Publications by authors named "Robert L S Perry"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A novel role for AMP-kinase in the regulation of the Na+/I--symporter and iodide uptake in the rat thyroid gland.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2011 Jun 9;300(6):C1291-7. Epub 2011 Mar 9.

Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of AMP-kinase (AMPK) in the regulation of iodide uptake by the thyroid gland. Iodide uptake was assessed in PCCL3 follicular thyroid cells exposed to the AMPK agonist 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-ribonucleoside (AICAR), and also in rat thyroid glands 24 h after a single intraperitoneal injection of AICAR. In PCCL3 cells, AICAR-induced AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation decreased iodide uptake in a concentration-dependent manner, while the AMPK inhibitor compound C prevented this effect. In the thyroid gland of rats injected with AICAR, AMPK and ACC phosphorylation was increased and iodide uptake was reduced by ~35%. Under conditions of increased AMPK phosphorylation/activation such as TSH deprivation or AICAR treatment, significant reductions in cellular Na(+)/I(-)-symporter (NIS) protein (~41%) and mRNA content (~65%) were observed. The transcriptional (actinomycin D) and translational (cycloheximide) inhibitors, as well as the AMPK inhibitor compound C prevented AICAR-induced reduction of NIS protein content in PCCL3 cells. The presence of TSH in the culture medium reduced AMPK phosphorylation in PCCL3 cells, while inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) with H89 prevented this effect. Conversely, the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin abolished the AMPK phosphorylation response induced by TSH withdrawal in PCCL3 cells. These findings demonstrate that TSH suppresses AMPK phosphorylation/activation in a cAMP-PKA-dependent manner. In summary, we provide novel evidence that AMPK is involved in the physiological regulation of iodide uptake, which is an essential step for the formation of thyroid hormones as well as for the regulation of thyroid function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00136.2010DOI Listing
June 2011

Disruption of AMPKalpha1 signaling prevents AICAR-induced inhibition of AS160/TBC1D4 phosphorylation and glucose uptake in primary rat adipocytes.

Mol Endocrinol 2010 Jul 25;24(7):1434-40. Epub 2010 May 25.

School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M3J1P3.

The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which AMP-kinase (AMPK) activation inhibits basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in primary adipocytes. Rat epididymal adipocytes were exposed to 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) for 1 h. Subsequently, basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and the phosphorylation of AMPK, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, Akt, and the Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160/TBC1D4) were determined. In order to investigate whether these effects of AICAR were mediated by AMPK activation, these parameters were also assessed in adipocytes either expressing LacZ (control) or a kinase-dead AMPKalpha1 mutant. AICAR increased AMPK activation without affecting basal and insulin-stimulated Akt1/2 phosphorylation on Thr(308) and Ser(473) residues. However, AMPK activation suppressed the phosphorylation of AS160/TBC1D4 and its interaction with the 14-3-3 signal transduction-regulatory protein, which was accompanied by significant reductions in plasma membrane glucose transporter 4 content and glucose uptake under basal and insulin-stimulated conditions. Phosphorylation of Akt substrates glycogen synthase kinase 3alpha and -beta were unaltered by AICAR, indicating that the AMPK-regulatory effects were specific to the AS160/TBC1D4 signaling pathway. Expression of the kinase-dead AMPKalpha1 mutant fully prevented the suppression of AS160/TBC1D4 phosphorylation, plasma membrane glucose transporter 4 content, and the inhibitory effect of AICAR-induced AMPK activation on basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. This study is the first to provide evidence that disruption of AMPKalpha1 signaling prevents the suppressive effects of AMPK activation on AS160/TBC1D4 phosphorylation and glucose uptake, indicating that insulin-signaling steps that are common to white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle regulation of glucose uptake are distinctly affected by AMPK activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/me.2009-0502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5417465PMC
July 2010

Prolonged AICAR-induced AMP-kinase activation promotes energy dissipation in white adipocytes: novel mechanisms integrating HSL and ATGL.

J Lipid Res 2009 Apr 2;50(4):704-15. Epub 2008 Dec 2.

School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

This study was designed to investigate the effects of prolonged activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) on lipid partitioning and the potential molecular mechanisms involved in these processes in white adipose tissue (WAT). Rat epididymal adipocytes were incubated with 5'-aminoimidasole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR;0.5 mM) for 15 h. Also, epididymal adipocytes were isolated 15 h after AICAR was injected (i.p. 0.7 g/kg body weight) in rats. Adipocytes were utilized for various metabolic assays and for determination of gene expression and protein content. Time-dependent in vivo plasma NEFA concentrations were determined. AICAR treatment significantly increased AMPK activation, inhibited lipogenesis, and increased FA oxidation. This was accompanied by upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha, PPARdelta, and PPARgamma-coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) mRNA levels. Lipolysis was first suppressed, but then increased, both in vitro and in vivo, with prolonged AICAR treatment. Exposure to AICAR increased adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) content and FA release, despite inhibition of basal and epinephrine-stimulated hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity. Here, we provide evidence that prolonged AICAR-induced AMPK activation can remodel adipocyte metabolism by upregulating pathways that favor energy dissipation versus lipid storage in WAT. Additionally, we show novel time-dependent effects of AICAR-induced AMPK activation on lipolysis, which involves antagonistic modulation of HSL and ATGL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1194/jlr.M800480-JLR200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2656664PMC
April 2009

Protein kinase A represses skeletal myogenesis by targeting myocyte enhancer factor 2D.

Mol Cell Biol 2008 May 25;28(9):2952-70. Epub 2008 Feb 25.

Department of Biology, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto M3J 1P3, Ontario, Canada.

Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) by elevation of the intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) level inhibits skeletal myogenesis. Previously, an indirect modulation of the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) was implicated as the mechanism. Because myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) proteins are key regulators of myogenesis and obligatory partners for the MRFs, here we assessed whether these proteins could be involved in PKA-mediated myogenic repression. Initially, in silico analysis revealed several consensus PKA phosphoacceptor sites on MEF2, and subsequent analysis by in vitro kinase assays indicated that PKA directly and efficiently phosphorylates MEF2D. Using mass spectrometric determination of phosphorylated residues, we document that MEF2D serine 121 and serine 190 are targeted by PKA. Transcriptional reporter gene assays to assess MEF2D function revealed that PKA potently represses the transactivation properties of MEF2D. Furthermore, engineered mutation of MEF2D PKA phosphoacceptor sites (serines 121 and 190 to alanine) rendered a PKA-resistant MEF2D protein, which efficiently rescues myogenesis from PKA-mediated repression. Concomitantly, increased intracellular cAMP-mediated PKA activation also resulted in an enhanced nuclear accumulation of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) and a subsequent increase in the MEF2D-HDAC4 repressor complex. Collectively, these data identify MEF2D as a primary target of PKA signaling in myoblasts that leads to inhibition of the skeletal muscle differentiation program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.00248-08DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2293079PMC
May 2008

Smad7 promotes and enhances skeletal muscle differentiation.

Mol Cell Biol 2006 Aug;26(16):6248-60

Department of Biology, 327 Farquharson, LSB, York University, 4700 Keele St., Toronto M3J 1P3 Ontario, Canada.

Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) and myostatin signaling, mediated by the same Smad downstream effectors, potently repress skeletal muscle cell differentiation. Smad7 inhibits these cytokine signaling pathways. The role of Smad7 during skeletal muscle cell differentiation was assessed. In these studies, we document that increased expression of Smad7 abrogates myostatin- but not TGF-beta1-mediated repression of myogenesis. Further, constitutive expression of exogenous Smad7 potently enhanced skeletal muscle differentiation and cellular hypertrophy. Conversely, targeting of endogenous Smad7 by small interfering RNA inhibited C2C12 muscle cell differentiation, indicating an essential role for Smad7 during myogenesis. Congruent with a role for Smad7 in myogenesis, we observed that the muscle regulatory factor (MyoD) binds to and transactivates the Smad7 proximal promoter region. Finally, we document that Smad7 directly interacts with MyoD and enhances MyoD transcriptional activity. Thus, Smad7 cooperates with MyoD, creating a positive loop to induce Smad7 expression and to promote MyoD driven myogenesis. Taken together, these data implicate Smad7 as a fundamental regulator of differentiation in skeletal muscle cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.00384-06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1592807PMC
August 2006

MyoD synergizes with the E-protein HEB beta to induce myogenic differentiation.

Mol Cell Biol 2006 Aug;26(15):5771-83

Ottawa Health Research Institute, Molecular Medicine Program, 501 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8L6, Canada.

The MyoD family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors function as heterodimers with members of the E-protein family to induce myogenic gene activation. The E-protein HEB is alternatively spliced to generate alpha and beta isoforms. While the function of these molecules has been studied in other cell types, questions persist regarding the molecular functions of HEB proteins in skeletal muscle. Our data demonstrate that HEB alpha expression remains unchanged in both myoblasts and myotubes, whereas HEB beta is upregulated during the early phases of terminal differentiation. Upon induction of differentiation, a MyoD-HEB beta complex bound the E1 E-box of the myogenin promoter leading to transcriptional activation. Importantly, forced expression of HEB beta with MyoD synergistically lead to precocious myogenin expression in proliferating myoblasts. However, after differentiation, HEB alpha and HEB beta synergized with myogenin, but not MyoD, to activate the myogenin promoter. Specific knockdown of HEB beta by small interfering RNA in myoblasts blocked differentiation and inhibited induction of myogenin transcription. Therefore, HEB alpha and HEB beta play novel and central roles in orchestrating the regulation of myogenic factor activity through myogenic differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.02404-05DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1592768PMC
August 2006

ErbB2 is required for muscle spindle and myoblast cell survival.

Mol Cell Biol 2002 Jul;22(13):4714-22

Institute for Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Signaling mediated by ErbB2 is thought to play a critical role in numerous developmental processes. However, due to the embryonic lethality associated with the germ line inactivation of erbB2, its role in adult tissues remains largely obscure. Given the expression of ErbB2 at the neuromuscular junction, we have created a muscle-specific knockout to assess its role there. This resulted in viable mice with a progressive defect in proprioception due to loss of muscle spindles. Interestingly, a partial reduction of ErbB2 levels also reduced the number of muscle spindles. Although histological analysis of the muscle revealed an otherwise normal architecture, induction of muscle injury revealed a defect in muscle regeneration. Consistent with these observations, primary myoblasts lacking ErbB2 exhibit extensive apoptosis upon differentiation into myofibers. Taken together, these results illustrate a dual role for ErbB2 in both muscle spindle maintenance and survival of myoblasts.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC133917PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mcb.22.13.4714-4722.2002DOI Listing
July 2002

Promoter-specific regulation of MyoD binding and signal transduction cooperate to pattern gene expression.

Mol Cell 2002 Mar;9(3):587-600

Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA.

We used expression arrays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays to demonstrate that myogenesis consists of discrete subprograms of gene expression regulated by MyoD. Approximately 5% of assayed genes alter expression in a specific temporal sequence, and more than 1% are regulated by MyoD without the synthesis of additional transcription factors. MyoD regulates genes expressed at different times during myogenesis, and promoter-specific regulation of MyoD binding is a major mechanism of patterning gene expression. In addition, p38 kinase activity is necessary for the expression of a restricted subset of genes regulated by MyoD, but not for MyoD binding. The identification of distinct molecular mechanisms that regulate discrete subprograms of myogenesis should facilitate analyses of differentiation in normal development and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1097-2765(02)00481-1DOI Listing
March 2002