Publications by authors named "Robert O"

44 Publications

A wheat cysteine-rich receptor-like kinase confers broad-spectrum resistance against Septoria tritici blotch.

Nat Commun 2021 01 19;12(1):433. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Université Clermont Auvergne, INRAE, GDEC, 63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

The poverty of disease resistance gene reservoirs limits the breeding of crops for durable resistance against evolutionary dynamic pathogens. Zymoseptoria tritici which causes Septoria tritici blotch (STB), represents one of the most genetically diverse and devastating wheat pathogens worldwide. No fully virulent Z. tritici isolates against synthetic wheats carrying the major resistant gene Stb16q have been identified. Here, we use comparative genomics, mutagenesis and complementation to identify Stb16q, which confers broad-spectrum resistance against Z. tritici. The Stb16q gene encodes a plasma membrane cysteine-rich receptor-like kinase that was recently introduced into cultivated wheat and which considerably slows penetration and intercellular growth of the pathogen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20685-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7815785PMC
January 2021

A two kilograms euthyroid goiter in Singida Regional Referral Hospital, Central Tanzania: Case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2020 4;77:430-433. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Singida Regional Referral Hospital, Tanzania; Surgery Department, Tanzania; Radiology Department, Tanzania.

Introduction: Multinodular goiter (MNG) is a clinic pathological entity characterized by an increased volume of the thyroid gland with formation of nodules. Goiter is defined as a thyroid gland weighing over 20-25 g or with a volume of over 19 ml in women and 25 ml in men. In developed countries where iodination of food is common and health services are available and accessible, hardly will you see a goiter of up to 0.2 kg while in areas where poverty is high and health services not available, there identification of goiter of up to 4 kg. Therefore each member of theatre team must be competent and experienced to anticipate any complications which may occur during thyroidectomy of such huge goiter. Awareness on the operation of such huge multinodular goiter is the sincere aim of this work due to the fact that these are rare findings in today's surgical clinics.

Presentation Of Case: A 35 M.O.S years old female presented with complain of swelling of the anterior neck for 10 years. Laboratory and radiological investigations reveals nontoxic multinodular goiter with no suspicion of malignance. After successful thyroidectomy, a 2 kg multinodular goiter was removed and taken for histological diagnosis. Post-operative care was uneventful and patient discharged day five post-operative. No complication observed during follow up.

Discussion: The case report presented a patient with huge goiter of 2 kg, which was not compressing the trachea. After physical examination, radiological imaging and laboratory investigation of thyroid hormones confirm as nontoxic goiter. The subtotal thyroidectomy was successful and after follow up of 60 days there was no complication reported.

Conclusions: Currently, hardly will you find goiter weighing a kg and thus skills for thyroidectomy in such case is hardly available. Special complications like trachealmalacia and difficult intubation which need one to be aware of fiber optic intubation and be prepared for tracheostomy require experienced operating team.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2020.11.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691674PMC
November 2020

QTL mapping and successful introgression of the spring wheat-derived QTL Fhb1 for Fusarium head blight resistance in three European triticale populations.

Theor Appl Genet 2020 Feb 20;133(2):457-477. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Department of Agrobiotechnology, IFA-Tulln, Institute of Biotechnology in Plant Production, BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Konrad Lorenz Str. 20, 3430, Tulln, Austria.

Key Message: The spring wheat-derived QTL Fhb1 was successfully introgressed into triticale and resulted in significantly improved FHB resistance in the three triticale mapping populations. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a major problem in cereal production particularly because of mycotoxin contaminations. Here we characterized the resistance to FHB in triticale breeding material harboring resistance factors from bread wheat. A highly FHB-resistant experimental line which derives from a triticale × wheat cross was crossed to several modern triticale cultivars. Three populations of recombinant inbred lines were generated and evaluated in field experiments for FHB resistance using spray inoculations during four seasons and were genotyped with genotyping-by-sequencing and SSR markers. FHB severity was assessed in the field by visual scorings and on the harvested grain samples using digital picture analysis for quantifying the whitened kernel surface (WKS). Four QTLs with major effects on FHB resistance were identified, mapping to chromosomes 2B, 3B, 5R, and 7A. Those QTLs were detectable with both Fusarium severity traits. Measuring of WKS allows easy and fast grain symptom quantification and appears as an effective scoring tool for FHB resistance. The QTL on 3B collocated with Fhb1, and the QTL on 5R with the dwarfing gene Ddw1. This is the first report demonstrating the successful introgression of Fhb1 into triticale. It comprises a significant step forward for enhancing FHB resistance in this crop.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-019-03476-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6985197PMC
February 2020

Overexpression of GILZ in macrophages limits systemic inflammation while increasing bacterial clearance in sepsis in mice.

Eur J Immunol 2020 04 16;50(4):589-602. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Faculty of Medicine, Univ. Paris Est Créteil, Créteil, France.

Studies support the beneficial effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) during septic shock, steering research toward the potential role of GC-induced proteins in controlling excessive inflammatory responses. GILZ is a glucocorticoid-induced protein involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of GCs. We investigated whether the overexpression of GILZ specifically limited to monocytes and macrophages (M/M) alone could control inflammation, thus improving the outcome of septic shock in animal models. We also monitored the expression of GILZ in M/M from septic mice and septic-shock patients. M/M from patients and septic mice displayed significantly lower expression of GILZ than those isolated from controls. Furthermore, transgenic mice (Tg-mice) experiencing sepsis, with increased expression of GILZ restricted to M/M, showed lower frequencies of inflammatory monocytes than their littermates and lower plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines. Tg-mice also had lower blood bacterial counts. We further established that the upregulation of GILZ in M/M enhanced their phagocytic capacity in in vivo assays. The increase of GILZ in M/M was also sufficient to improve the survival rates of septic mice. These results provide evidence for a central role of both GILZ and M/M in the pathophysiology of septic shock and a possible clue for the modulation of inflammation in this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.201948278DOI Listing
April 2020

SEIS: Insight's Seismic Experiment for Internal Structure of Mars.

Space Sci Rev 2019 28;215(1):12. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

2Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 USA.

By the end of 2018, 42 years after the landing of the two Viking seismometers on Mars, InSight will deploy onto Mars' surface the SEIS (eismic xperiment for nternal tructure) instrument; a six-axes seismometer equipped with both a long-period three-axes Very Broad Band (VBB) instrument and a three-axes short-period (SP) instrument. These six sensors will cover a broad range of the seismic bandwidth, from 0.01 Hz to 50 Hz, with possible extension to longer periods. Data will be transmitted in the form of three continuous VBB components at 2 sample per second (sps), an estimation of the short period energy content from the SP at 1 sps and a continuous compound VBB/SP vertical axis at 10 sps. The continuous streams will be augmented by requested event data with sample rates from 20 to 100 sps. SEIS will improve upon the existing resolution of Viking's Mars seismic monitoring by a factor of at 1 Hz and at 0.1 Hz. An additional major improvement is that, contrary to Viking, the seismometers will be deployed via a robotic arm directly onto Mars' surface and will be protected against temperature and wind by highly efficient thermal and wind shielding. Based on existing knowledge of Mars, it is reasonable to infer a moment magnitude detection threshold of at epicentral distance and a potential to detect several tens of quakes and about five impacts per year. In this paper, we first describe the science goals of the experiment and the rationale used to define its requirements. We then provide a detailed description of the hardware, from the sensors to the deployment system and associated performance, including transfer functions of the seismic sensors and temperature sensors. We conclude by describing the experiment ground segment, including data processing services, outreach and education networks and provide a description of the format to be used for future data distribution.

Electronic Supplementary Material: The online version of this article (10.1007/s11214-018-0574-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11214-018-0574-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6394762PMC
January 2019

Including refugees in disease elimination: challenges observed from a sleeping sickness programme in Uganda.

Confl Health 2017 1;11:22. Epub 2017 Dec 1.

Department of Public and Community Health, Busitema University, PO Box 236, Tororo, Uganda.

Background: Ensuring equity between forcibly-displaced and host area populations is a key challenge for global elimination programmes. We studied Uganda's response to the recent refugee influx from South Sudan to identify key governance and operational lessons for national sleeping sickness programmes working with displaced populations today. A refugee policy which favours integration of primary healthcare services for refugee and host populations and the availability of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to detect sleeping sickness at this health system level makes Uganda well-placed to include refugees in sleeping sickness surveillance.

Methods: Using ethnographic observations of coordination meetings, review of programme data, interviews with sleeping sickness and refugee authorities and group discussions with health staff and refugees (2013-2016), we nevertheless identified some key challenges to equitably integrating refugees into government sleeping sickness surveillance.

Results: Despite fears that refugees were at risk of disease and posed a threat to elimination, six months into the response, programme coordinators progressed to a sentinel surveillance strategy in districts hosting the highest concentrations of refugees. This meant that RDTs, the programme's primary surveillance tool, were removed from most refugee-serving facilities, exacerbating existing inequitable access to surveillance and leading refugees to claim that their access to sleeping sickness tests had been better in South Sudan. This was not intentionally done to exclude refugees from care, rather, four key governance challenges made it difficult for the programme to recognise and correct inequities affecting refugees: (a) perceived donor pressure to reduce the sleeping sickness programme's scope without clear international elimination guidance on surveillance quality; (b) a problematic history of programme relations with refugee-hosting districts which strained supervision of surveillance quality; (c) difficulties that government health workers faced to produce good quality surveillance in a crisis; and (d) reluctant engagement between the sleeping sickness programme and humanitarian structures.

Conclusions: Despite progressive policy intentions, several entrenched governance norms and practices worked against integration of refugees into the national sleeping sickness surveillance system. Elimination programmes which marginalise forced migrants risk unwittingly contributing to disease spread and reinforce social inequities, so new norms urgently need to be established at local, national and international levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13031-017-0125-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5710113PMC
December 2017

Front-loaded sputum microscopy in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.

Int J Mycobacteriol 2016 12 14;5(4):489-492. Epub 2016 May 14.

Bacteriology Unit, Saint Charles Borromeo Hospital, Onitsha, Nigeria.

Objective/background: The objectives of this study are to describe the acid-fast bacilli (AFB) yield of a front-loaded scheme in which an additional on-the-spot specimen (Xspot [Xs]) was collected 1h after the first spot specimen and to compare the default rate between the front-loaded and standard schemes. The performance of the front-loaded sputum microscopy was also compared with the standard World Health Organization (WHO) method for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Anambra State, Nigeria.

Methods: A total of 1487 individuals with presumptive pulmonary TB participated. Participants' age ranged from 15years and above. Three sputum specimens were submitted as spot-early morning-spot. An additional specimen (Xs) was submitted 1h after the first spot. The sputum smears were stained using the Ziehl-Neelsen technique.

Results: A total of 183 (12.3%) patients were AFB positive. The front-loaded scheme identified 182 (99%) TB patients, whereas the standard scheme identified 183 (100%) TB patients. The difference was not statistically significant (p>.05). The first two specimens of each scheme (S-Xs vs. S-M) identified 176 (96.2%) and 181 (98.9%) of PTB patients, respectively. Neither difference was statistically significant (p>.05). Default during the diagnostic process was 11% in the standard but only 0.7% in the front-load scheme. The difference was significant (p<.05).

Conclusion: Front-loaded smear microscopy has similar performance compared with the standard scheme. More presumptive PTB cases defaulted in the standard than in the front-loaded scheme. Front-loaded smear microscopy could therefore be used in the diagnosis in PTB in Anambra State.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmyco.2016.04.005DOI Listing
December 2016

Exploiting the Repetitive Fraction of the Wheat Genome for High-Throughput Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Discovery and Genotyping.

Plant Genome 2016 03;9(1)

Transposable elements (TEs) account for more than 80% of the wheat genome. Although they represent a major obstacle for genomic studies, TEs are also a source of polymorphism and consequently of molecular markers such as insertion site-based polymorphism (ISBP) markers. Insertion site-based polymorphisms have been found to be a great source of genome-specific single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in the hexaploid wheat ( L.) genome. Here, we report on the development of a high-throughput SNP discovery approach based on sequence capture of ISBP markers. By applying this approach to the reference sequence of chromosome 3B from hexaploid wheat, we designed 39,077 SNPs that are evenly distributed along the chromosome. We demonstrate that these SNPs can be efficiently scored with the KASPar (Kompetitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction) genotyping technology. Finally, through genetic diversity and genome-wide association studies, we also demonstrate that ISBP-derived SNPs can be used in marker-assisted breeding programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3835/plantgenome2015.09.0078DOI Listing
March 2016

QTL mapping of Fusarium head blight resistance in three related durum wheat populations.

Theor Appl Genet 2017 Jan 23;130(1):13-27. Epub 2016 Sep 23.

Department of Agrobiotechnology, Institute of Biotechnology in Plant Production, BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Konrad Lorenz Str. 20, 3430, Tulln, Austria.

Key Message: The QTL Fhb1 was successfully introgressed and validated in three durum wheat populations. The novel germplasm and the QTL detected will support improvement of Fusarium resistance in durum wheat. Durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) is particularly susceptible to Fusarium head blight (FHB) and breeding for resistance is hampered by limited genetic variation within this species. To date, resistant sources are mainly available in a few wild relative tetraploid wheat accessions. In this study, the effect of the well-known hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) quantitative trait locus (QTL) Fhb1 was assessed for the first time in durum wheat. Three F7-RIL mapping populations of about 100 lines were developed from crosses between the durum wheat experimental line DBC-480, which carries an Fhb1 introgression from Sumai-3, and the European T. durum cultivars Karur, Durobonus and SZD1029K. The RILs were evaluated in field experiments for FHB resistance in three seasons using spray inoculation and genotyped with SSR as well as genotyping-by-sequencing markers. QTL associated with FHB resistance were identified on chromosome arms 2BL, 3BS, 4AL, 4BS, 5AL and 6AS at which the resistant parent DBC-480 contributed the positive alleles. The QTL on 3BS was detected in all three populations centered at the Fhb1 interval. The Rht-B1 locus governing plant height was found to have a strong effect in modulating FHB severity in all populations. The negative effect of the semi-dwarf allele Rht-B1b on FHB resistance was compensated by combining with Fhb1 and additional resistance QTL. The successful deployment of Fhb1 in T. durum was further substantiated by assessing type 2 resistance in one population. The efficient introgression of Fhb1 represents a significant step forward for enhancing FHB resistance in durum wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-016-2785-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5215227PMC
January 2017

A saturated SNP linkage map for the orange wheat blossom midge resistance gene Sm1.

Theor Appl Genet 2016 Aug 9;129(8):1507-17. Epub 2016 May 9.

Morden Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 101 Route 100, Morden, MB, R6M 1Y5, Canada.

Key Message: SNP markers were developed for the OWBM resistance gene Sm1 that will be useful for MAS. The wheat Sm1 region is collinear with an inverted syntenic interval in B. distachyon. Orange wheat blossom midge (OWBM, Sitodiplosis mosellana Géhin) is an important insect pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum) in many growing regions. Sm1 is the only described OWBM resistance gene and is the foundation of managing OWBM through host genetics. Sm1 was previously mapped to wheat chromosome arm 2BS relative to simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and the dominant, sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker WM1. The objectives of this research were to saturate the Sm1 region with markers, develop improved markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS), and examine the synteny between wheat, Brachypodium distachyon, and rice (Oryza sativa) in the Sm1 region. The present study mapped Sm1 in four populations relative to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), SSRs, Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers, single strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCPs), and the SCAR WM1. Numerous high quality SNP assays were designed that mapped near Sm1. BLAST delineated the syntenic intervals in B. distachyon and rice using gene-based SNPs as query sequences. The Sm1 region in wheat was inverted relative to B. distachyon and rice, which suggests a chromosomal rearrangement within the Triticeae lineage. Seven SNPs were tested on a collection of wheat lines known to carry Sm1 and not to carry Sm1. Sm1-flanking SNPs were identified that were useful for predicting the presence or absence of Sm1 based upon haplotype. These SNPs will be a major improvement for MAS of Sm1 in wheat breeding programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-016-2720-4DOI Listing
August 2016

Decreased expression of the glucocorticoid receptor-GILZ pathway in Kupffer cells promotes liver inflammation in obese mice.

J Hepatol 2016 Apr 27;64(4):916-24. Epub 2015 Nov 27.

INSERM UMR996 - Inflammation, Chemokines and Immunopathology, Clamart, France; Univ Paris-Sud, Univ Paris-Saclay, DHU Hepatinov, Labex Lermit, Kremlin-Bicêtre, France. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Kupffer cells (KC) play a key role in the onset of inflammation in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) induces glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) expression in monocytes/macrophages and is involved in several inflammatory processes. We hypothesized that the GR-GILZ axis in KC may contribute to the pathophysiology of obesity-induced liver inflammation.

Methods: By using a combination of primary cell culture, pharmacological experiments, mice deficient for the Gr specifically in macrophages and transgenic mice overexpressing Gilz in macrophages, we explored the involvement of the Gr-Gilz axis in KC in the pathophysiology of obesity-induced liver inflammation.

Results: Obesity was associated with a downregulation of the Gr and Gilz, and an impairment of Gilz induction by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dexamethasone (DEX) in KC. Inhibition of Gilz expression in isolated KC transfected with Gilz siRNA demonstrated that Gilz downregulation was sufficient to sensitize KC to LPS. Conversely, liver inflammation was decreased in obese transgenic mice specifically overexpressing Gilz in macrophages. Pharmacological inhibition of the Gr showed that impairment of Gilz induction in KC by LPS and DEX in obesity was driven by a downregulation of the Gr. In mice specifically deficient for Gr in macrophages, Gilz expression was low, leading to an exacerbation of obesity-induced liver inflammation.

Conclusions: Obesity is associated with a downregulation of the Gr-Gilz axis in KC, which promotes liver inflammation. The Gr-Gilz axis in KC is an important target for the regulation of liver inflammation in obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2015.11.023DOI Listing
April 2016

Influenza vaccine effectiveness among healthcare workers in comparison to hospitalized patients: A 2004-2009 case-test, negative-control, prospective study.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2016 ;12(2):485-90

a Service d'Hygiène; Epidémiologie et Prévention; Groupement hospitalier Edouard Herriot; Hospices Civils de Lyon ; Lyon , France.

The objective of this study was to calculate Vaccine Effectiveness (VE) in healthcare workers (HCW) and to compare VE between patients and HCW. A case-control investigation based on the prospective study was conducted between 2004 and 2009 in a teaching hospital. All HCW with influenza-like illness (ILI) from participating units (n = 24) were included, and vaccination status was characterized by interview. A total of 150 HCW presented ILI; 130 (87%) were female, 27 (18%) were positive for influenza, and 42 (28%) were vaccinated. Adjusted VE was 89% (95% CI 39 to 98). Among patients, adjusted VE was 42% (95% CI -39 to 76). The difference of VE (VEhcw - VEpat) was 46.15% (95% CI 2.41 to 144). The VE ratio (VEhcw / VEpat) was 2.09 (95% CI -1.60 to 134.17). Influenza VE differed between HCW and patients when the flu season was taken into account. This finding confirms the major impact of host determinants on influenza VE.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5049739PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2015.1079677DOI Listing
December 2016

FPLC and liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry identify candidate necrosis-inducing proteins from culture filtrates of the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici.

Fungal Genet Biol 2015 Jun;79:54-62

Wageningen University & Research Center, Plant Research International, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Culture filtrates (CFs) of the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici were assayed for necrosis-inducing activity after infiltration in leaves of various wheat cultivars. Active fractions were partially purified and characterized. The necrosis-inducing factors in CFs are proteinaceous, heat stable and their necrosis-inducing activity is temperature and light dependent. The in planta activity of CFs was tested by a time series of proteinase K (PK) co-infiltrations, which was unable to affect activity 30min after CF infiltrations. This suggests that the necrosis inducing proteins (NIPs) are either absent from the apoplast and likely actively transported into mesophyll cells or protected from the protease by association with a receptor. Alternatively, plant cell death signaling pathways might be fully engaged during the first 30min and cannot be reversed even after PK treatment. Further fractionation of the CFs with the highest necrosis-inducing activity involved fast performance liquid chromatography, SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. This revealed that most of the proteins present in the fractions have not been described before. The two most prominent ZtNIP encoding candidates were heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris and subsequent infiltration assays showed their differential activity in a range of wheat cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fgb.2015.03.015DOI Listing
June 2015

Low frequency noise elimination technique for 24-bit Σ-Δ data acquisition systems.

Rev Sci Instrum 2015 Mar;86(3):034708

MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurement, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, People's Republic of China.

Low frequency 1/f noise is one of the key limiting factors of high precision measurement instruments. In this paper, digital correlated double sampling is implemented to reduce the offset and low frequency 1/f noise of a data acquisition system with 24-bit sigma delta (Σ-Δ) analog to digital converter (ADC). The input voltage is modulated by cross-coupled switches, which are synchronized to the sampling clock, and converted into digital signal by ADC. By using a proper switch frequency, the unwanted parasitic signal frequencies generated by the switches are avoided. The noise elimination processing is made through the principle of digital correlated double sampling, which is equivalent to a time shifted subtraction for the sampled voltage. The low frequency 1/f noise spectrum density of the data acquisition system is reduced to be flat down to the measurement frequency lower limit, which is about 0.0001 Hz in this paper. The noise spectrum density is eliminated by more than 60 dB at 0.0001 Hz, with a residual noise floor of (9 ± 2) nV/Hz(1/2) which is limited by the intrinsic white noise floor of the ADC above its corner frequency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4914890DOI Listing
March 2015

Effector discovery in the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici.

Mol Plant Pathol 2015 Dec 28;16(9):931-45. Epub 2015 Apr 28.

Wageningen University and Research Centre, Plant Research International, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708, PB, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Fungal plant pathogens, such as Zymoseptoria tritici (formerly known as Mycosphaerella graminicola), secrete repertoires of effectors to facilitate infection or trigger host defence mechanisms. The discovery and functional characterization of effectors provides valuable knowledge that can contribute to the design of new and effective disease management strategies. Here, we combined bioinformatics approaches with expression profiling during pathogenesis to identify candidate effectors of Z. tritici. In addition, a genetic approach was conducted to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) carrying putative effectors, enabling the validation of both complementary strategies for effector discovery. In planta expression profiling revealed that candidate effectors were up-regulated in successive waves corresponding to consecutive stages of pathogenesis, contrary to candidates identified by QTL mapping that were, overall, expressed at low levels. Functional analyses of two top candidate effectors (SSP15 and SSP18) showed their dispensability for Z. tritici pathogenesis. These analyses reveal that generally adopted criteria, such as protein size, cysteine residues and expression during pathogenesis, may preclude an unbiased effector discovery. Indeed, genetic mapping of genomic regions involved in specificity render alternative effector candidates that do not match the aforementioned criteria, but should nevertheless be considered as promising new leads for effectors that are crucial for the Z. tritici-wheat pathosystem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6638447PMC
December 2015

Mapping of quantitative adult plant field resistance to leaf rust and stripe rust in two European winter wheat populations reveals co-location of three QTL conferring resistance to both rust pathogens.

Theor Appl Genet 2014 Sep 12;127(9):2011-28. Epub 2014 Aug 12.

Department for Agrobiotechnology Tulln, BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Konrad Lorenz Str. 20, Tulln, 3430, Austria.

Key Message: We detected several, most likely novel QTL for adult plant resistance to rusts. Notably three QTL improved resistance to leaf rust and stripe rust simultaneously indicating broad spectrum resistance QTL. The rusts of wheat (Puccinia spp.) are destructive fungal wheat diseases. The deployment of resistant cultivars plays a central role in integrated rust disease management. Durability of resistance would be preferred, but is difficult to analyse. The Austrian winter wheat cultivar Capo was released in the 1989 and grown on a large acreage during more than two decades and maintained a good level of quantitative leaf rust and stripe rust resistance. Two bi-parental mapping populations: Capo × Arina and Capo × Furore were tested in multiple environments for severity of leaf rust and stripe rust at the adult plant stage in replicated field experiments. Quantitative trait loci associated with leaf rust and stripe rust severity were mapped using DArT and SSR markers. Five QTL were detected in multiple environments associated with resistance to leaf rust designated as QLr.ifa-2AL, QLr.ifa-2BL, QLr.ifa-2BS, QLr.ifa-3BS, and QLr.ifa-5BL, and five for resistance to stripe rust QYr.ifa-2AL, QYr.ifa-2BL, QYr.ifa-3AS, QYr.ifa-3BS, and QYr.ifa-5A. For all QTL apart from two (QYr.ifa-3AS, QLr.ifa-5BL) Capo contributed the resistance improving allele. The leaf rust and stripe rust resistance QTL on 2AL, 2BL and 3BS mapped to the same chromosome positions, indicating either closely linked genes or pleiotropic gene action. These three multiple disease resistance QTL (QLr.ifa-2AL/QYr.ifa-2AL, QLr.ifa.2BL/QYr.ifa-2BL, QLr.ifa-3BS/QYr.ifa.3BS) potentially contribute novel resistance sources for stripe rust and leaf rust. The long-lasting resistance of Capo apparently rests upon a combination of several genes. The described germplasm, QTL and markers are applicable for simultaneous resistance improvement against leaf rust and stripe rust.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-014-2357-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4145209PMC
September 2014

CXCR4 dysfunction in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice and patients.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2015 Feb;128(4):257-67

†INSERM U996, Clamart, France.

Homing of inflammatory cells to the liver is key in the progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). An abnormal response of CD4+ T-cells from obese mice to the chemotactic effect of CXCL12 has been reported but the mechanism involved in this process and relevance in patients are unknown. We aimed to explore the mechanism involved in the abnormal chemotaxis of CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) in several mouse models of NASH and the relevance in the context of human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We assessed chemotactic responsiveness of CD4+ T-cells to CXCL12, the effect of AMD3100, a CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) antagonist, in mice and lymphocytes from patients with NAFLD, and the affinity of CXCL12 for CXCR4. CXCL12-promoted migration of CD4+ T-cells from three different mouse models of NASH was increased and dependent of CXCR4. CD4+ T-cells from patients with NASH, but not from patients with pure steatosis, responded more strongly to the chemotactic effect of CXCL12, and this response was inhibited by AMD3100. Treatment with AMD3100 decreased the number of CD4+ T-cells to the liver in ob/ob mice. CXCL12 expression in the liver, CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression in CD4+ T-cells were not increased in three different mouse models of NASH. However, the affinity of CXCL12 for CXCR4 was increased in CD4+ T-cells of ob/ob mice. In conclusion, the CXCL12/CXCR4 pathway contributes in both mice and patients to the enhanced recruitment of CD4+ T-cells in NASH. An increased affinity of CXCL12 to CXCR4 rather than a higher expression of the chemokine or its receptors is involved in this process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/CS20130833DOI Listing
February 2015

Five years of hospital based surveillance of influenza-like illness and influenza in a short-stay geriatric unit.

BMC Res Notes 2014 Feb 21;7:99. Epub 2014 Feb 21.

Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS UMR 5558, Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive, 8 avenue Rockefeller, Lyon F-69373, France.

Background: Data on influenza in the healthcare setting are often based on retrospective investigations of outbreaks and a few studies described influenza during several consecutive seasons.The aim of the present work is to report data on influenza like illness (ILI) and influenza from 5-year prospective surveillance in a short-stay geriatrics unit.

Findings: A short stay geriatrics unit underwent 5 years of ILI surveillance from November 2004 to March 2009, with the aim of describing ILI in a non-outbreak context. The study was proposed to patients who presented ILI, defined as fever >37.8°C or cough or sore throat. Among 1,353 admitted patients, 115 presented an ILI, and 34 had hospital-acquired ILI (HA-ILI). Influenza was confirmed in 23 patients, 13 of whom had been vaccinated. Overall attack rates were 2.78% and 0.02% for HA-ILI and HA-confirmed influenza respectively, during the 5 seasons.

Conclusions: This 5-year surveillance study supports the notion that influenza infections are common in hospitals, mostly impacting the elderly hospitalized in short-stay units. It highlights the need for appropriate control measures to prevent HA-ILI in geriatric units and protect elderly patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-7-99DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3943500PMC
February 2014

Genome-wide prediction of three important traits in bread wheat.

Mol Breed 2014;34(4):1843-1852. Epub 2014 Jul 16.

Bioplante-Florimond Desprez, BP41, 59242 Cappelle en Pévèle, France.

Five genomic prediction models were applied to three wheat agronomic traits-grain yield, heading date and grain test weight-in three breeding populations, each comprising about 350 doubled haploid or recombinant inbred lines evaluated in three locations during a 3-year period. The prediction accuracy, measured as the correlation between genomic estimated breeding value and observed trait, was in the range of previously published values for yield ( = 0.2-0.5), a trait with relatively low heritability. Accuracies for heading date and test weight, with relatively high heritabilities, were about 0.70. There was no improvement of prediction accuracy when two or three breeding populations were merged into one for a larger training set (e.g., for yield ranged between 0.11 and 0.40 in the respective populations and between 0.18 and 0.35 in the merged populations). Cross-population prediction, when one population was used as the training population set and another population was used as the validation set, resulted in no prediction accuracy. This lack of cross-population prediction accuracy cannot be explained by a lower level of relatedness between populations, as measured by a shared SNP similarity, since it was only slightly lower between than within populations. Simulation studies confirm that cross-prediction accuracy decreases as the proportion of shared QTLs decreases, which can be expected from a higher level of QTL × environment interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11032-014-0143-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4544631PMC
July 2014

Molecular characterization and functional analyses of ZtWor1, a transcriptional regulator of the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici.

Mol Plant Pathol 2014 May 17;15(4):394-405. Epub 2013 Dec 17.

Plant Science Group, Plant Research International BV, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 06708 PB, Wageningen, The Netherlands; Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, University of Tehran, Plant Pathology Building, Karaj, Iran.

Zymoseptoria tritici causes the major fungal wheat disease septoria tritici blotch, and is increasingly being used as a model for transmission and population genetics, as well as host-pathogen interactions. Here, we study the biological function of ZtWor1, the orthologue of Wor1 in the fungal human pathogen Candida albicans, as a representative of a superfamily of regulatory proteins involved in dimorphic switching. In Z. tritici, this gene is pivotal for pathogenesis, as ZtWor1 mutants were nonpathogenic and complementation restored the wild-type phenotypes. In planta expression analyses showed that ZtWor1 is up-regulated during the initiation of colonization and fructification, and regulates candidate effector genes, including one that was discovered after comparative proteome analysis of the Z. tritici wild-type strain and the ZtWor1 mutant, which was particularly expressed in planta. Cell fusion and anastomosis occur frequently in ZtWor1 mutants, reminiscent of mutants of MgGpb1, the β-subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein. Comparative expression of ZtWor1 in knock-out strains of MgGpb1 and MgTpk2, the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A, suggests that ZtWor1 is downstream of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway that is crucial for pathogenesis in many fungal plant pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6638687PMC
May 2014

Influenza vaccination of healthcare workers in acute-care hospitals: a case-control study of its effect on hospital-acquired influenza among patients.

BMC Infect Dis 2012 Feb 1;12:30. Epub 2012 Feb 1.

Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Service d'Hygiène, Epidémiologie et Prévention, Lyon, France.

Background: In acute-care hospitals, no evidence of a protective effect of healthcare worker (HCW) vaccination on hospital-acquired influenza (HAI) in patients has been documented. Our study objective was to ascertain the effectiveness of influenza vaccination of HCW on HAI among patients.

Methods: A nested case-control investigation was implemented in a prospective surveillance study of influenza-like illness (ILI) in a tertiary acute-care university hospital. Cases were patients with virologically-confirmed influenza occurring ≥ 72 h after admission, and controls were patients with ILI presenting during hospitalisation with negative influenza results after nasal swab testing. Four controls per case, matched per influenza season (2004-05, 2005-06 and 2006-07), were randomly selected. Univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression models were fitted to assess factors associated with HAI among patients.

Results: In total, among 55 patients analysed, 11 (20%) had laboratory-confirmed HAI. The median HCW vaccination rate in the units was 36%. The median proportion of vaccinated HCW in these units was 11.5% for cases vs. 36.1% for the controls (P = 0.11); 2 (20%) cases and 21 (48%) controls were vaccinated against influenza in the current season (P = 0.16). The proportion of ≥ 35% vaccinated HCW in short-stay units appeared to protect against HAI among patients (odds ratio = 0.07; 95% confidence interval 0.005-0.98), independently of patient age, influenza season and potential influenza source in the units.

Conclusions: Our observational study indicates a shielding effect of more than 35% of vaccinated HCW on HAI among patients in acute-care units. Investigations, such as controlled clinical trials, are needed to validate the benefits of HCW vaccination on HAI incidence in patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-12-30DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3293022PMC
February 2012

New broad-spectrum resistance to septoria tritici blotch derived from synthetic hexaploid wheat.

Theor Appl Genet 2012 Jan 13;124(1):125-42. Epub 2011 Sep 13.

Plant Research International, Biointeractions and Plant Health, P.O. Box 16, 6700 AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Septoria tritici blotch (STB), caused by the ascomycete Mycosphaerella graminicola, is one of the most devastating foliar diseases of wheat. We screened five synthetic hexaploid wheats (SHs), 13 wheat varieties that represent the differential set of cultivars and two susceptible checks with a global set of 20 isolates and discovered exceptionally broad STB resistance in SHs. Subsequent development and analyses of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between the SH M3 and the highly susceptible bread wheat cv. Kulm revealed two novel resistance loci on chromosomes 3D and 5A. The 3D resistance was expressed in the seedling and adult plant stages, and it controlled necrosis (N) and pycnidia (P) development as well as the latency periods of these parameters. This locus, which is closely linked to the microsatellite marker Xgwm494, was tentatively designated Stb16q and explained from 41 to 71% of the phenotypic variation at seedling stage and 28-31% in mature plants. The resistance locus on chromosome 5A was specifically expressed in the adult plant stage, associated with SSR marker Xhbg247, explained 12-32% of the variation in disease, was designated Stb17, and is the first unambiguously identified and named QTL for adult plant resistance to M. graminicola. Our results confirm that common wheat progenitors might be a rich source of new Stb resistance genes/QTLs that can be deployed in commercial breeding programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-011-1692-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3249545PMC
January 2012

Genetic analysis of resistance to septoria tritici blotch in the French winter wheat cultivars Balance and Apache.

Theor Appl Genet 2011 Sep 8;123(5):741-54. Epub 2011 Jun 8.

Plant Research International, Biointeractions and Plant Health, P.O. Box 16, 6700 AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

The ascomycete Mycosphaerella graminicola is the causal agent of septoria tritici blotch (STB), one of the most destructive foliar diseases of bread and durum wheat globally, particularly in temperate humid areas. A screening of the French bread wheat cultivars Apache and Balance with 30 M. graminicola isolates revealed a pattern of resistant responses that suggested the presence of new genes for STB resistance. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of a doubled haploid (DH) population with five M. graminicola isolates in the seedling stage identified four QTLs on chromosomes 3AS, 1BS, 6DS and 7DS, and occasionally on 7DL. The QTL on chromosome 6DS flanked by SSR markers Xgpw5176 and Xgpw3087 is a novel QTL that now can be designated as Stb18. The QTLs on chromosomes 3AS and 1BS most likely represent Stb6 and Stb11, respectively, and the QTLs on chromosome 7DS are most probably identical with Stb4 and Stb5. However, the QTL identified on chromosome 7DL is expected to be a new Stb gene that still needs further characterization. Multiple isolates were used and show that not all isolates identify all QTLs, which clearly demonstrates the specificity in the M. graminicola-wheat pathosystem. QTL analyses were performed with various disease parameters. The development of asexual fructifications (pycnidia) in the characteristic necrotic blotches of STB, designated as parameter P, identified the maximum number of QTLs. All other parameters identified fewer but not different QTLs. The segregation of multiple QTLs in the Apache/Balance DH population enabled the identification of DH lines with single QTLs and multiple QTL combinations. Analyses of the marker data of these DH lines clearly demonstrated the positive effect of pyramiding QTLs to broaden resistance spectra as well as epistatic and additive interactions between these QTLs. Phenotyping of the Apache/Balance DH population in the field confirmed the presence of the QTLs that were identified in the seedling stage, but Stb18 was inconsistently expressed and might be particularly effective in young plants. In contrast, an additional QTL for STB resistance was identified on chromosome 2DS that is exclusively and consistently expressed in mature plants over locations and time, but it was also strongly related with earliness, tallness as well as resistance to Fusarium head blight. Although to date no Stb gene has been reported on chromosome 2D, the data provide evidence that this QTL is only indirectly related to STB resistance. This study shows that detailed genetic analysis of contemporary commercial bread wheat cultivars can unveil novel Stb genes that can be readily applied in marker-assisted breeding programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-011-1623-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3155673PMC
September 2011

Workplace bullying and psychotropic drug use: the mediating role of physical and mental health status.

Ann Occup Hyg 2011 Mar 20;55(2):152-63. Epub 2010 Dec 20.

INSERM, U1018, CESP Centre for research in epidemiology and population health, Epidemiology of occupational and social determinants of health team, Hôpital Paul Brousse, 94807 Villejuif, France.

Objectives: The association between workplace bullying and psychotropic drug use is not well established. This study was aimed at exploring the association between workplace bullying, and its characteristics, and psychotropic drug use and studying the mediating role of physical and mental health.

Methods: The study population consisted of a random sample of 3132 men and 4562 women of the working population in the south-east of France. Workplace bullying, evaluated using the validated instrument elaborated by Leymann, and psychotropic drug use, as well as covariates, were measured using a self-administered questionnaire. Covariates included age, marital status, presence of children, education, occupation, working hours, night work, physico-chemical exposures at work, self-reported health, and depressive symptoms. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression analysis and was carried out separately for men and women.

Results: Workplace bullying was strongly associated with psychotropic drug use. Past exposure to bullying increased the risk for this use. The more frequent and the longer the exposure to bullying, the stronger the association with psychotropic drug use. Observing bullying on someone else at the workplace was associated with psychotropic drug use. Adjustment for covariates did not modify the results. Additional adjustment for self-reported health and depressive symptoms reduced the magnitude of the associations, especially for men.

Conclusions: The association between bullying and psychotropic drug use was found to be significant and strong and was partially mediated by physical and mental health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/meq086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3313910PMC
March 2011

pH optimization for a reliable quantification of brain tumor cell and tissue extracts with (1)H NMR: focus on choline-containing compounds and taurine.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2011 Jan 11;399(2):987-99. Epub 2010 Nov 11.

UPS, Laboratoire de Synthèse et Physico-Chimie de Molécules d'Intérêt Biologique (SPCMIB), Groupe de RMN Biomédicale, Université de Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062, Toulouse, Cedex 9, France.

The aim of this study was to define the optimal pH for (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy analysis of perchloric acid or methanol-chloroform-water extracts from brain tumor cells and tissues. The systematic study of the proton chemical shift variations as a function of pH of 13 brain metabolites in model solutions demonstrated that recording (1)H NMR spectra at pH 10 allowed resolving resonances that are overlapped at pH 7, especially in the 3.2-3.3 ppm choline-containing-compounds region. (1)H NMR analysis of extracts at pH 7 or 10 showed that quantitative measurements of lactate, alanine, glutamate, glutamine (Gln), creatine + phosphocreatine and myo-inositol (m-Ino) can be readily performed at both pHs. The concentrations of glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine and choline that are crucial metabolites for tumor brain malignancy grading were accurately measured at pH 10 only. Indeed, the resonances of their trimethylammonium moieties are cleared of any overlapping signal, especially those of taurine (Tau) and phosphoethanolamine. The four non-ionizable Tau protons resonating as a singlet in a non-congested spectral region permits an easier and more accurate quantitation of this apoptosis marker at pH 10 than at pH 7 where the triplet at 3.43 ppm can be overlapped with the signals of glucose or have an intensity too low to be measured. Glycine concentration was determined indirectly at both pHs after subtracting the contribution of the overlapped signals of m-Ino at pH 7 or Gln at pH 10.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-010-4321-4DOI Listing
January 2011

Workplace bullying and sleep disturbances: findings from a large scale cross-sectional survey in the French working population.

Sleep 2009 Sep;32(9):1211-9

INSERM, U687-IFR69, Saint-Maurice, France.

Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between workplace bullying, the characteristics of workplace bullying, and sleep disturbances in a large sample of employees of the French working population.

Design: Workplace bullying, evaluated using the validated instrument developed by Leymann, and sleep disturbances, as well as covariates, were measured using a self-administered questionnaire. Covariates included age, marital status, presence of children, education, occupation, working hours, night work, physical and chemical exposures at work, self-reported health, and depressive symptoms. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression analysis and was carried out separately for men and women.

Setting: General working population.

Participants: The study population consisted of a random sample of 3132 men and 4562 women of the working population in the southeast of France.

Results: Workplace bullying was strongly associated with sleep disturbances. Past exposure to bullying also increased the risk for this outcome. The more frequent the exposure to bullying, the higher the risk of experiencing sleep disturbances. Observing someone else being bullied in the workplace was also associated with the outcome. Adjustment for covariates did not modify the results. Additional adjustment for self-reported health and depressive symptoms diminished the magnitude of the associations that remained significant.

Conclusions: The prevalence of workplace bullying (around 10%) was found to be high in this study as well was the impact of this major job-related stressor on sleep disturbances. Although no conclusion about causality could be drawn from this cross-sectional study, the findings suggest that the contribution of workplace bullying to the burden of sleep disturbances may be substantial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sleep/32.9.1211DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2737579PMC
September 2009

Characterization of genetic components involved in durable resistance to stripe rust in the bread wheat 'Renan'.

Phytopathology 2009 Aug;99(8):968-73

INRA UMR 118 Amélioration des Plantes et Biotechnologies Végétales, Domaine de la Motte, BP35327, Le Rheu Cedex, France.

Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. tritici, is one of the most widespread and destructive wheat diseases in areas where cool temperatures prevail. The wheat cv. Renan, carrying the specific gene Yr17, has shown effective resistance for a long time, even though some pathotypes overcame the Yr17 gene. The objectives of this study were to locate and map genetic loci associated with adult-plant resistance (APR) to stripe rust in a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between Renan (resistant) and Récital (susceptible). Field assays were performed for 4 years (1995, 1996, 2005, and 2006) to score disease-progress data and identify APR quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Three QTLs, QYr.inra-2BS, QYr.inra-3BS, and QYr.inra-6B, with resistance alleles derived from Renan were detected in 1995 to 1996 with the 237E141 pathotype, which is avirulent against genotypes carrying Yr17. These QTLs were stable and explained a major part of the phenotypic variation seen in 2005 to 2006, when the 237E141 V17 pathotype was used. Each of these QTLs contributed approximately 4 to 15% of the phenotypic variance and was effective at different adult plant stages. Interactions were observed between some markers of the Yr17 gene and three Renan QTLs: QYr.inra-2BS, QYr.inra-3BS, and QYr.inra-6B. Resistance based on the combination of different APR types should provide durable resistance to P. striiformis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-99-8-0968DOI Listing
August 2009

[Legal framework relating to human tissues used for research ends].

Pathol Biol (Paris) 2005 Dec 22;53(10):571-5. Epub 2005 Jan 22.

Banque de tissus et cellules secteur HCL, pavillon I, hôpital Edouard-Herriot, 5, place d'Arsonval 69437 Lyon cedex 03, France.

Development in cell and tissue engineering needs human tissue samples. If French jurisdiction concerning the human tissue sample collected in a therapeutic goal is well established, the French and European legal context concerning the scientific research is not clear and controversial. In our lab, we aim to conjugate the professional and the moral duty and to impose on our researchers the respect of strictly defined procedures. In order to organize the management of these biological resources, we chose not only to take into account the present legal context concerning the collection of tissues for research purposes, but also to precede the French legal framework by inspiring from good practice, concerning on one hand the conservation, the transformation and the transport of human tissues used to therapeutic ends (decree of December 29, 1998) and on the other hand, from the ethical recommendations of the european directives. It is why, we put some procedures in place to guarantee the donor's information, the staff's security, the confidentiality as well as the tracability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.patbio.2004.12.017DOI Listing
December 2005

Usefulness of in vitro 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the characterization of primary brain tumors: report of two cases.

Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2005 3;83(2-3):122-6; discussion 126-7. Epub 2005 Aug 3.

Service de Neurochirurgie, CHU Purpan, Toulouse, France.

Pathological diagnosis of brain tumors provides an index of brain disease severity and guides clinical practice in their treatment. Diagnoses are often made from biopsy material obtained using stereotactic techniques with the difficulty of making a histological diagnosis in small samples. In our experience, the estimation of the degree of malignancy on the basis of in vitro 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) appears to well correlate with histology and clinical evolution. We report two cases with a discordance between the diagnoses on the basis of histology examination and in vitro 1H MRS whose evolution seems to correlate better with the data of 1H MRS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000087309DOI Listing
October 2005
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