they can do it, I can do it": experiences of older women who engage in powerlifting training.

J Women Aging 2020 Jun 21:1-11. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, CQUniversity , Rockhampton, Australia.

Older adults' participation in resistance training is low. Recent research suggests social aspects are important determinants of exercise engagement. In this study, 13 older women (50 years and older) were interviewed to examine their experiences of powerlifting training. Data were thematically analyzed revealing two main themes: Challenging Beliefs and Positive Social Influences. Peer advocates were essential for uptake, with social interactions in group resistance training, and having a skilled trainer, identified as important adherence factors. Strategies to improve resistance training uptake in older women could leverage off the experience of others and powerlifting training culture and practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08952841.2020.1782159DOI Listing
June 2020

Therapeutic tape use for lateral elbow tendinopathy: A survey of Australian healthcare practitioners.

Musculoskelet Sci Pract 2020 08 30;48:102160. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, QLD, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET) is a common musculoskeletal condition that can be treated with therapeutic tape. However, little is known of taping practices for LET in a clinical setting.

Objectives: To examine Australian healthcare practitioners' taping techniques, clinical reasoning, and information sources regarding therapeutic tape use for LET.

Design: Cross-sectional survey.

Methods: An anonymous online survey was distributed between September 2018 and February 2019. Respondents answered questions about demographics, frequency of tape use, techniques, reasons for application, factors influencing clinical decision-making, and information sources, related to tape for LET.

Results/findings: 188 Australian healthcare practitioners completed the survey. The majority of respondents were physiotherapists (n = 132, 70%) with the remainder of respondents being chiropractors (21%), myotherapists (3%), exercise physiologists (3%), or osteopaths (3%). 51% of respondents use tape as part of their management for LET at least half the time. The most popular taping technique used is a transverse band of rigid tape across the forearm (n = 78, 55% of respondents who use tape). The most common reasons for tape application are to reduce pain during occupational tasks (n = 123, 65%), and during sport/hobbies (n = 101, 54%). Respondents predominately rely on experience and patient preference to guide tape use. 63% of all respondents (n = 118) sought information about tape from professional development courses.

Conclusion: A wide range of tape techniques are used to treat LET, despite limited evidence for efficacy. Justification for tape is largely based on experience and patient preference; with information mostly gained from professional development courses. More research is required to understand the relationship between the evidence and clinical use of tape to treat LET.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msksp.2020.102160DOI Listing
August 2020

Depression, Anxiety and Stress during COVID-19: Associations with Changes in Physical Activity, Sleep, Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Australian Adults.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Jun 7;17(11). Epub 2020 Jun 7.

School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Bruce Highway, Rockhampton, Queensland 4702, Australia.

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has enforced dramatic changes to daily living including economic and health impacts. Evidence for the impact of these changes on our physical and mental health and health behaviors is limited. We examined the associations between psychological distress and changes in selected health behaviors since the onset of COVID-19 in Australia. An online survey was distributed in April 2020 and included measures of depression, anxiety, stress, physical activity, sleep, alcohol intake and cigarette smoking. The survey was completed by 1491 adults (mean age 50.5 ± 14.9 years, 67% female). Negative change was reported for physical activity (48.9%), sleep (40.7%), alcohol (26.6%) and smoking (6.9%) since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Significantly higher scores in one or more psychological distress states were found for females, and those not in a relationship, in the lowest income category, aged 18-45 years, or with a chronic illness. Negative changes in physical activity, sleep, smoking and alcohol intake were associated with higher depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. Health-promotion strategies directed at adopting or maintaining positive health-related behaviors should be utilized to address increases in psychological distress during the pandemic. Ongoing evaluation of the impact of lifestyle changes associated with the pandemic is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7312903PMC
June 2020

Redefining mental healthcare: going multidisciplinary to manage multimorbidity.

Br J Sports Med 2021 Jan 28;55(1):7-8. Epub 2020 May 28.

NICM Health Research Institute, Western Sydney University, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2019-101691DOI Listing
January 2021

Misuse of RPKM or TPM normalization when comparing across samples and sequencing protocols.

RNA 2020 08 13;26(8):903-909. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Integrative Biology Center of Excellence, Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.

In recent years, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) has emerged as a powerful technology for transcriptome profiling. For a given gene, the number of mapped reads is not only dependent on its expression level and gene length, but also the sequencing depth. To normalize these dependencies, RPKM (reads per kilobase of transcript per million reads mapped) and TPM (transcripts per million) are used to measure gene or transcript expression levels. A common misconception is that RPKM and TPM values are already normalized, and thus should be comparable across samples or RNA-seq projects. However, RPKM and TPM represent the relative abundance of a transcript among a population of sequenced transcripts, and therefore depend on the composition of the RNA population in a sample. Quite often, it is reasonable to assume that total RNA concentration and distributions are very close across compared samples. Nevertheless, the sequenced RNA repertoires may differ significantly under different experimental conditions and/or across sequencing protocols; thus, the proportion of gene expression is not directly comparable in such cases. In this review, we illustrate typical scenarios in which RPKM and TPM are misused, unintentionally, and hope to raise scientists' awareness of this issue when comparing them across samples or different sequencing protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1261/rna.074922.120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7373998PMC
August 2020

The RESOLUTE consortium: unlocking SLC transporters for drug discovery.

Authors:
Giulio Superti-Furga Daniel Lackner Tabea Wiedmer Alvaro Ingles-Prieto Barbara Barbosa Enrico Girardi Ulrich Goldmann Bettina Gürtl Kristaps Klavins Christoph Klimek Sabrina Lindinger Eva Liñeiro-Retes André C Müller Svenja Onstein Gregor Redinger Daniela Reil Vitaly Sedlyarov Gernot Wolf Matthew Crawford Robert Everley David Hepworth Shenping Liu Stephen Noell Mary Piotrowski Robert Stanton Hui Zhang Salvatore Corallino Andrea Faedo Maria Insidioso Giovanna Maresca Loredana Redaelli Francesca Sassone Lia Scarabottolo Michela Stucchi Paola Tarroni Sara Tremolada Helena Batoulis Andreas Becker Eckhard Bender Yung-Ning Chang Alexander Ehrmann Anke Müller-Fahrnow Vera Pütter Diana Zindel Bradford Hamilton Martin Lenter Diana Santacruz Coralie Viollet Charles Whitehurst Kai Johnsson Philipp Leippe Birgit Baumgarten Lena Chang Yvonne Ibig Martin Pfeifer Jürgen Reinhardt Julian Schönbett Paul Selzer Klaus Seuwen Charles Bettembourg Bruno Biton Jörg Czech Hélène de Foucauld Michel Didier Thomas Licher Vincent Mikol Antje Pommereau Frédéric Puech Veeranagouda Yaligara Aled Edwards Brandon J Bongers Laura H Heitman Ad P IJzerman Huub J Sijben Gerard J P van Westen Justine Grixti Douglas B Kell Farah Mughal Neil Swainston Marina Wright-Muelas Tina Bohstedt Nicola Burgess-Brown Liz Carpenter Katharina Dürr Jesper Hansen Andreea Scacioc Giulia Banci Claire Colas Daniela Digles Gerhard Ecker Barbara Füzi Viktoria Gamsjäger Melanie Grandits Riccardo Martini Florentina Troger Patrick Altermatt Cédric Doucerain Franz Dürrenberger Vania Manolova Anna-Lena Steck Hanna Sundström Maria Wilhelm Claire M Steppan

Nat Rev Drug Discov 2020 07;19(7):429-430

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41573-020-00056-6DOI Listing
July 2020

Exercise prescription for people with mental illness: an evaluation of mental health professionals' knowledge, beliefs, barriers, and behaviors.

Braz J Psychiatry 2020 21;42(3):271-277. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Saúde e Desenvolvimento Humano, Centro Universitário La Salle, Canoas, RS, Brazil.

Objective: The aim of this study was to understand the knowledge, beliefs, barriers, and behaviors of mental health professionals about physical activity and exercise for people with mental illness.

Methods: The Portuguese version of The Exercise in Mental Illness Questionnaire was used to assess knowledge, beliefs, barriers, and behaviors about exercise prescription for people with mental illness in a sample of 73 mental health professionals (68.5% women, mean age = 37.0 years) from 10 Psychosocial Care Units (Centros de Atenção Psicossocial) in Porto Alegre and Canoas, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Results: Most of respondents had received no formal training in exercise prescription. Exercise ranked fifth as the most important treatment, and most of the sample never or occasionally prescribed exercise. The most frequently reported barriers were lack of training in physical activity and exercise prescription and social stigma related to mental illness. Professionals who themselves met recommended physical activity levels found fewer barriers to prescribing physical activity and did so with greater frequency.

Conclusion: Exercise is underrated and underused as a treatment. It is necessary to include physical activity and exercise training in mental health curricula. Physically active professionals are more likely to prescribe exercise and are less likely to encounter barriers to doing so. Interventions to increase physical activity levels among mental health professionals are necessary to decrease barriers to and increase the prescription of physical activity and exercise for mental health patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2019-0547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236166PMC
June 2020

White Matter Lesion Severity is Associated with Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 May 28;29(5):104661. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

University of Cincinnati, Department of Neurology, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Background: Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and white matter lesion (WML) severity are associated with higher rates of death and disability in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). A prior report identified an increased risk of IVH with greater WML burden but did not control for location of ICH. We sought to determine whether a higher degree of WML is associated with a higher risk of IVH after controlling for ICH location.

Methods: Utilizing the patient population from 2 large ICH studies; the Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Hemorrhagic Stroke (GERFHS III) Study and the Ethnic/Racial Variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage study, we graded WML using the Van Swieten Scale (0-1 for mild, 2 for moderate, and 3-4 for severe WML) and presence or absence of IVH in baseline CT scans. We used multivariable regression models to adjust for relevant covariates.

Results: Among 3023 ICH patients, 1260 (41.7%) had presence of IVH. In patients with IVH, the proportion of severe WML (28.6%) was higher compared with patients without IVH (21.8%) (P < .0001). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that moderate-severe WML, deep ICH, and increasing ICH volume were independently associated with presence of IVH. We found an increased risk of IVH with moderate-severe WML (OR = 1.38; 95%Cl 1.03-1.86, P = .0328) in the subset of lobar hemorrhages.

Conclusions: Moderate to severe WML is a risk for IVH. Even in lobar ICH hemorrhages, severe WML leads to an independent increased risk for ventricular rupture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.104661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7170749PMC
May 2020

A Structured E-Investigation Into the Prevalence and Acceptance of Smartphone Applications by Exercise Professionals.

J Strength Cond Res 2020 May;34(5):1330-1339

School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia.

Bromilow, L, Stanton, R, and Humphries, B. A structured e-investigation into the prevalence and acceptance of smartphone applications by exercise professionals. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1330-1339, 2020-The primary purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and acceptance of smartphone applications by exercise professionals when interacting with clients and patients. A 29-item anonymous online survey was designed, containing separate sections on demographics, smartphone proficiency, benefits and barriers to using smartphones, and use of smartphones in a professional setting. Accredited members of the Australian Strength and Conditioning Association, and Exercise and Sports Science Australia received an information sheet through organizational communication channels, inviting them to participate. Two hundred forty-nine exercise professionals completed the survey, with men (71%; n = 176) accounting for most of the respondents. Proficiency using smartphone applications is predominantly-advanced (37%; n = 92), intermediate (33%; n = 82), or expert (14%; n = 35). Identified strategies to find smartphone applications included personal searches (67%; n = 167) and colleague recommendations (55%; n = 137). Reported benefits include fast access to information (67%; n = 167), saves time for record keeping (56%; n = 141), and allows performance tracking (55%; n = 138). Almost all respondents (92%; n = 229) identified barriers, such as inexperience with using particular applications (42%; n = 105). Almost all respondents (96%; n = 239) reported they would recommend smartphone applications to clients and patients, primarily for self-tracking (53%; n = 132). Smartphone use among exercise professionals is prevalent; however, application and sensor technology are reluctantly underused. Increasing acceptance requires embedding within educational curricula, recognition from professional organizations, and collaboration with, to maximize the potential capabilities of smartphone technology within working environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003301DOI Listing
May 2020

Ischemic Stroke and Bleeding: Clinical Benefit of Anticoagulation in Atrial Fibrillation After Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

Stroke 2020 03 31;51(3):808-814. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

From the Department of Neurology and Rehabilitation Medicine (R.J.S., D.W., C.J.M., M.H., M.L.F., D.O.K.), University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH.

Background and Purpose- Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and atrial fibrillation (AF) are at risk for ischemic events. While risk calculators (CHADS-VASc and HAS-BLED) have been validated to assess risk for ischemic stroke and major bleeding in AF patients, decisions about anticoagulation must consider the net clinical benefit of anticoagulation. Furthermore, stroke and bleeding risk are highly correlated, making decisions more difficult. Methods- We examined patients in the GERFHS III study (Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Hemorrhagic Stroke)-a population-based retrospective study of spontaneous ICH patients without a structural or traumatic cause in the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky region between July 2008 and December 2012. CHADS-VASc and HAS-B(L)ED (minus L because labile international normalized ratio was unavailable) scores were calculated for ICH patients with AF. Using a Markov state transition model, we estimated net clinical benefit of anticoagulation relative to no treatment in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). We defined minimal clinically relevant benefit as 0.1 QALYs. Results- Among 1186 cases of spontaneous ICH, 95 cases had AF and met our survival criteria. Within 1 year, 8 of 95 (8%) would be expected to have a major bleeding event on anticoagulation, and 5 of 95 (5%) of patients would be expected to have an ischemic stroke off anticoagulation. Sixty-eight of 95 (71%) patients would have higher risk for major bleeding than for ischemic stroke. Anticoagulation with directly acting anticoagulants would result in no clinically significant gain or loss in 73%. Roughly 12% would gain >0.1 QALYs, and 15% would lose >0.1 QALYs. Among patients receiving aspirin, most have no significant net clinical benefit or loss. Overall, anticoagulation of the entire cohort would result in an aggregate loss of 0.92 QALYs. Conclusions- Our analysis suggests that universal anticoagulation after ICH would be associated with a net loss of QALY. Additional factors should be considered before anticoagulating patients with AF after ICH. Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00930280.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.027370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7112469PMC
March 2020

3'Pool-seq: an optimized cost-efficient and scalable method of whole-transcriptome gene expression profiling.

BMC Genomics 2020 Jan 20;21(1):64. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Computational Sciences, Medicinal Sciences, Pfizer, Inc., Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.

Background: The advent of Next Generation Sequencing has allowed transcriptomes to be profiled with unprecedented accuracy, but the high costs of full-length mRNA sequencing have posed a limit on the accessibility and scalability of the technology. To address this, we developed 3'Pool-seq: a simple, cost-effective, and scalable RNA-seq method that focuses sequencing to the 3'-end of mRNA. We drew from aspects of SMART-seq, Drop-seq, and TruSeq to implement an easy workflow, and optimized parameters such as input RNA concentrations, tagmentation conditions, and read depth specifically for bulk-RNA.

Results: Thorough optimization resulted in a protocol that takes less than 12 h to perform, does not require custom sequencing primers or instrumentation, and cuts over 90% of the costs associated with TruSeq, while still achieving accurate gene expression quantification (Pearson's correlation coefficient with ERCC theoretical concentration r = 0.96) and differential gene detection (ROC analysis of 3'Pool-seq compared to TruSeq AUC = 0.921). The 3'Pool-seq dual indexing scheme was further adapted for a 96-well plate format, and ERCC spike-ins were used to correct for potential row or column pooling effects. Transcriptional profiling of troglitazone and pioglitazone treatments at multiple doses and time points in HepG2 cells was then used to show how 3'Pool-seq could distinguish the two molecules based on their molecular signatures.

Conclusions: 3'Pool-seq can accurately detect gene expression at a level that is on par with TruSeq, at one tenth of the total cost. Furthermore, its unprecedented TruSeq/Nextera hybrid indexing scheme and streamlined workflow can be applied in several different formats, including 96-well plates, which allows users to thoroughly evaluate biological systems under several conditions and timepoints. Care must be taken regarding experimental design and plate layout such that potential pooling effects can be accounted for and corrected. Lastly, further studies using multiple sets of ERCC spike-ins may be used to simulate differential gene expression in a system with known ground-state values.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-6478-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6971924PMC
January 2020

Correction to: Best practice management guidelines for fibrous dysplasia/McCune-Albright syndrome: a consensus statement from the FD/MAS international consortium.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2019 Nov 21;14(1):267. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Skeletal Disorders and Mineral Homeostasis Section, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, Bethesda, MD, USA.

The original version of this article [1] unfortunately included an error to an author's name. Paul Arundel was inadvertently presented as Paul Arunde.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-019-1255-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6868680PMC
November 2019

Temporal trends in exercise physiology services in Australia-Implications for rural and remote service provision.

Aust J Rural Health 2019 Dec 11;27(6):514-519. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Objective: To assess temporal trends in service provision by Accredited Exercise Physiologists based on remoteness classification using Australian Bureau of Statistics remoteness classifications of Major Cities, Inner Regional, Outer Regional, Remote and Very Remote.

Design And Participants: Cross-sectional analysis of publicly available Medicare Benefits Schedule datasets, for Medicare item number 10953 from 2012-2013 to 2016-2017.

Main Outcome Measure(s): Number of claims, benefits paid, fees charges and number of providers for Medicare item number 10953.

Results: Accredited Exercise Physiologist service delivery demonstrates growth across all areas of remoteness classification. Rebates and fees mirror service delivery trends. The rate of service growth was significantly greater in Major Cities compared with all other remoteness classifications. Provider numbers show a steady increase from 2012-2013 to 2016-2017 but number remains higher in Major Cities compared with all other remoteness locations.

Conclusion: Given the high proportion of chronic and complex illness in rural and remote areas, and the limited access to allied health care services, we propose more needs to be done to position Accredited Exercise Physiologists in these regions of increasing need. These findings have implications for future development of the Accredited Exercise Physiologist profession.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajr.12563DOI Listing
December 2019

Designing DNA Encoded Libraries of Diverse Products in a Focused Property Space.

J Chem Inf Model 2019 11 14;59(11):4645-4653. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

DNA encoded libraries (DEL) are being used as a complement or alternative to traditional high throughput screening (HTS). To maximize the chances of finding chemically attractive lead material that is appropriate for medicinal chemistry optimization, for example, in the Rule of Five compliant chemistry space, it is important to design DEL library compounds such that they are highly diverse and fall within a desired property space. Currently available library design methods can be classified as either monomer-based or product-based. As monomers may undergo significant structural changes when participating in a reaction, monomer based design can provide a poor representation of the properties of resultant DEL products. However, product-based design introduces a technical obstacle due to the enormous chemical design space for many DELs. Here a new method for monomer based selections is described using representative sublibraries as surrogates for fully enumerated DEL property-based optimization. Through a series of rational and systematic library enumerations and property calculations, building-block representatives are identified and representative sublibraries are defined to drive the optimization process. A published data set for a triazine library was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the multiple objective optimization for six properties. All of the evaluated properties for the designed library are shown to consistently shift toward the desired property distribution as driven by the design criteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jcim.9b00729DOI Listing
November 2019

Insufficient Sleep in Young Athletes? Causes, Consequences, and Potential Treatments.

Sports Med 2020 Mar;50(3):461-470

Appleton Institute for Behavioural Science, Central Queensland University, Wayville, SA, Australia.

Sleep is essential in the preparation for, and the recovery from, training and competition. Despite being important for all individuals, young athletes are considered an at-risk group for reduced sleep duration and quality. The purpose of this review is to synthesise current literature relating to sleep duration and quality in young (14-25 years) athletes. Specifically, typical sleep and wake patterns, factors affecting sleep and wake patterns, and the consequences of altered sleep and wake patterns in young athletes are discussed. Scheduling training and competition in the afternoon or evening appears to result in reduced sleep duration due to less time in bed. Evidence suggests that young athletes who obtain less than 8 h of sleep per night are at a higher risk of musculoskeletal injury. An increase in sleep duration above habitual nightly sleep may be associated with favourable performance in young athletes; however, the associations between sleep quality and performance- and health-related outcomes remain unclear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40279-019-01220-8DOI Listing
March 2020

Helping People With Parkinson Disease Build Exercise Self-Efficacy.

Phys Ther 2020 02;100(2):205-208

School of Health, Medical, and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ptj/pzz160DOI Listing
February 2020

A quantitative assessment of the views of mental health professionals on exercise for people with mental illness: perspectives from a low-resource setting.

Afr Health Sci 2019 Jun;19(2):2172-2182

Butabika National Referral Mental Hospital, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Exercise is nowadays considered as an evidence-based treatment modality in people with mental illness. Nurses and occupational therapists working in low-resourced mental health settings are well-placed to provide exercise advice for people with mental illness.

Objectives: We examined the current exercise prescription practices employed by Ugandan health care professionals when working with people with mental illness, and identified perceived barriers to exercise prescription and exercise participation for people with mental illness.

Methods: In this study, 31 Ugandan health care professionals 20 men; 31.2 ± 7.1 years completed the Exercise in Mental Illness Questionnaire- Health Professionals Version EMIQ-HP.

Results: The vast majority of the respondents 29/31, 94% reported they prescribed exercise at least "occasionally" to people with mental illness. Exercise-prescription parameters used were consistent with those recommended for people with mental illness. Regarding barriers to exercise participation, coping with side effects of psychotropic medication at the individual level and reducing stigma at community level should be prioritized.

Conclusion: A health care reform to enable collaboration with exercise professionals, such as exercise physiologists or physiotherapists, might increase exercise uptake for people with mental illness, thereby improving health outcomes for this vulnerable population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v19i2.42DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6794511PMC
June 2019

Supporting better mental health services for rural Australians: Secondary analysis from the Australian National Social Survey.

Aust J Rural Health 2020 Apr 17;28(2):122-123. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajr.12551DOI Listing
April 2020