Publications by authors named "Robert N Hoover"

236 Publications

Prenatal Diethylstilbestrol Exposure and Cancer Risk in Males.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Oct 16;30(10):1826-1833. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Department of Health and Human Services, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Background: The influence of prenatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure on cancer incidence among middle-aged men has not been well-characterized. We investigated whether exposure to DES before birth impacts overall cancer risk, and risk of site-specific cancers.

Methods: Men (mean age in 2016 = 62.0 years) who were or were not prenatally DES exposed were identified between 1953 and 1994 and followed for cancer primarily via questionnaire approximately every 5 years between 1994 and 2016. The overall and site-specific cancer rates of the two groups were compared using Poisson regression and proportional hazards modeling with adjustment for age.

Results: DES exposure was not associated with either overall cancer [hazard ratio (HR), 0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.77-1.15] or total prostate cancer rates (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.68-1.33), but was inversely associated with urinary tract cancer incidence (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.23-1.00).

Conclusions: There was no increase in either overall or prostate cancer rates among men prenatally DES exposed relative to those unexposed. An unexpected risk reduction was observed for urinary system cancers among the exposed relative to those unexposed. These findings suggest that prenatal DES exposure is unlikely to be an important contributor to cancer development in middle-aged men.

Impact: The results of this study could lend reassurance to middle-aged men who were prenatally DES exposed that their exposure does not adversely influence their overall cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0234DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8492497PMC
October 2021

Association of the Age at Menarche with Site-Specific Cancer Risks in Pooled Data from Nine Cohorts.

Cancer Res 2021 04 5;81(8):2246-2255. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland.

The average age at menarche declined in European and U.S. populations during the 19th and 20th centuries. The timing of pubertal events may have broad implications for chronic disease risks in aging women. Here we tested for associations of recalled menarcheal age with risks of 19 cancers in 536,450 women [median age, 60 years (range, 31-39 years)] in nine prospective U.S. and European cohorts that enrolled participants from 1981 to 1998. Cox regression estimated multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations of the age at menarche with risk of each cancer in each cohort and random-effects meta-analysis was used to generate summary estimates for each cancer. Over a median 10 years of follow-up, 60,968 women were diagnosed with a first primary incident cancer. Inverse linear associations were observed for seven of 19 cancers studied. Each additional year in the age at menarche was associated with reduced risks of endometrial cancer (HR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.89-0.94), liver cancer (HR = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85-0.99), melanoma (HR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), bladder cancer (HR = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.99), and cancers of the colon (HR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99), lung (HR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99), and breast (HR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.93-0.99). All but one of these associations remained statistically significant following adjustment for baseline body mass index. Similarities in the observed associations between menarche and seven cancers suggest shared underlying causes rooted early in life. We propose as a testable hypothesis that early exposure to sex hormones increases mid-life cancer risks by altering functional capacities of stem cells with roles in systemic energy balance and tissue homeostasis. SIGNIFICANCE: Age at menarche is associated with risk for seven cancers in middle-aged women, and understanding the shared underlying causal pathways across these cancers may suggest new avenues for cancer prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-3093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8137527PMC
April 2021

Smoking Modifies Pancreatic Cancer Risk Loci on 2q21.3.

Cancer Res 2021 06 11;81(11):3134-3143. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Germline variation and smoking are independently associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We conducted genome-wide smoking interaction analysis of PDAC using genotype data from four previous genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry (7,937 cases and 11,774 controls). Examination of expression quantitative trait loci data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project followed by colocalization analysis was conducted to determine whether there was support for common SNP(s) underlying the observed associations. Statistical tests were two sided and < 5 × 10 was considered statistically significant. Genome-wide significant evidence of qualitative interaction was identified on chr2q21.3 in intron 5 of the transmembrane protein 163 (TMEM163) and upstream of the cyclin T2 (CCNT2). The most significant SNP using the Empirical Bayes method, in this region that included 45 significantly associated SNPs, was rs1818613 [per allele OR in never smokers 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.82-0.93; former smokers 1.00, 95% CI, 0.91-1.07; current smokers 1.25, 95% CI 1.12-1.40, = 3.08 × 10). Examination of the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project data demonstrated an expression quantitative trait locus in this region for TMEM163 and CCNT2 in several tissue types. Colocalization analysis supported a shared SNP, rs842357, in high linkage disequilibrium with rs1818613 ( = 0. 94) driving both the observed interaction and the expression quantitative trait loci signals. Future studies are needed to confirm and understand the differential biologic mechanisms by smoking status that contribute to our PDAC findings. SIGNIFICANCE: This large genome-wide interaction study identifies a susceptibility locus on 2q21.3 that significantly modified PDAC risk by smoking status, providing insight into smoking-associated PDAC, with implications for prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-3267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8178175PMC
June 2021

Trans-ancestry genome-wide association meta-analysis of prostate cancer identifies new susceptibility loci and informs genetic risk prediction.

Nat Genet 2021 01 4;53(1):65-75. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Cancer Epidemiology Division, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Prostate cancer is a highly heritable disease with large disparities in incidence rates across ancestry populations. We conducted a multiancestry meta-analysis of prostate cancer genome-wide association studies (107,247 cases and 127,006 controls) and identified 86 new genetic risk variants independently associated with prostate cancer risk, bringing the total to 269 known risk variants. The top genetic risk score (GRS) decile was associated with odds ratios that ranged from 5.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.84-5.29) for men of European ancestry to 3.74 (95% CI, 3.36-4.17) for men of African ancestry. Men of African ancestry were estimated to have a mean GRS that was 2.18-times higher (95% CI, 2.14-2.22), and men of East Asian ancestry 0.73-times lower (95% CI, 0.71-0.76), than men of European ancestry. These findings support the role of germline variation contributing to population differences in prostate cancer risk, with the GRS offering an approach for personalized risk prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00748-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8148035PMC
January 2021

Prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure and risk of diabetes, gallbladder disease, and pancreatic disorders and malignancies.

J Dev Orig Health Dis 2021 08 28;12(4):619-626. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Health and Human Services, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Prenatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure is associated with increased risk of hormonally mediated cancers and other medical conditions. We evaluated the association between DES and risk of pancreatic cancer and pancreatic disorders, type 2 diabetes, and gallbladder disease, which may be involved with this malignancy. Our analyses used follow-up data from the US National Cancer Institute DES Combined Cohort Study. Cox proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for age, sex, cohort, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol for the association between prenatal DES exposure and type 2 diabetes, gallbladder disease (mainly cholelithiasis), pancreatic disorders (mainly pancreatitis), and pancreatic cancer among 5667 exposed and 3315 unexposed individuals followed from 1990 to 2017. Standardized incidence rate (SIR) ratios for pancreatic cancer were based on age-, race-, and calendar year-specific general population cancer incidence rates. In women and men combined, the hazards for total pancreatic disorders and pancreatitis were greater in the prenatally DES exposed than the unexposed (HR = 11, 95% CI 2.6-51 and HR = 7.0, 95% CI 1.5-33, respectively). DES was not associated overall with gallbladder disease (HR = 1.2, 95% CI 0.88-1.5) or diabetes (HR = 1.1, 95% CI 0.9-1.2). In women, but not in men, DES exposure was associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer compared with the unexposed (HR: 4.1, 95% CI 0.84-20) or general population (SIR: 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.2). Prenatal DES exposure may increase the risk of pancreatic disorders, including pancreatitis in women and men. The data suggested elevated pancreatic cancer risk in DES-exposed women, but not in exposed men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S2040174420000872DOI Listing
August 2021

Mendelian Randomization Analysis of n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Pancreatic Cancer Risk.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 12 23;29(12):2735-2739. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Whether circulating polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are associated with pancreatic cancer risk is uncertain. Mendelian randomization (MR) represents a study design using genetic instruments to better characterize the relationship between exposure and outcome.

Methods: We utilized data from genome-wide association studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium and Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, involving approximately 9,269 cases and 12,530 controls of European descent, to evaluate associations between pancreatic cancer risk and genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels. Conventional MR analyses were performed using individual-level and summary-level data.

Results: Using genetic instruments, we did not find evidence of associations between genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels and pancreatic cancer risk [estimates per one SD increase in each PUFA-specific weighted genetic score using summary statistics: linoleic acid odds ratio (OR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98-1.02; arachidonic acid OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.99-1.01; and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.87-1.02]. The OR estimates remained virtually unchanged after adjustment for covariates, using individual-level data or summary statistics, or stratification by age and sex.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that variations of genetically determined plasma n-6 PUFA levels are not associated with pancreatic cancer risk.

Impact: These results suggest that modifying n-6 PUFA levels through food sources or supplementation may not influence risk of pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0651DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7710600PMC
December 2020

Low-frequency variation near common germline susceptibility loci are associated with risk of Ewing sarcoma.

PLoS One 2020 3;15(9):e0237792. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, United States of America.

Background: Ewing sarcoma (EwS) is a rare, aggressive solid tumor of childhood, adolescence and young adulthood associated with pathognomonic EWSR1-ETS fusion oncoproteins altering transcriptional regulation. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 6 common germline susceptibility loci but have not investigated low-frequency inherited variants with minor allele frequencies below 5% due to limited genotyped cases of this rare tumor.

Methods: We investigated the contribution of rare and low-frequency variation to EwS susceptibility in the largest EwS genome-wide association study to date (733 EwS cases and 1,346 unaffected controls of European ancestry).

Results: We identified two low-frequency variants, rs112837127 and rs2296730, on chromosome 20 that were associated with EwS risk (OR = 0.186 and 2.038, respectively; P-value < 5×10-8) and located near previously reported common susceptibility loci. After adjusting for the most associated common variant at the locus, only rs112837127 remained a statistically significant independent signal (OR = 0.200, P-value = 5.84×10-8).

Conclusions: These findings suggest rare variation residing on common haplotypes are important contributors to EwS risk.

Impact: Motivate future targeted sequencing studies for a comprehensive evaluation of low-frequency and rare variation around common EwS susceptibility loci.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0237792PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7470401PMC
October 2020

Genome-Wide Association Study Data Reveal Genetic Susceptibility to Chronic Inflammatory Intestinal Diseases and Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Risk.

Cancer Res 2020 09 8;80(18):4004-4013. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland.

Registry-based epidemiologic studies suggest associations between chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). As genetic susceptibility contributes to a large proportion of chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases, we hypothesize that the genomic regions surrounding established genome-wide associated variants for these chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with PDAC. We examined the association between PDAC and genomic regions (±500 kb) surrounding established common susceptibility variants for ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, chronic pancreatitis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. We analyzed summary statistics from genome-wide association studies data for 8,384 cases and 11,955 controls of European descent from two large consortium studies using the summary data-based adaptive rank truncated product method to examine the overall association of combined genomic regions for each inflammatory disease group. Combined genomic susceptibility regions for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis were associated with PDAC at values < 0.05 (0.0040, 0.0057, 0.011, and 3.4 × 10, respectively). After excluding the 20 PDAC susceptibility regions (±500 kb) previously identified by GWAS, the genomic regions for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, and inflammatory bowel disease remained associated with PDAC ( = 0.0029, 0.0057, and 0.0098, respectively). Genomic regions for celiac disease ( = 0.22) and primary sclerosing cholangitis ( = 0.078) were not associated with PDAC. Our results support the hypothesis that genomic regions surrounding variants associated with inflammatory intestinal diseases, particularly, ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis are associated with PDAC. SIGNIFICANCE: The joint effects of common variants in genomic regions containing susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease and chronic pancreatitis are associated with PDAC and may provide insights to understanding pancreatic cancer etiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-0447DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7861352PMC
September 2020

Genome-Wide Gene-Diabetes and Gene-Obesity Interaction Scan in 8,255 Cases and 11,900 Controls from PanScan and PanC4 Consortia.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 09 16;29(9):1784-1791. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background: Obesity and diabetes are major modifiable risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Interactions between genetic variants and diabetes/obesity have not previously been comprehensively investigated in pancreatic cancer at the genome-wide level.

Methods: We conducted a gene-environment interaction (GxE) analysis including 8,255 cases and 11,900 controls from four pancreatic cancer genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets (Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium I-III and Pancreatic Cancer Case Control Consortium). Obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m) and diabetes (duration ≥3 years) were the environmental variables of interest. Approximately 870,000 SNPs (minor allele frequency ≥0.005, genotyped in at least one dataset) were analyzed. Case-control (CC), case-only (CO), and joint-effect test methods were used for SNP-level GxE analysis. As a complementary approach, gene-based GxE analysis was also performed. Age, sex, study site, and principal components accounting for population substructure were included as covariates. Meta-analysis was applied to combine individual GWAS summary statistics.

Results: No genome-wide significant interactions (departures from a log-additive odds model) with diabetes or obesity were detected at the SNP level by the CC or CO approaches. The joint-effect test detected numerous genome-wide significant GxE signals in the GWAS main effects top hit regions, but the significance diminished after adjusting for the GWAS top hits. In the gene-based analysis, a significant interaction of diabetes with variants in the (family with sequence similarity 63 member A) gene (significance threshold < 1.25 × 10) was observed in the meta-analysis ( = 1.2 ×10, = 4.2 ×10).

Conclusions: This analysis did not find significant GxE interactions at the SNP level but found one significant interaction with diabetes at the gene level. A larger sample size might unveil additional genetic factors via GxE scans.

Impact: This study may contribute to discovering the mechanism of diabetes-associated pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7483330PMC
September 2020

Genome-wide association study identifies 32 novel breast cancer susceptibility loci from overall and subtype-specific analyses.

Nat Genet 2020 06 18;52(6):572-581. Epub 2020 May 18.

Molecular Medicine Unit, Fundación Pública Galega de Medicina Xenómica, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Breast cancer susceptibility variants frequently show heterogeneity in associations by tumor subtype. To identify novel loci, we performed a genome-wide association study including 133,384 breast cancer cases and 113,789 controls, plus 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer) of European ancestry, using both standard and novel methodologies that account for underlying tumor heterogeneity by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status and tumor grade. We identified 32 novel susceptibility loci (P < 5.0 × 10), 15 of which showed evidence for associations with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 0.05). Five loci showed associations (P < 0.05) in opposite directions between luminal and non-luminal subtypes. In silico analyses showed that these five loci contained cell-specific enhancers that differed between normal luminal and basal mammary cells. The genetic correlations between five intrinsic-like subtypes ranged from 0.35 to 0.80. The proportion of genome-wide chip heritability explained by all known susceptibility loci was 54.2% for luminal A-like disease and 37.6% for triple-negative disease. The odds ratios of polygenic risk scores, which included 330 variants, for the highest 1% of quantiles compared with middle quantiles were 5.63 and 3.02 for luminal A-like and triple-negative disease, respectively. These findings provide an improved understanding of genetic predisposition to breast cancer subtypes and will inform the development of subtype-specific polygenic risk scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-0609-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7808397PMC
June 2020

Combined Associations of a Polygenic Risk Score and Classical Risk Factors With Breast Cancer Risk.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 03;113(3):329-337

Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

We evaluated the joint associations between a new 313-variant PRS (PRS313) and questionnaire-based breast cancer risk factors for women of European ancestry, using 72 284 cases and 80 354 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Interactions were evaluated using standard logistic regression and a newly developed case-only method for breast cancer risk overall and by estrogen receptor status. After accounting for multiple testing, we did not find evidence that per-standard deviation PRS313 odds ratio differed across strata defined by individual risk factors. Goodness-of-fit tests did not reject the assumption of a multiplicative model between PRS313 and each risk factor. Variation in projected absolute lifetime risk of breast cancer associated with classical risk factors was greater for women with higher genetic risk (PRS313 and family history) and, on average, 17.5% higher in the highest vs lowest deciles of genetic risk. These findings have implications for risk prevention for women at increased risk of breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936056PMC
March 2021

Overall and abdominal obesity and prostate cancer risk in a West African population: An analysis of the Ghana Prostate Study.

Int J Cancer 2020 11 6;147(10):2669-2676. Epub 2020 May 6.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Obesity has been associated with an increased risk of advanced prostate cancer. However, most studies have been conducted among North American and European populations. Prostate cancer mortality appears elevated in West Africa, yet risk factors for prostate cancer in this region are unknown. We thus examined the relationship between obesity and prostate cancer using a case-control study conducted in Accra, Ghana in 2004 to 2012. Cases and controls were drawn from a population-based sample of 1037 men screened for prostate cancer, yielding 73 cases and 964 controls. An additional 493 incident cases were recruited from the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Anthropometric measurements were taken at enrollment. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and prostate cancer, adjusting for potential confounders. The mean BMI was 25.1 kg/m for cases and 24.3 kg/m for controls. After adjustment, men with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m had an increased risk of prostate cancer relative to men with BMI < 25 kg/m (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.11-3.13). Elevated WC (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.24-2.51) and WHR (OR 1.46, 95% CI 0.99-2.16) were also associated with prostate cancer. Associations were not modified by smoking status and were evident for low- and high-grade disease. These findings indicate that overall and abdominal obesity are positively associated with prostate cancer among men in Ghana, implicating obesity as a potentially modifiable risk factor for prostate cancer in this region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7530105PMC
November 2020

Frequency of Pathogenic Germline Variants in Cancer-Susceptibility Genes in Patients With Osteosarcoma.

JAMA Oncol 2020 05;6(5):724-734

Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, Middlesex, United Kingdom.

Importance: Osteosarcoma, the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents, occurs in a high number of cancer predisposition syndromes that are defined by highly penetrant germline mutations. The germline genetic susceptibility to osteosarcoma outside of familial cancer syndromes remains unclear.

Objective: To investigate the germline genetic architecture of 1244 patients with osteosarcoma.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Whole-exome sequencing (n = 1104) or targeted sequencing (n = 140) of the DNA of 1244 patients with osteosarcoma from 10 participating international centers or studies was conducted from April 21, 2014, to September 1, 2017. The results were compared with the DNA of 1062 individuals without cancer assembled internally from 4 participating studies who underwent comparable whole-exome sequencing and 27 173 individuals of non-Finnish European ancestry who were identified through the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) database. In the analysis, 238 high-interest cancer-susceptibility genes were assessed followed by testing of the mutational burden across 736 additional candidate genes. Principal component analyses were used to identify 732 European patients with osteosarcoma and 994 European individuals without cancer, with outliers removed for patient-control group comparisons. Patients were subsequently compared with individuals in the ExAC group. All data were analyzed from June 1, 2017, to July 1, 2019.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The frequency of rare pathogenic or likely pathogenic genetic variants.

Results: Among 1244 patients with osteosarcoma (mean [SD] age at diagnosis, 16 [8.9] years [range, 2-80 years]; 684 patients [55.0%] were male), an analysis restricted to individuals with European ancestry indicated a significantly higher pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant burden in 238 high-interest cancer-susceptibility genes among patients with osteosarcoma compared with the control group (732 vs 994, respectively; P = 1.3 × 10-18). A pathogenic or likely pathogenic cancer-susceptibility gene variant was identified in 281 of 1004 patients with osteosarcoma (28.0%), of which nearly three-quarters had a variant that mapped to an autosomal-dominant gene or a known osteosarcoma-associated cancer predisposition syndrome gene. The frequency of a pathogenic or likely pathogenic cancer-susceptibility gene variant was 128 of 1062 individuals (12.1%) in the control group and 2527 of 27 173 individuals (9.3%) in the ExAC group. A higher than expected frequency of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants was observed in genes not previously linked to osteosarcoma (eg, CDKN2A, MEN1, VHL, POT1, APC, MSH2, and ATRX) and in the Li-Fraumeni syndrome-associated gene, TP53.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this study, approximately one-fourth of patients with osteosarcoma unselected for family history had a highly penetrant germline mutation requiring additional follow-up analysis and possible genetic counseling with cascade testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.0197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7082769PMC
May 2020

Transcriptome-wide association study of breast cancer risk by estrogen-receptor status.

Genet Epidemiol 2020 07 1;44(5):442-468. Epub 2020 Mar 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Previous transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) have identified breast cancer risk genes by integrating data from expression quantitative loci and genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but analyses of breast cancer subtype-specific associations have been limited. In this study, we conducted a TWAS using gene expression data from GTEx and summary statistics from the hitherto largest GWAS meta-analysis conducted for breast cancer overall, and by estrogen receptor subtypes (ER+ and ER-). We further compared associations with ER+ and ER- subtypes, using a case-only TWAS approach. We also conducted multigene conditional analyses in regions with multiple TWAS associations. Two genes, STXBP4 and HIST2H2BA, were specifically associated with ER+ but not with ER- breast cancer. We further identified 30 TWAS-significant genes associated with overall breast cancer risk, including four that were not identified in previous studies. Conditional analyses identified single independent breast-cancer gene in three of six regions harboring multiple TWAS-significant genes. Our study provides new information on breast cancer genetics and biology, particularly about genomic differences between ER+ and ER- breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gepi.22288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7987299PMC
July 2020

Assessing Endogenous and Exogenous Hormone Exposures and Breast Development in a Migrant Study of Bangladeshi and British Girls.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 02 13;17(4). Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Timing of breast development (or thelarche) and its endogenous and exogenous determinants may underlie global variation in breast cancer incidence. The study objectives were to characterize endogenous estrogen levels and bisphenol A (BPA) exposure using a migrant study of adolescent girls and test whether concentrations explained differences in thelarche by birthplace and growth environment. Estrogen metabolites (EM) and BPA-glucuronide (BPA-G) were quantified in urine spot samples using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) from a cross-sectional study of Bangladeshi, first- and second-generation Bangladeshi migrants to the UK, and white British girls aged 5-16 years ( = 348). Thelarche status at the time of interview was self-reported and defined equivalent to Tanner Stage ≥2. We compared geometric means (and 95% confidence interval (CIs)) of EM and BPA-G using linear regression and assessed whether EM and BPA-G explained any of the association between exposure to the UK and the age at thelarche using hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Average EM decreased with exposure to the UK, whereas BPA-G increased and was significantly higher among white British (0.007 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.0024-0.0217) and second-generation British-Bangladeshi girls (0.009 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.0040-0.0187) compared to Bangladeshi girls (0.002 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.0018-0.0034). Two of four EM ratios (16-pathway/parent and parent/all pathways) were significantly associated with thelarche. The relationship between exposure to the UK and thelarche did not change appreciably after adding EM and BPA-G to the models. While BPA-G is often considered a ubiquitous exposure, our findings suggest it can vary based on birthplace and growth environment, with increasing levels for girls who were born in or moved to the UK. Our study did not provide statistically significant evidence that BPA-G or EM concentrations explained earlier thelarche among girls who were born or raised in the UK.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7068451PMC
February 2020

Maternal Pregnancy Hormone Concentrations in Countries with Very Low and High Breast Cancer Risk.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 01 28;17(3). Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Program, Division of Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD 20850, USA.

Background: Breast cancer rates in Asia are much lower than in Europe and North America. Within Asia, rates are lower in Mongolia than in neighboring countries. Variation in pregnancy exposure to endogenous hormone concentrations may explain the differences, but data are lacking.

Methods: We measured maternal serum progesterone, prolactin, estradiol and estrone concentrations in the second half of pregnancy in a cross-sectional study of urban ( = 143-194 depending on the analyte) and rural ( = 150-193) Mongolian women, and U.S. women from Boston ( = 66-204). Medical records provided information on maternal and perinatal factors. Geometric mean hormones were estimated from standard linear models with the log-hormone as the dependent variable and country as the independent variable adjusted for maternal and gestational age at blood draw.

Results: Mean concentrations of prolactin (5722 vs. 4648 uIU/mL; < 0.0001) and estradiol (17.7 vs. 13.6 ng/mL; < 0.0001) were greater in Mongolian than U.S. women, while progesterone (147 vs. 201 ng/mL; < 0.0001) was lower. Mean hormone concentrations were similar in rural and urban Mongolian women. Results were generally similar, with additional adjustment for gravidity, parity, height, body mass index at blood draw, education and alcohol use during pregnancy, and when stratified by offspring sex or parity.

Conclusions: Mongolian women had greater concentrations of prolactin and estrogen and lower concentrations of progesterone than U.S. women, while hormone concentrations were similar in rural and urban Mongolian pregnancies.

Impact: These data do not support the hypothesis that estrogen concentrations in pregnant women are lower in Mongolian compared with Caucasian women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030823DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7037832PMC
January 2020

Trends and Patterns of Testosterone Therapy among U.S. Male Medicare Beneficiaries, 1999 to 2014.

J Urol 2020 06 13;203(6):1184-1190. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Metabolic Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland.

Purpose: We explored the Medicare database (1999 to 2014) to provide a comprehensive assessment of testosterone therapy patterns in the older U.S. male population.

Materials And Methods: We estimated annual age-standardized incidence (new users) and prevalence (existing users) of testosterone therapy according to demographic characteristics, comorbidities and potential indications.

Results: There were 392,698 incident testosterone therapy users during 88 million person-years. Testosterone therapy users were predominantly younger, white nonHispanic, and located in South and West U.S. Census regions. On average testosterone therapy use increased dramatically during 2007 to 2014 (average annual percent change 15.5%), despite a decrease in 2014. In 2014 the most common recorded potential indications for any testosterone therapy were hypogonadism (48%), fatigue (18%), erectile dysfunction (15%), depression (4%) and psychosexual dysfunction (1%). Laboratory tests to measure circulating testosterone concentrations for testosterone therapy were infrequent with 35% having had at least 1 testosterone test in the 120 days preceding testosterone therapy, 4% the recommended 2 pre-testosterone therapy tests, and 16% at least 1 pre-testosterone therapy test and at least 1 post-testosterone therapy test.

Conclusions: Testosterone therapy remains common in the older U.S. male population, despite a recent decrease. Although testosterone therapy prescriptions are predominantly for hypogonadism, a substantial proportion appear to be for less specific conditions. Testosterone tests among men prescribed testosterone therapy appear to be infrequent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JU.0000000000000744DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7211140PMC
June 2020

Pubertal timing and breast density in young women: a prospective cohort study.

Breast Cancer Res 2019 11 14;21(1):122. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Earlier age at onset of pubertal events and longer intervals between them (tempo) have been associated with increased breast cancer risk. It is unknown whether the timing and tempo of puberty are associated with adult breast density, which could mediate the increased risk.

Methods: From 1988 to 1997, girls participating in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) were clinically assessed annually between ages 8 and 17 years for Tanner stages of breast development (thelarche) and pubic hair (pubarche), and onset of menses (menarche) was self-reported. In 2006-2008, 182 participants then aged 25-29 years had their percent dense breast volume (%DBV) measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Multivariable, linear mixed-effects regression models adjusted for reproductive factors, demographics, and body size were used to evaluate associations of age and tempo of puberty events with %DBV.

Results: The mean (standard deviation) and range of %DBV were 27.6 (20.5) and 0.2-86.1. Age at thelarche was negatively associated with %DBV (p trend = 0.04), while pubertal tempo between thelarche and menarche was positively associated with %DBV (p trend = 0.007). %DBV was 40% higher in women whose thelarche-to-menarche tempo was 2.9 years or longer (geometric mean (95%CI) = 21.8% (18.2-26.2%)) compared to women whose thelarche-to-menarche tempo was less than 1.6 years (geometric mean (95%CI) = 15.6% (13.9-17.5%)).

Conclusions: Our results suggest that a slower pubertal tempo, i.e., greater number of months between thelarche and menarche, is associated with higher percent breast density in young women. Future research should examine whether breast density mediates the association between slower tempo and increased breast cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-019-1209-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6857297PMC
November 2019

Involution of Breast Lobules, Mammographic Breast Density and Prognosis Among Tamoxifen-Treated Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer Patients.

J Clin Med 2019 Nov 4;8(11). Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Mammographic breast density (MD) reflects breast fibroglandular content. Its decline following adjuvant tamoxifen treated, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer has been associated with improved outcomes. Breast cancers arise from structures termed lobules, and lower MD is associated with increased age-related lobule involution. We assessed whether pre-treatment involution influenced associations between MD decline and risk of breast cancer-specific death. ER-positive tamoxifen treated patients diagnosed at Kaiser Permanente Northwest (1990-2008) were defined as cases who died of breast cancer ( = 54) and matched controls (remained alive over similar follow-up; = 180). Lobule involution was assessed by examining terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) in benign tissues surrounding cancers as TDLU count/mm, median span and acini count/TDLU. MD (%) was measured in the unaffected breast at baseline (median 6-months before) and follow-up (median 12-months after tamoxifen initiation). TDLU measures and baseline MD were positively associated among controls ( < 0.05). In multivariable regression models, MD decline (≥10%) was associated with reduced risk of breast cancer-specific death before (odds ratio (OR): 0.41, 95% CI: 0.18-0.92) and after (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.18-0.94) adjustment for TDLU count/mm, TDLU span (OR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.14-0.84), and acini count/TDLU (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.13-0.81). MD decline following adjuvant tamoxifen is associated with reduced risk of breast cancer-specific death, irrespective of pre-treatment lobule involution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111868DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6912285PMC
November 2019

Testosterone Therapy in Relation to Prostate Cancer in a U.S. Commercial Insurance Claims Database.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 01 22;29(1):236-245. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, NCI, NIH, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland.

Background: We conducted a study to assess whether testosterone therapy (TT) alters prostate cancer risk using a large U.S. commercial insurance research database.

Methods: From the HealthCore Integrated Research Database (HIRD), we selected men ages 30 years or greater who were new users of TT during 2007 to 2015. We selected two comparison groups: (i) unexposed (matched 10:1) and (ii) new users of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i). Incident prostate cancer was defined as diagnosis of prostate cancer within 4 weeks following prostate biopsy. Propensity scores and inverse probability of treatment weights were used in Poisson regression models to estimate adjusted incidence rates, incidence rate ratios (IRR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Subgroup analyses included stratification by prostate cancer screening, hypogonadism, and follow-up time.

Results: The adjusted prostate cancer IRR was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.68-0.86) when comparing TT with the unexposed group and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.79-0.91) in comparison with the PDE5i group. Inverse associations between TT and prostate cancer were observed in a majority of subgroup analyses, although in both comparisons estimates generally attenuated with increasing time following initial exposure. Among TT users, duration of exposure was not associated with prostate cancer.

Conclusions: Men who received TT did not have a higher rate of prostate cancer compared with the unexposed or PDE5i comparison groups. The inverse association between TT and prostate cancer could be the result of residual confounding, contraindication bias, or undefined biological effect.

Impact: This study suggests that limited TT exposure does not increase risk of prostate cancer in the short term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-0619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6954307PMC
January 2020

Comparison of seasonal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations among pregnant women in Mongolia and Boston.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2019 10 16;193:105427. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, SPH-2 Floor 3, Boston, MA, 02115, USA; Mongolian Health Initiative Non-Governmental Organization, Bayanzurkh District, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 181 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. Electronic address:

Adequate vitamin D status during pregnancy is important for developing fetal bone strength and density and may play a role in preventing a range of skeletal and non-skeletal diseases in both mothers and children. We previously identified Mongolian women of reproductive age to have the lowest vitamin D levels yet observed in any population globally, which renders this population uniquely important in vitamin D research. In this study, we measured the seasonal distribution of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration in 390 healthy third trimester pregnant women living in urban and rural Mongolia using DiaSorin LIAISON and compared this distribution to that of 206 third trimester women living in Boston, USA. Also, we analyzed seasonally-independent associations between (25(OH)D) levels and selected predictors in both groups using quantile regression. Mean 25(OH)D levels were significantly higher and less seasonal in Boston (seasonal range: 27.1 ± 7.0-31.5 ± 7.7 ng/ml) than in Mongolia (seasonal range: 11.2 ± 3.9-19.2 ± 6.7 ng/ml). Adjusting for month of blood draw, higher 25(OH)D levels were significantly associated with older age, lower gravidity, lower BMI, and lack of a college or university degree among Boston participants, however, only gravidity was robust to multivariable adjustment. No assessed characteristics were independently predictive in Mongolia, likely due to universally low 25(OH)D levels and a resulting lack of between-person variation. In conclusion, vitamin D status among pregnant Mongolians is severely depressed throughout the year and should be addressed through fortification and supplementation, while in the U.S., deficiency is associated with specific characteristics targetable through supplementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2019.105427DOI Listing
October 2019

Prenatal Diethylstilbestrol Exposure and Risk of Depression in Women and Men.

Epidemiology 2019 09;30(5):679-686

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Department of Health and Human Services, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

Background: Prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), an endocrine-disrupting chemical, may be associated with depression in adulthood, but previous findings are inconsistent.

Methods: Women (3,888 DES exposed and 1,729 unexposed) and men (1,021 DES exposed and 1,042 unexposed) participating in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) DES Combined Cohort Follow-up Study were queried in 2011 for any history of depression diagnosis or treatment. Hazard ratios (HRs; 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) estimated the associations between prenatal DES exposure and depression risk.

Results: Depression was reported by 993 (26%) exposed and 405 (23%) unexposed women, and 177 (17%) exposed and 181 (17%) unexposed men. Compared with the unexposed, HRs for DES and depression were 1.1 (95% CI = 0.9, 1.2) in women and 1.0 (95% CI = 0.8, 1.2) in men. For medication-treated depression, the HRs (CIs) were 1.1 (0.9, 1.2) in women and 0.9 (0.7, 1.2) in men. In women, the HR (CI) for exposure to a low cumulative DES dose was 1.2 (1.0, 1.4), and for DES exposure before 8 weeks' gestation was 1.2 (1.0, 1.4). In men, the HR for low dose was 1.2 (95% CI = 0.9, 1.6) and there was no association with timing. In women, associations were uninfluenced by the presence of DES-related vaginal epithelial changes or a prior diagnosis of DES-related adverse outcomes.

Conclusions: Prenatal DES exposure was not associated overall with risk of depression in women or men. In women, exposure in early gestation or to a low cumulative dose may be weakly associated with an increased depression risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/EDE.0000000000001048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6679745PMC
September 2019

Genome-wide association and transcriptome studies identify target genes and risk loci for breast cancer.

Nat Commun 2019 04 15;10(1):1741. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Molecular Oncology Laboratory, CIBERONC, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, IdISSC (Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico San Carlos), 28040, Madrid, Spain.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 170 breast cancer susceptibility loci. Here we hypothesize that some risk-associated variants might act in non-breast tissues, specifically adipose tissue and immune cells from blood and spleen. Using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) reported in these tissues, we identify 26 previously unreported, likely target genes of overall breast cancer risk variants, and 17 for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, several with a known immune function. We determine the directional effect of gene expression on disease risk measured based on single and multiple eQTL. In addition, using a gene-based test of association that considers eQTL from multiple tissues, we identify seven (and four) regions with variants associated with overall (and ER-negative) breast cancer risk, which were not reported in previous GWAS. Further investigation of the function of the implicated genes in breast and immune cells may provide insights into the etiology of breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-08053-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6465407PMC
April 2019

Validation of an Algorithm for Claims-based Incidence of Prostate Cancer.

Epidemiology 2019 05;30(3):466-471

National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD.

Background: Prostate cancer is a commonly studied outcome in administrative claims studies, but there is a dearth of validated case identifying algorithms. The long-term development of the disease increases the difficulty in separating prevalent from incident prostate cancer. The purpose of this validation study was to assess the accuracy of a claims algorithm to identify incident prostate cancer among men in commercial and Medicare Advantage US health plans.

Methods: We identified prostate cancer in claims as a prostate cancer diagnosis within 28 days after a prostate biopsy and compared case ascertainment in the claims with the gold standard results from the Georgia Comprehensive Cancer Registry (GCCR).

Results: We identified 74,008 men from a large health plan claims database for possible linkage with GCCR. Among the 382 prostate cancer cases identified in claims, 312 were also identified in the GCCR (positive predictive value [PPV] = 82%). Of the registry cases, 91% (95% confidence interval = 88, 94) were correctly identified in claims. Claims and registry diagnosis dates of prostate cancer matched exactly in 254/312 (81%) cases. Nearly half of the false-positive cases also had claims for prostate cancer treatment. Thirteen (43%) false-negative cases were classified as noncases by virtue of having a biopsy and diagnosis >28 days apart as required by the algorithm. Compared to matches, false-negative cases were older men with less aggressive prostate cancer.

Conclusions: Our algorithm demonstrated a PPV of 82% with 92% sensitivity in ascertaining incident PC. Administrative health plan claims can be a valuable and accurate source to identify incident prostate cancer cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/EDE.0000000000001007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456424PMC
May 2019

Genome-wide association study of germline variants and breast cancer-specific mortality.

Br J Cancer 2019 03 21;120(6):647-657. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Lund University, Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund, Sweden.

Background: We examined the associations between germline variants and breast cancer mortality using a large meta-analysis of women of European ancestry.

Methods: Meta-analyses included summary estimates based on Cox models of twelve datasets using ~10.4 million variants for 96,661 women with breast cancer and 7697 events (breast cancer-specific deaths). Oestrogen receptor (ER)-specific analyses were based on 64,171 ER-positive (4116) and 16,172 ER-negative (2125) patients. We evaluated the probability of a signal to be a true positive using the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP).

Results: We did not find any variant associated with breast cancer-specific mortality at P < 5 × 10. For ER-positive disease, the most significantly associated variant was chr7:rs4717568 (BFDP = 7%, P = 1.28 × 10, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84-0.92); the closest gene is AUTS2. For ER-negative disease, the most significant variant was chr7:rs67918676 (BFDP = 11%, P = 1.38 × 10, HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.16-1.39); located within a long intergenic non-coding RNA gene (AC004009.3), close to the HOXA gene cluster.

Conclusions: We uncovered germline variants on chromosome 7 at BFDP < 15% close to genes for which there is biological evidence related to breast cancer outcome. However, the paucity of variants associated with mortality at genome-wide significance underpins the challenge in providing genetic-based individualised prognostic information for breast cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-019-0393-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461853PMC
March 2019

Estrogen metabolism pathways in preeclampsia and normal pregnancy.

Steroids 2019 04 25;144:8-14. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD, United States.

Background: Experimental studies suggest that shallow uterine cytotrophoblastic invasion in preeclampsia may be associated with alterations in estrogen metabolism. The objective of this study was to examine the association of parent estrogens and their metabolites between preeclamptics and normotensive controls at three time points during pregnancy. Methods Parent estrogens and their metabolites were measured in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 66 singleton preeclampsia cases and 137 matched controls. Percent change in geometric means were estimated by general linear models adjusted for gestational age at sampling, maternal age, parity, race, body mass index, and use of assisted reproductive technologies. Results Urinary estradiol concentrations were approximately 50% higher in early pregnancy in preeclampsia cases than controls, but similar late in pregnancy. There was an approximate 20% reduction in total 2-pathway metabolites and 4-pathway metabolites in cases compared with controls in mid- and later pregnancy that was slightly attenuated with adjustment for BMI, and a reduction in 16-pathways in mid-pregnancy but not later. Conclusion(s) Our findings show that estradiol concentrations were elevated in preeclampsia versus controls in early pregnancy. In mid-pregnancy, all three estrogen metabolism (2-, 4-, and 16-) pathways showed some reduction in preeclampsia that appeared to continue for the 2- and 4-pathways in late pregnancy. We hypothesize that this may indicate that there is a generalized reduction in estrogen metabolism in preeclampsia rather than a deficit of specific enzymes, such as those involved in the 2-hydroxylation pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2019.01.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6681456PMC
April 2019

Author Correction: Association analyses of more than 140,000 men identify 63 new prostate cancer susceptibility loci.

Nat Genet 2019 02;51(2):363

Dame Roma Mitchell Cancer Research Centre, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

In the version of this article initially published, the name of author Manuela Gago-Dominguez was misspelled as Manuela Gago Dominguez. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF version of the article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0330-6DOI Listing
February 2019

Reproductive and hormone-related outcomes in women whose mothers were exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol (DES): A report from the US National Cancer Institute DES Third Generation Study.

Reprod Toxicol 2019 03 27;84:32-38. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, United States.

Background: Animal studies suggest that prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) causes epigenetic alterations in primordial germ cells that affect the next generation, but human studies are sparse.

Methods: We assessed hormonally mediated outcomes in third generation women whose mothers were prenatally DES-exposed and unexposed.

Results: Compared to the unexposed, DES-exposed third generation women had an increased risk of irregular menses and amenorrhea; the respective prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in follow-up data were 1.32 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.60) and 1.26 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.49); associations were more apparent in third generation women whose prenatally DES-exposed mothers were affected by vaginal epithelial changes. The follow-up data also indicated an association with preterm delivery (relative risk (RR): 1.54; 95% CI: 1.35, 1.75).

Conclusion: DES third generation women may have an increased risk of irregular menstrual cycles, amenorrhea, and preterm delivery, consistent with inter-generational effects of endocrine disrupting chemical exposure in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2018.12.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6382553PMC
March 2019

Polygenic Risk Scores for Prediction of Breast Cancer and Breast Cancer Subtypes.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 01 13;104(1):21-34. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00290, Finland; Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro 70185, Sweden.

Stratification of women according to their risk of breast cancer based on polygenic risk scores (PRSs) could improve screening and prevention strategies. Our aim was to develop PRSs, optimized for prediction of estrogen receptor (ER)-specific disease, from the largest available genome-wide association dataset and to empirically validate the PRSs in prospective studies. The development dataset comprised 94,075 case subjects and 75,017 control subjects of European ancestry from 69 studies, divided into training and validation sets. Samples were genotyped using genome-wide arrays, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected by stepwise regression or lasso penalized regression. The best performing PRSs were validated in an independent test set comprising 11,428 case subjects and 18,323 control subjects from 10 prospective studies and 190,040 women from UK Biobank (3,215 incident breast cancers). For the best PRSs (313 SNPs), the odds ratio for overall disease per 1 standard deviation in ten prospective studies was 1.61 (95%CI: 1.57-1.65) with area under receiver-operator curve (AUC) = 0.630 (95%CI: 0.628-0.651). The lifetime risk of overall breast cancer in the top centile of the PRSs was 32.6%. Compared with women in the middle quintile, those in the highest 1% of risk had 4.37- and 2.78-fold risks, and those in the lowest 1% of risk had 0.16- and 0.27-fold risks, of developing ER-positive and ER-negative disease, respectively. Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that this PRS was well calibrated and predicts disease risk accurately in the tails of the distribution. This PRS is a powerful and reliable predictor of breast cancer risk that may improve breast cancer prevention programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.11.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6323553PMC
January 2019
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