Publications by authors named "Robert G Hart"

182 Publications

Mortality Benefit of Rivaroxaban Plus Aspirin in Patients With Chronic Coronary or Peripheral Artery Disease.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Jul;78(1):14-23

Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Ontario, Canada; Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background: The combination of 2.5 mg rivaroxaban twice daily and 100 mg aspirin once daily compared with 100 mg aspirin once daily reduces major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) or peripheral artery disease (PAD).

Objectives: The aim of this work was to report the effects of the combination on overall and cause-specific mortality.

Methods: The COMPASS trial enrolled 27,395 patients of whom 18,278 were randomized to the combination (n = 9,152) or aspirin alone (n = 9,126). Deaths were adjudicated by a committee blinded to treatment allocation. Previously identified high-risk baseline features were polyvascular disease, chronic kidney disease, mild or moderate heart failure, and diabetes.

Results: During a median of 23 months of follow-up (maximum 47 months), 313 patients (3.4%) allocated to the combination and 378 patients (4.1%) allocated to aspirin alone died (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71-0.96; P = 0.01). Compared with aspirin, the combination reduced CV death (160 [1.7%] vs 203 [2.2%]; HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.64-0.96; P = 0.02) but not non-CV death. There were fewer deaths following MI, stroke, and CV procedures, as well as fewer sudden cardiac, other, and unknown causes of CV deaths and coronary heart disease deaths. Patients with 0, 1, 2, and 3 or 4 high-risk features at baseline had 4.2, 4.8, 25.0, and 53.9 fewer deaths, respectively, per 1000 patients treated for 30 months.

Conclusions: The combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin reduced overall and CV mortality with consistent reductions in cause specific CV mortality in patients with chronic CAD or PAD. The absolute mortality benefits are greater with increasing baseline risk. (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulant Strategies [COMPASS]; NCT01776424).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.04.083DOI Listing
July 2021

Aspirin Use and Risk of Subdural Hematoma: Updated Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Aug 13;30(8):105911. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Medicine (Neurology), McMaster University, Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background And Purpose: Subdural hematomas are an uncommon, but a serious, bleeding complication of antithrombotic therapies. We update our previous inconclusive meta-analysis to better estimate the risk of subdural hematoma associated with aspirin use.

Methods: For the initial meta-analysis, nine randomized trials published between1980 and 2012 comparing aspirin with placebo/control were considered. Additional data from four large primary prevention trials were added. Two reviewers independently extracted data on subdural hematomas, with differences resolved by joint review and consensus.

Results: Numbers of subdural hematoma were available from thirteen randomized trials involving 155,554 participants comparing aspirin (dosage range 25 mg twice daily to 325 mg daily) to placebo (ten double-blind trials) or no aspirin (three trials). Participants included healthy healthcare providers, older people with vascular risk factors without manifest vascular disease, and those with atrial fibrillation or chronic angina. Pooling all trials, subdural hematomas were identified in 93 of 77,698 participants assigned to aspirin versus 62 of 77,856 participants assigned to placebo/no aspirin. By meta-analysis, the relative risk ratio of subdural hematoma associated with assignment to aspirin was 1.5 (95%CI 1.1, 2.0, p = 0.01; p = 0.9 for heterogeneity, I index = 0%). Based on recent primary prevention trials, subdural hematoma diagnosis averaged 1 per 3,125 people per year without aspirin use; the absolute increase associated with aspirin use was estimated as one additional subdural hematoma per 6,500 patients annually.

Conclusions: This meta-analysis confirms that aspirin use increases the relative risk of subdural hematoma, but the absolute increased rate associated with aspirin therapy is very low for most people.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105911DOI Listing
August 2021

Intracranial Atherosclerotic Plaque and Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source: Another Piece of the Puzzle.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Feb;77(6):692-694

Department of Medicine (Neurology), McMaster University, Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.12.041DOI Listing
February 2021

Atrial Fibrillation and Prevention of Embolic Stroke: Personal Reflections.

Authors:
Robert G Hart

Stroke 2021 Jan 11;52(2):e55-e57. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences, Ontario, Canada.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.030420DOI Listing
January 2021

Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: Looking Forward.

Circulation 2020 Dec 14;142(24):2371-2388. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Division of Neurology, McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences, Canada (A.H.K., R.G.H.).

Ischemic strokes related to atrial fibrillation are highly prevalent, presenting with severe neurologic syndromes and associated with high risk of recurrence. Although advances have been made in both primary and secondary stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation, the long-term risks for stroke recurrence and bleeding complications from antithrombotic treatment remain substantial. We summarize the major advances in stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation during the past 30 years and focus on novel diagnostic and treatment approaches currently under investigation in ongoing clinical trials. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants have been proven to be safer and equally effective compared with warfarin in stroke prevention for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants are being investigated for the treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation and rheumatic heart disease, for the treatment of patients with recent embolic stroke of undetermined source and indirect evidence of cardiac embolism, and in the prevention of vascular-mediated cognitive decline in patients with atrial fibrillation. Multiple clinical trials are assessing the optimal timing of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant initiation after a recent ischemic stroke and the benefit:harm ratio of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation and history of previous intracranial bleeding. Ongoing trials are addressing the usefulness of left atrial appendage occlusion in both primary and secondary stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation, including those with high risk of bleeding. The additive value of prolonged cardiac monitoring for subclinical atrial fibrillation detection through smartphone applications or implantable cardiac devices, together with the optimal medical management of individuals with covert paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, is a topic of intensive research interest. Colchicine treatment and factor XIa inhibition constitute 2 novel pharmacologic approaches that might provide future treatment options in the secondary prevention of cardioembolic stroke attributable to atrial fibrillation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.049768DOI Listing
December 2020

Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants for secondary stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation.

Eur Heart J Suppl 2020 Sep 15;22(Suppl I):I13-I21. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Stroke Unit, University of Perugia, Santa Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Ospedale S. Maria della Misericordia S. Andrea delle Fratte, 06156 Perugia, Italy.

The aims of this article are to review the evidence regarding the use of non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) for secondary stroke prevention as compared to vitamin K antagonists in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and in patients with embolic strokes of uncertain source (ESUS), and when to initiate or resume anticoagulation after an ischaemic stroke or intracranial haemorrhage. Four large trials compared NOACs with warfarin in patients with AF. In our meta-analyses, the rate of all stroke or systemic embolism (SE) was 4.94% with NOACs vs. 5.73% with warfarin. Among the patients with AF and previous transient ischaemic attack or ischaemic stroke, the rate of haemorrhagic stroke was halved with a NOAC vs. warfarin, and the rate of major bleeding was 5.7% with a NOAC vs. 6.4% with warfarin. There was no significant difference in mortality. In a trial comparing apixaban with aspirin in patients with AF, the rate of stroke or SE was 2.4% at 1 year with apixaban vs. 9.2% at 1 year with aspirin and the rates of major bleeding were 4.1% with apixaban vs. 2.9% with aspirin. Data from registries confirmed the results from the randomized trials. Initiation or resumption of anticoagulation after ischaemic stroke or cerebral haemorrhage depends on the size and severity of stroke and the risk of recurrent bleeding. Two large trials tested the hypothesis that NOACs are more effective than 100 mg aspirin in patients with ESUS. Neither trial showed a significant benefit of the NOAC over aspirin. In the meta-analysis, the rate all stroke or SE was 4.94% with NOACs vs. 5.73% with warfarin and the rate of haemorrhagic stroke was halved with a NOAC. The four NOACs had broadly similar efficacy for the major outcomes in secondary stroke prevention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/suaa104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556747PMC
September 2020

Microbleeds and the Effect of Anticoagulation in Patients With Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source: An Exploratory Analysis of the NAVIGATE ESUS Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Neurol 2021 01;78(1):11-20

Division of Neurology, McMaster University / Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Importance: The reported associations of cerebral microbleeds with recurrent stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage have raised concerns regarding antithrombotic treatment in patients with a history of stroke and microbleeds on magnetic resonance imaging.

Objective: To characterize microbleeds in embolic strokes of undetermined source (ESUS) and report interactions between microbleeds and the effects of random assignment to anticoagulant vs antiplatelet therapy.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Subgroup analyses of the New Approach Rivaroxaban Inhibition of Factor Xa in a Global Trial vs Aspirin to Prevent Embolism in ESUS (NAVIGATE ESUS) international, double-blind, randomized, event-driven phase 3 clinical trial. Participants were enrolled between December 2014 and September 2017 and followed up for a median of 11 months. The study setting included 459 stroke recruitment centers in 31 countries. Patients aged 50 years or older who had neuroimaging-confirmed ESUS between 7 days and 6 months before screening were eligible. Of these 7213 NAVIGATE ESUS participants, 3699 (51%) had information on cerebral microbleeds reported on their baseline clinical magnetic resonance imaging and were eligible for these analyses. Patients with a prior history of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage were excluded from the NAVIGATE ESUS trial.

Interventions: Rivaroxaban, 15 mg, compared with aspirin, 100 mg, daily.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was recurrent stroke. Secondary outcomes were ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and all-cause mortality.

Results: Microbleeds were present in 395 of 3699 participants (11%). Of patients with cerebral microbleeds, mean (SD) age was 69.5 (9.4) years, 241 were men (61%), and 201 were White (51%). Advancing age (odds ratio [OR] per year, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04), East Asian race/ethnicity (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.04-2.37), hypertension (OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.54-3.15), multiterritorial infarcts (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.42-2.67), chronic infarcts (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.42-2.23), and occult intracerebral hemorrhage (OR, 5.23; 95% CI, 2.76-9.90) were independently associated with microbleeds. The presence of microbleeds was associated with a 1.5-fold increased risk of recurrent stroke (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.3), a 4-fold risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (HR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.3-13.9), a 2-fold risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-4.3), and strictly lobar microbleeds with an approximately 2.5-fold risk of ischemic stroke (HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.3-4.3). There were no interactions between microbleeds and treatment assignments for recurrent stroke, ischemic stroke, or all-cause mortality. The HR of intracerebral hemorrhage on rivaroxaban was similar between persons with microbleeds (HR, 3.1; 95% CI, 0.3-30.0) and persons without microbleeds (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 0.6-14.7; interaction P = .97).

Conclusions And Relevance: Microbleeds mark an increased risk of recurrent stroke, ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and mortality in ESUS but do not appear to influence effects of rivaroxaban on clinical outcomes.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02313909.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.3836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7573796PMC
January 2021

Rivaroxaban for Prevention of Covert Brain Infarcts and Cognitive Decline: The COMPASS MRI Substudy.

Stroke 2020 10 21;51(10):2901-2909. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

ANMCO Research Center, Florence, Italy (A.P.M.).

Background And Purpose: Covert brain infarcts are associated with cognitive decline. It is not known whether therapies that prevent symptomatic stroke prevent covert infarcts. COMPASS compared rivaroxaban with and without aspirin with aspirin for the prevention of stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death in participants with stable vascular disease and was terminated early because of benefits of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin over aspirin. We obtained serial magnetic resonance imagings and cognitive tests in a consenting subgroup of COMPASS patients to examine treatment effects on infarcts, cerebral microbleeds, and white matter hyperintensities.

Methods: Baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imagings were completed in 1445 participants with a mean (SD) interval of 2.0 (0.7) years. Whole-brain T1, T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, T2* sequences were centrally interpreted by blinded, trained readers. Participants had serial measurements of cognition and function. The primary end point was the proportion of participants with incident covert infarcts. Secondary end points were the composite of clinical stroke and covert brain infarcts, cerebral microbleeds, and white matter hyperintensities.

Results: At baseline, 493 (34.1%) participants had infarcts. Incident covert infarcts occurred in 55 (3.8%) participants. In the overall trial rivaroxaban plus aspirin reduced ischemic stroke by 49% (0.7% versus 1.4%; hazard ratio [95% CI], 0.51 [0.38-0.68]). In the magnetic resonance imaging substudy the effects of rivaroxaban+aspirin versus aspirin were: covert infarcts: 2.7% versus 3.5% (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.77 [0.37-1.60]); Covert infarcts or ischemic stroke: 2.9% versus 5.3% (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.53 [0.27-1.03]). Incident microbleeds occurred in 6.6% of participants and 65.7% of participants had an increase in white matter hyperintensities volume with no effect of treatment for either end point. There was no effect on cognitive tests.

Conclusions: Covert infarcts were not significantly reduced by treatment with rivaroxaban and aspirin but estimates for the combination of ischemic stroke and covert infarcts were consistent with the effect on ischemic stroke in the overall trial. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01776424.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.029762DOI Listing
October 2020

New Horizons in Pharmacologic Therapy for Secondary Stroke Prevention.

JAMA Neurol 2020 10;77(10):1308-1317

Division of Neurology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Importance: Even with currently available therapies and lifestyle modifications following an ischemic stroke, there remains a substantial residual lifetime risk of stroke recurrence and cardiovascular morbidity. This review summarizes emerging novel therapeutic approaches that have demonstrated signals of efficacy for prevention of noncardioembolic stroke from phase II and phase III randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and provides an overview of drug regimens that have had promising results in primary stroke prevention and could be considered for further evaluation.

Observations: After a minor acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack, patients bear a high cardiovascular risk that is insufficiently addressed by long-term antiplatelet treatment. The potent combination of low-dose rivaroxaban with aspirin as an antithrombotic option for the secondary prevention in patients with clinical atherosclerosis and a history of previous stroke warrants further study. Two international RCTs are currently evaluating the utility of oral factor XI inhibitors combined with antiplatelets for secondary, noncardioembolic ischemic stroke prevention. Aggressive lipid management with statins has been shown to ameliorate ischemic stroke recurrence and total cardiovascular risk. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors are drug regimens that researchers have suggested confer additional protection against stroke recurrence, while antisense oligonucleotide therapies targeting lipoprotein(a) have been reported to hold great promise as a future therapeutic strategy to decrease the residual cardiovascular risk mediated through lipoprotein(a). Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists are newer antidiabetic medications, recently highlighted because of their consistently greater benefit on stroke reduction compared with other cardiovascular outcomes.

Conclusions And Relevance: There are currently several exciting emerging opportunities in secondary stroke prevention, with RCTs investigating novel antithrombotic, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic agents with novel mechanisms that are likely to reduce the future burden of recurrent stroke.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.2494DOI Listing
October 2020

Intracranial and systemic atherosclerosis in the NAVIGATE ESUS trial: Recurrent stroke risk and response to antithrombotic therapy.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Aug 8;29(8):104936. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Non-stenotic intracranial and systemic atherosclerosis are associated with ischemic stroke. We report frequency and response to anticoagulant vs. antiplatelet prophylaxis of patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) who have non-stenotic intracranial atherosclerosis and/or systemic atherosclerosis.

Methods: Exploratory analysis of the international NAVIGATE ESUS randomized trial comparing rivaroxaban 15mg daily with aspirin 100mg daily in 7213 patients with recent ESUS. Among participants with results of intracranial arterial imaging with either computed tomographic angiography (CTA) or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), the frequency and predictors of non-stenotic intracranial and systemic atherosclerosis and responses to antithrombotic therapy were assessed.

Results: Among 4723 participants with available intracranial CTA or MRA results (65% of the trial cohort), the prevalence of intracranial atherosclerosis was 16% (n=739). Patient features independently associated with intracranial atherosclerosis included East Asian region (odds ratio 2.7, 95%CI 2.2,3.3) and cervical carotid plaque (odds ratio 2.3, 95%CI 1.9,2.7), among others. The rate of recurrent ischemic stroke averaged 4.8%/year among those with intracranial atherosclerosis vs. 5.0.%/year for those without (HR 0.95, 95%CI 0.65, 1.4). Among those with intracranial atherosclerosis, the recurrent ischemic stroke rate was higher if assigned to rivaroxaban (5.8%/year) vs. aspirin (3.7%/year), but the difference was not statistically significant (HR 1.6, 95%CI 0.78, 3.3). There was trend for the effect of antithrombotic treatments to be different according to the presence or absence of intracranial atherosclerosis (p=0.09). Among participants with evidence of systemic atherosclerosis by either history or imaging (n=3820), recurrent ischemic stroke rates were similar among those assigned to rivaroxaban (5.5%/year) vs. aspirin (4.9%/year)(HR 1.1, 95%CI 0.84, 1.5).

Conclusions: East Asia region was the strongest factor associated with intracranial atherosclerosis. There were no statistically significant differences between rivaroxaban and aspirin prophylaxis for recurrent ischemic stroke in patients with non-stenotic intracranial atherosclerosis and/or systemic atherosclerosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.104936DOI Listing
August 2020

Oral factor Xa inhibitors and risk of subdural hematoma: COMPASS trial results and meta-analysis.

Neurology 2020 08 10;95(5):e480-e487. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

From the Department of Medicine (Neurology) (L.C., K.N., S.N., K.S.P., A.S., M.S., R.G.H.), Department of Medicine (Division of Hematology & Thromboembolism) (J.W.E.), and School of Rehabilitation Science (J.B.), McMaster University/Hamilton Health Sciences/Population Health Research Institute (O.S.), Hamilton, Canada.

Objective: Subdural hematomas (SDHs) are an uncommon, but important, complication of anticoagulation therapy. We hypothesized that the risks of SDH would be similar during treatment with oral factor Xa inhibitors compared with aspirin.

Methods: We assessed the frequency and the effects of antithrombotic treatments on SDHs in the recent international Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies (COMPASS) randomized trial comparing aspirin 100 mg daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, and rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin. A systematic review/meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing oral factor Xa inhibitors vs aspirin on SDH risk was undertaken.

Results: Among 27,395 COMPASS participants, 28 patients with SDHs were identified (mean age 72 years). SDH-associated mortality was 7%. Incidence was 0.06 per 100 patient-years (11 SDH/17,492 years observation) during the mean 23-month follow-up among aspirin-assigned patients and did not differ significantly between treatments. Three additional randomized controlled trials including 16,177 participants reported a total of 14 SDHs with an incidence ranging from 0.06 to 0.1 per 100 patient-years. Factor Xa inhibitor use was not associated with an increased risk of SDH compared to aspirin (odds ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-1.81; I = 0%).

Conclusion: The frequency of SDH was similar in all 3 treatment arms of the COMPASS trial. The COMPASS trial results markedly increase the available evidence from randomized comparisons of oral factor Xa inhibitors with aspirin regarding SDH. From available, albeit limited, evidence from 4 randomized trials, therapeutic dosages of factor Xa inhibitors do not appear to increase the risk of SDH compared with aspirin.

Clinical Trial Identifier Number: NCT01776424.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000009826DOI Listing
August 2020

Characteristics of Recurrent Ischemic Stroke After Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Neurol 2020 10;77(10):1233-1240

Population Health Research Institute, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Importance: The concept of embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) unifies a subgroup of cryptogenic strokes based on neuroimaging, a defined minimum set of diagnostic tests, and exclusion of certain causes. Despite an annual stroke recurrence rate of 5%, little is known about the etiology underlying recurrent stroke after ESUS.

Objective: To identify the stroke subtype of recurrent ischemic strokes after ESUS, to explore the interaction with treatment assignment in each category, and to examine the consistency of cerebral location of qualifying ESUS and recurrent ischemic stroke.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The NAVIGATE-ESUS trial was a randomized clinical trial conducted from December 23, 2014, to October 5, 2017. The trial compared the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban and aspirin in patients with recent ESUS (n = 7213). Ischemic stroke was validated in 309 of the 7213 patients by adjudicators blinded to treatment assignment and classified by local investigators into the categories ESUS or non-ESUS (ie, cardioembolic, atherosclerotic, lacunar, other determined cause, or insufficient testing). Five patients with recurrent strokes that could not be defined as ischemic or hemorrhagic in absence of neuroimaging or autopsy were excluded. Data for this secondary post hoc analysis were analyzed from March to June 2019.

Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to receive rivaroxaban, 15 mg/d, or aspirin, 100 mg/d.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Association of recurrent ESUS with stroke characteristics.

Results: A total of 309 patients (205 men [66%]; mean [SD] age, 68 [10] years) had ischemic stroke identified during the median follow-up of 11 (interquartile range [IQR], 12) months (annualized rate, 4.6%). Diagnostic testing was insufficient for etiological classification in 39 patients (13%). Of 270 classifiable ischemic strokes, 156 (58%) were ESUS and 114 (42%) were non-ESUS (37 [32%] cardioembolic, 26 [23%] atherosclerotic, 35 [31%] lacunar, and 16 [14%] other determined cause). Atrial fibrillation was found in 27 patients (9%) with recurrent ischemic stroke and was associated with higher morbidity (median change in modified Rankin scale score 2 [IQR, 3] vs 0 (IQR, 1]) and mortality (15% vs 1%) than other causes. Risk of recurrence did not differ significantly by subtype between treatment groups. For both the qualifying and recurrent strokes, location of infarct was more often in the left (46% and 54%, respectively) than right hemisphere (40% and 37%, respectively) or brainstem or cerebellum (14% and 9%, respectively).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this secondary analysis of randomized clinical trial data, most recurrent strokes after ESUS were embolic and of undetermined source. Recurrences associated with atrial fibrillation were a minority but were more often disabling and fatal. More extensive investigation to identify the embolic source is important toward an effective antithrombotic strategy.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02313909.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.1995DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7550970PMC
October 2020

Frequency and Predictors of Major Bleeding in Patients With Embolic Strokes of Undetermined Source: NAVIGATE-ESUS Trial.

Stroke 2020 07 10;51(7):2139-2147. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

McMaster University/Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences, ON, Canada (A.S., S.J.C., R.G.H.).

Background And Purpose: Risks, sites, and predictors of major bleeding during antithrombotic therapies have not been well defined for patients with recent embolic stroke of undetermined source.

Methods: Exploratory analysis of major bleeds defined by International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis criteria occurring among 7213 participants in international NAVIGATE (New Approach Rivaroxaban Inhibition of Factor Xa in a Global Trial) embolic stroke of undetermined source randomized trial comparing rivaroxaban 15 mg daily with aspirin 100 mg daily.

Results: During a median follow-up of 11 months, 85 major bleeds occurred. The most frequent site was gastrointestinal (38%), followed by intracranial (29%). Assignment to rivaroxaban (hazard ratio [HR], 2.7 [95% CI, 1.7-4.3]), East Asia region (HR, 2.5 [95% CI, 1.6-3.9]), systolic blood pressure ≥160 mm Hg (HR, 2.2 [95% CI, 1.2-3.8]), and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (HR, 1.2 per 10 mL/min per 1.73 m decrease, [95% CI, 1.0-1.3]) were independently associated with presence of major bleeds. Five (6%) were fatal. Among 15 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, 2 (13%) were fatal. There was no evidence of an early high-risk period following initiation of rivaroxaban. The annualized rate of intracerebral hemorrhage was 6-fold higher among East Asian participants (0.67%) versus all other regions (0.11%; HR, 6.3 [95% CI, 2.2-18.0]). Distribution of bleeding sites was similar for rivaroxaban and aspirin.

Conclusions: Among embolic stroke of undetermined source patients participating in an international randomized trial, independent predictors of major bleeding were assignment to rivaroxaban, East Asia region, increased systolic blood pressure, and impaired renal function. East Asia as a region was strongly associated with risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Estimated glomerular filtration rate should be a consideration for stratifying bleeding risk. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02313909.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.027995DOI Listing
July 2020

Potential Embolic Sources and Outcomes in Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source in the NAVIGATE-ESUS Trial.

Stroke 2020 06 16;51(6):1797-1804. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences, ON, Canada (M.S., R.G.H.).

Background and Purpose- Emboli in embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) may originate from various potential embolic sources (PES), some of which may respond better to anticoagulation, whereas others to antiplatelets. We analyzed whether rivaroxaban is associated with reduction of recurrent stroke compared with aspirin in patients with ESUS across different PES and by number of PES. Methods- We assessed the presence/absence of each PES (atrial cardiopathy, atrial fibrillation, arterial atherosclerosis, left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac valvulopathy, patent foramen ovale, cancer) in NAVIGATE-ESUS (New Approach Rivaroxaban Inhibition of Factor Xa in a Global Trial Versus ASA to Prevent Embolism in Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source) participants. Prevalence of each PES, as well as treatment effect and risk of event for each PES were determined. Results by number of PES were also determined. The outcomes were ischemic stroke, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and myocardial infarction. Results- In 7213 patients (38% women, mean age 67years) followed for a median of 11 months, the 3 most prevalent PES were atrial cardiopathy (37%), left ventricular disease (36%), and arterial atherosclerosis (29%). Forty-one percent of all patients had multiple PES, with 15% having ≥3 PES. None or a single PES was present in 23% and 36%, respectively. Recurrent ischemic stroke risk was similar for rivaroxaban- and aspirin-assigned patients for each PES, except for those with cardiac valvular disease which was marginally higher in rivaroxaban-assigned patients (hazard ratio, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.0-3.0]). All-cause mortality risks were similar across treatment groups for each PES while too few myocardial infarctions and cardiovascular deaths occurred for meaningful assessment. Increasing number of PES was not associated with increased stroke recurrence nor all-cause mortality, and outcomes did not vary between rivaroxaban- and aspirin-assigned patients by number of PES. Conclusions- A large proportion of patients with ESUS had multiple PES which could explain the neutral results of NAVIGATE-ESUS. Recurrence rates between rivaroxaban- and aspirin-assigned patients were similar across the spectrum of PES. Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02313909.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.028669DOI Listing
June 2020

Dabigatran Treatment of Acute Noncardioembolic Ischemic Stroke.

Stroke 2020 04 26;51(4):1190-1198. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

From the Division of Neurology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada (K.S.B., A.C.K., B.B., L.S., M.S.).

Background and Purpose- Patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) and minor ischemic stroke are at risk for early recurrent cerebral ischemia. Anticoagulants are associated with reduced recurrence but also increased hemorrhagic transformation (HT). The safety of the novel oral anticoagulant dabigatran in acute stroke has not been evaluated. Methods- DATAS II (Dabigatran Treatment of Acute Stroke II) was a phase II prospective, randomized open label, blinded end point trial. Patients with noncardioembolic stroke/transient ischemic attack (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, ≤9; infarct volume, ≤25 mL) were randomized to dabigatran or aspirin. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed before randomization and repeated at day 30. Imaging end points were ascertained centrally by readers blinded to treatment. The primary end point was symptomatic HT within 37 days of randomization. Results- A total of 305 patients, mean age 66.59±13.21 years, were randomized to dabigatran or aspirin a mean of 42.00±17.31 hours after symptom onset. The qualifying event was a transient ischemic attack in 21%, and ischemic stroke in 79% of patients. Median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (interquartile range) was 1 (0-2), and mean infarct volume 3.2±6.5 mL. No symptomatic HT occurred. Asymptomatic petechial HT developed in 11/142 (7.8%) of dabigatran-assigned patients and 5/142 (3.5%) of aspirin-assigned patients (relative risk, 2.301 [95% CI, 0.778-6.802]). Baseline infarct volume predicted incident HT (odds ratio, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.03-1.12]; =0.0026). Incident covert infarcts on day 30 imaging occurred in 9/142 (6.3%) of dabigatran-assigned and 14/142 (9.8%) of aspirin-assigned patients (relative risk, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.26, 1.48]). Conclusions- Dabigatran was associated with a risk of HT similar to aspirin in acute minor noncardioembolic ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack. Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02295826.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.027569DOI Listing
April 2020

Atrial Cardiopathy and Nonstenosing Large Artery Plaque in Patients With Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source.

Stroke 2020 03 2;51(3):938-943. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Division of Cardiology, Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada (S.J.C., J.S.H.).

Background and Purpose- Atrial cardiopathy and atherosclerotic plaque are two potential mechanisms underlying embolic strokes of undetermined source (ESUS). The relationship between these two mechanisms among ESUS patients remains unclear. A better understanding of their association may inform targeted secondary prevention strategies. Methods- We examined the association between atrial cardiopathy and atherosclerotic plaque in the NAVIGATE ESUS trial (New Approach Rivaroxaban Inhibition of Factor Xa in a Global Trial Versus ASA to Prevent Embolism in Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source), which enrolled 7213 patients with recent ESUS during 2014 to 2017. For this analysis, we included patients with data on left atrial dimension, location of brain infarction, and cervical large artery plaque. The variables of primary interest were left atrial diameter and cervical plaque ipsilateral to brain infarction. Secondary markers of atrial cardiopathy were premature atrial contractions on Holter monitoring and newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation. For descriptive purposes, left atrial enlargement was defined as ≥4.7 cm. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between atrial cardiopathy markers and ipsilateral plaque after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, current smoking, and hyperlipidemia. Results- Among 3983 eligible patients, 235 (5.9%) had left atrial enlargement, 939 (23.6%) had ipsilateral plaque, and 94 (2.4%) had both. Shared risk factors for left atrial enlargement and ipsilateral plaque were male sex, white race, hypertension, tobacco use, and coronary artery disease. Despite shared risk factors, increasing left atrial dimension was not associated with ipsilateral plaque after adjustment for covariates (odds ratio per cm, 1.1 [95% CI, 1.0-1.2]; =0.08). We found no consistent associations between secondary markers of atrial cardiopathy and ipsilateral plaque. Conclusions- In a large population of patients with ESUS, we did not observe a notable association between atrial cardiopathy and atherosclerotic plaque, and few patients had both conditions. These findings suggest that atrial cardiopathy and atherosclerotic plaque may be distinct, nonoverlapping risk factors for stroke among ESUS patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.028154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7042078PMC
March 2020

Are large simple trials for dementia prevention possible?

Age Ageing 2020 02;49(2):154-160

Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University & Hamilton Health Sciences, Canada.

New trials of dementia prevention are needed to test novel strategies and agents. Large, simple, cardiovascular trials have successfully discovered treatments with moderate but worthwhile effects to prevent heart attack and stroke. The design of these trials may hold lessons for the dementia prevention. Here we outline suitable populations, interventions and outcomes for large simple trials in dementia prevention. We consider what features are needed to maximise efficiency. Populations could be selected by age, clinical or genetic risk factors or clinical presentation. Patients and their families prioritise functional and clinical outcomes over cognitive scores and levels of biomarkers. Loss of particular functions or dementia diagnoses therefore are most meaningful to participants and potential patients and can be measured in large trials. The size of the population and duration of follow-up needed for dementia prevention trials will be a major challenge and will need collaboration between many clinical investigators, funders and patient organisations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afz152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7047819PMC
February 2020

Left Atrial Enlargement Could Be Detected on Extended Computed Tomography Angiography Within Initial Stroke Assessment-Reply.

JAMA Neurol 2020 01;77(1):134-135

Population Health Research Institute, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Hamilton Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.3794DOI Listing
January 2020

Regional, sex, and age differences in diagnostic testing among participants in the NAVIGATE-ESUS trial.

Int J Stroke 2021 01 20;16(1):55-62. Epub 2019 Oct 20.

Population Health Research Institute, David Braley Cardiac, Vascular and Stroke Research Institute, Hamilton, Canada.

Background And Aim: The diagnosis of embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) is based on excluding other more likely stroke etiologies, and therefore diagnostic testing plays an especially crucial role. Our objective was to compare the diagnostic testing by region, sex, and age among the participants of NAVIGATE-ESUS trial.

Methods: Participants were grouped according to five global regions (North America, Latin America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe and East Asia), age (<60, 60-74, and >75 years), and sex. Frequencies of each diagnostic test within areas of echocardiography, cardiac rhythm monitoring, and arterial imaging were described and compared across groups. A multivariable logistic regression model for each diagnostic test was fit to assess the independent influence of each of region, age, and sex and likelihood of testing.

Results: We included 6985 patients in the analysis (918 from North America; 746 from Latin America; 2853 from Western Europe; 1118 from Eastern Europe; 1350 from East Asia). Average age (highest in Western Europe (69 years), lowest in Eastern Europe (65 years)), % females (highest in Latin America (44%) and lowest in East Asia (31%)), and use of each diagnostic test varied significantly across regions. Region, but not sex, was independently associated with use of each diagnostic test examined. Transesophageal echocardiography and either CT or MR angiogram were more often used in younger patients.

Conclusion: Diagnostic testing differed by region, and less frequently by age, but not by sex. Our findings reflect the existing variations in global practice in diagnostic testing in ESUS patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493019884523DOI Listing
January 2021

Major Bleeding in Patients With Coronary or Peripheral Artery Disease Treated With Rivaroxaban Plus Aspirin.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2019 09;74(12):1519-1528

Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background: In patients with coronary or peripheral artery disease, the combination of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily and aspirin 100 mg once daily compared with aspirin 100 mg once daily reduced major adverse cardiovascular events and mortality and increased bleeding.

Objectives: This study sought to explore the effects of the combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin on sites, timing, severity, and management of bleeding in the COMPASS (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies) study.

Methods: This study reports, by treatment group, the number and proportion of patients; hazard rate ratios for bleeding according to site and severity; the timing of bleeding using landmark analyses; and the number and proportion of patients who received blood products and other hemostatic treatments.

Results: Of 27,395 patients enrolled (mean age 68 years, 22% women), 18,278 were randomized to the combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin or to aspirin alone and followed for a mean of 23 months. Compared with aspirin alone, the combination increased modified International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis major bleeding (288 of 9,152 [3.1%] vs. 170 of 9,126 [1.9%]), (HR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.40 to 2.05; p < 0.001), International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis major bleeding (206 of 9,152 [2.3%] vs. 116 of 9,126 [1.3%]), (HR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.41 to 2.23; p < 0.0001), and minor bleeding (838 of 9,152 [9.2%] vs. 503 of 9,126 [5.5%]), (HR: 1.70; 95% CI 1.52 to 1.90; p < 0.0001); the combination also increased the need for any red cell transfusion (87 of 9,152 [1.0%] vs. 44 of 9,126 [0.5%]), (HR: 1.97; 95% CI 1.37 to 2.83, p = 0.0002). The gastrointestinal (GI) tract was the most common site of increased major bleeding (140 of 9,152 [1.5%] vs. 65 of 9,126 [0.7%]), (HR: 2.15; 95% CI: 1.60 to 2.89; p < 0.001), and the increase in bleeding was predominantly in the first year after randomization. Approximately one-third of major GI bleeding was gastric or duodenal, one-third was colonic or rectal, and one-third was from an unknown GI site. The study investigators reported that approximately three-quarters of major bleeding episodes were of mild or moderate intensity. A similar proportion of patients in each treatment group who experienced major bleeding received platelets, clotting factors, or other hemostatic agents.

Conclusions: The combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin alone increased major bleeding, mainly from the GI tract. Most excess bleeding occurred during the first year after randomization, was of mild or moderate intensity, and was managed with conventional supportive therapy. (Rivaroxaban for the Prevention of Major Cardiovascular Events in Coronary or Peripheral Artery Disease [COMPASS]; NCT01776424).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2019.07.065DOI Listing
September 2019

Aortic Arch Atherosclerosis in Patients With Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source: An Exploratory Analysis of the NAVIGATE ESUS Trial.

Stroke 2019 11 17;50(11):3184-3190. Epub 2019 Sep 17.

Department of Medicine-Neurology (R.G.H.), McMaster University/Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background and Purpose- Aortic arch atherosclerosis (AAA) is a possible source of embolism in patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source. Previous studies reported high rates of embolic events in patients with AAA, especially those with high-risk AAA. This exploratory analysis of NAVIGATE ESUS (New Approach Rivaroxaban Inhibition of Factor Xa in a Global Trial Versus ASA to Prevent Embolism in Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source) focused on patients with AAA and assessed their characteristics, stroke recurrence rates, and response to treatment. Methods- The detection of AAA and the assessment of its features were based on transesophageal echocardiography that was done in 19% of participants. AAA plaques were considered to have complex features when reported as complex or ulcerated or were ≥4 mm in thickness or had a mobile thrombus present. Results- Among 1382 participants who had transesophageal echocardiography, 397 (29%) had AAA and 112 (8%) had complex AAA. Mean (SD) age (63 [10] versus 67 [9] versus 69 [9]; <0.001), prevalence of diabetes mellitus (19% versus 26%, versus 32%; =0.002), and aortic valvulopathy (10 versus 20 versus 20; <0.001) increased across no versus noncomplex versus complex AAA, respectively. In multivariable analyses, increasing age, diabetes mellitus, aortic valvulopathy, statin use before randomization, chronic infarcts on imaging, and region were independently associated with any AAA versus no AAA and also with complex AAA versus no AAA. Multiterritorial qualifying infarcts rather than single-territory infarcts were observed in 21% with complex AAA versus 17% noncomplex versus 13% no AAA (=0.07). Annualized rates of ischemic stroke recurrence were 7.2% versus 4.2% versus 5.6% for complex versus noncomplex versus no AAA, respectively. While prevalence of complex AAA increased with increasing risk score, after adjusting for risk score, we did not observe increased risk of recurrent stroke for patients with complex AAA (hazard ratio, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.53-2.4), although the number of outcomes was limited. In patients with complex AAA, 4 strokes occurred among rivaroxaban-assigned patients and 4 strokes among aspirin-assigned patients. Conclusions- Complex AAA is prevalent in embolic stroke of undetermined source patients and is associated with atherosclerotic burden. Whether complex AAA independently increases recurrent stroke risk and whether a non-vitamin-K oral anticoagulant as compared with aspirin may be effective for reducing recurrent stroke requires additional study. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02313909.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.025813DOI Listing
November 2019

Association Between Low-Dose Rivaroxaban With or Without Aspirin and Ischemic Stroke Subtypes: A Secondary Analysis of the COMPASS Trial.

JAMA Neurol 2020 01;77(1):43-48

Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Importance: The COMPASS (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies) randomized clinical trial was stopped early owing to the efficacy of low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin in preventing major cardiovascular events. The main reason for early trial termination was the effect of combination therapy on reducing ischemic strokes.

Objective: To analyze the association between low-dose rivaroxaban with or without aspirin and different ischemic stroke subtypes.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study that was performed in 33 countries from March 12, 2013, to May 10, 2016. Patients with stable atherosclerotic vascular disease were eligible, and a total of 27 395 participants were randomized and followed up to February 6, 2017. All first ischemic strokes and uncertain strokes that occurred by this date were adjudicated using TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) criteria. The analysis of ischemic stroke subtypes was evaluated using an intention-to-treat principle. Statistical analysis was performed from March 12, 2013, to February 6, 2017.

Interventions: Participants received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice a day) plus aspirin (100 mg once a day), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice a day), or aspirin (100 mg once a day).

Main Outcomes And Measures: Risk of ischemic stroke subtypes during follow-up.

Results: A total of 291 patients (66 women; mean [SD] age, 69.4 [8.5] years; 43 [14.8%] had a previous nonlacunar stroke) experienced an ischemic stroke. During the study, 49 patients (16.8%) received a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. Applying TOAST criteria, 59 strokes (20.3%) were cardioembolic, 54 strokes (18.6%) were secondary to greater than 50% stenosis of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery, 42 strokes (14.4%) had a negative evaluation that met criteria for embolic stroke of undetermined source, and 21 strokes (7.2%) were secondary to small vessel disease. There were significantly fewer cardioembolic strokes (hazard ratio [HR], 0.40 [95% CI, 0.20-0.78]; P = .005) and embolic strokes of undetermined source (HR, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.12-0.74]; P = .006) in the combination therapy group compared with the aspirin-only group. A trend for reduction in strokes secondary to small vessel disease (HR, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.12-1.14]; P = .07) was not statistically significant. No significant difference was observed between the 2 groups in strokes secondary to greater than 50% carotid artery stenosis (HR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.45-1.60]; P = .61). Rivaroxaban, 5 mg, twice daily showed a trend for reducing cardioembolic strokes compared with aspirin (HR, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.31-1.03]; P = .06) but was not associated with reducing other stroke subtypes.

Conclusions And Relevance: For patients with systemic atherosclerosis, low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin was associated with large, significant reductions in cardioembolic strokes and embolic strokes of undetermined source. However, these results of exploratory analysis need to be independently confirmed before influencing clinical practice.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01776424.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.2984DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6749537PMC
January 2020

Bleeding and New Cancer Diagnosis in Patients With Atherosclerosis.

Circulation 2019 10 12;140(18):1451-1459. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University and Hamilton Health Sciences, Ontario, Canada (J.W.E., S.J.C., J.B., O.S., S.S.A., R.G.H., P.M., S.Y.).

Background: Patients treated with antithrombotic drugs are at risk of bleeding. Bleeding may be the first manifestation of underlying cancer.

Methods: We examined new cancers diagnosed in relation to gastrointestinal or genitourinary bleeding among patients enrolled in the COMPASS trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies) and determined the hazard of new cancer diagnosis after bleeding at these sites.

Results: Of 27 395 patients enrolled (mean age, 68 years; women, 21%), 2678 (9.8%) experienced any (major or minor) bleeding, 713 (2.6%) experienced major bleeding, and 1084 (4.0%) were diagnosed with cancer during a mean follow-up of 23 months. Among 2678 who experienced bleeding, 257 (9.9%) were subsequently diagnosed with cancer. Gastrointestinal bleeding was associated with a 20-fold higher hazard of new gastrointestinal cancer diagnosis (7.4% versus 0.5%; hazard ratio [HR], 20.6 [95% CI, 15.2-27.8]) and 1.7-fold higher hazard of new nongastrointestinal cancer diagnosis (3.8% versus 3.1%; HR, 1.70 [95% CI, 1.20-2.40]). Genitourinary bleeding was associated with a 32-fold higher hazard of new genitourinary cancer diagnosis (15.8% versus 0.8%; HR, 32.5 [95% CI, 24.7-42.9]), and urinary bleeding was associated with a 98-fold higher hazard of new urinary cancer diagnosis (14.2% versus 0.2%; HR, 98.5; 95% CI, 68.0-142.7). Nongastrointestinal, nongenitourinary bleeding was associated with a 3-fold higher hazard of nongastrointestinal, nongenitourinary cancers (4.4% versus 1.9%; HR, 3.02 [95% CI, 2.32-3.91]).

Conclusions: In patients with atherosclerosis treated with antithrombotic drugs, any gastrointestinal or genitourinary bleeding was associated with higher rates of new cancer diagnosis. Any gastrointestinal or genitourinary bleeding should prompt investigation for cancers at these sites.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01776424.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.041949DOI Listing
October 2019

Efficacy and Safety of Rivaroxaban Versus Aspirin in Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source and Carotid Atherosclerosis.

Stroke 2019 09 12;50(9):2477-2485. Epub 2019 Aug 12.

Department of Medicine (Neurology), Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada. (R.G.H.).

Background and Purpose- The sources of emboli in patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) are multiple and may not respond uniformly to anticoagulation. In this exploratory subgroup analysis of patients with carotid atherosclerosis in the NAVIGATE (New Approach Rivaroxaban Inhibition of Factor Xa in a Global Trial Versus ASA to Prevent Embolism)-ESUS trial, we assessed whether the treatment effect in this subgroup is consistent with the overall trial population and investigated the association of carotid atherosclerosis with recurrent ischemic stroke. Methods- Carotid atherosclerosis was analyzed either as the presence of mild (ie, 20%-49%) atherosclerotic stenosis or, separately, as the presence of carotid plaque. Primary efficacy outcome was ischemic stroke recurrence. Safety outcomes were major bleeding and symptomatic intracerebral bleeding. Results- Carotid plaque was present in 40% of participants and mild carotid stenosis in 11%. There was no significant difference in ischemic stroke recurrence between rivaroxaban- and aspirin-treated patients among 490 patients with carotid stenosis (5.0 versus 5.9/100 patient-years, respectively, hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; 95% CI, 0.39-1.87; P for interaction of treatment effect with patients without carotid stenosis 0.78) and among 2905 patients with carotid plaques (5.9 versus 4.9/100 patient-years, respectively, HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.86-1.68; P for interaction of treatment effect with patients without carotid stenosis 0.2). Among patients with carotid plaque, major bleeding was more frequent in rivaroxaban-treated patients compared with aspirin-treated (2.0 versus 0.5/100 patient-years, HR, 3.75; 95% CI, 1.63-8.65). Patients with carotid stenosis had similar rate of ischemic stroke recurrence compared with those without (5.4 versus 4.9/100 patient-years, respectively, HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.73-1.69), but there was a strong trend of higher rate of ischemic stroke recurrence in patients with carotid plaque compared with those without (5.4 versus 4.3/100 patient-years, respectively, HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.99-1.54). Conclusions- In ESUS patients with carotid atherosclerosis, we found no difference in efficacy between rivaroxaban and aspirin for prevention of recurrent stroke, but aspirin was safer, consistent with the overall trial results. Carotid plaque was much more often present ipsilateral to the qualifying ischemic stroke than contralateral, supporting an important etiological role of nonstenotic carotid disease in ESUS. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02313909.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.025168DOI Listing
September 2019

Predictors of Recurrent Ischemic Stroke in Patients with Embolic Strokes of Undetermined Source and Effects of Rivaroxaban Versus Aspirin According to Risk Status: The NAVIGATE ESUS Trial.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2019 Aug 31;28(8):2273-2279. Epub 2019 May 31.

Department of Medicine (Cardiology), McMaster University/Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) identifies patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke presumed due to embolism from several unidentified sources. Among patients with recent ESUS, we sought to determine independent predictors of recurrent ischemic stroke during treatment with aspirin or rivaroxaban and to assess the relative effects of these treatments according to risk.

Methods: Exploratory analyses of 7213 participants in the NAVIGATE ESUS international trial who were randomized to aspirin 100 mg/day or rivaroxaban 15 mg/day and followed for a median of 11 months, during which time there were 309 first recurrent ischemic strokes (4.6% per year). Baseline features were correlated with recurrent stroke by multivariate analysis.

Results: The 7 independent predictors of recurrent stroke were stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) prior to the qualifying stroke (hazard ratio [HR] 2.03 95% confidence internal [CI] 1.58-2.60), current tobacco user (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.24-2.12), age (HR 1.02 per year increase, 95%CI 1.01-1.03), diabetes (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.01-1.64), multiple acute infarcts on neuroimaging (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.09-2.02), aspirin use prior to qualifying stroke (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02-1.70), and time from qualifying stroke to randomization (HR .98, 95% CI .97-.99). The rate of recurrent stroke rate was 2.6% per year for participants without any of these risk factors, and increased by an average of 45% for each independent predictor (P < .001). There were no significant interactions between treatment effects and independent stroke predictors or stroke risk status.

Conclusions: In this large cohort of ESUS patients, several features including prior stroke or TIA, advanced age, current tobacco user, multiple acute infarcts on neuroimaging, and diabetes independently identified those with an increased risk of ischemic stroke recurrence. The relative effects of rivaroxaban and aspirin were similar across the spectrum of independent stroke predictors and recurrent stroke risk status.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2019.05.014DOI Listing
August 2019

Safety of Proton Pump Inhibitors Based on a Large, Multi-Year, Randomized Trial of Patients Receiving Rivaroxaban or Aspirin.

Gastroenterology 2019 09 29;157(3):682-691.e2. Epub 2019 May 29.

University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Background & Aims: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial.

Methods: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up.

Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant.

Conclusions: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. ClinicalTrials.gov Number: NCT01776424.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.05.056DOI Listing
September 2019

Who says "no" to participating in stroke clinical trials and why: an observational study from the Vancouver Stroke Program.

Trials 2019 May 31;20(1):313. Epub 2019 May 31.

Vancouver Stroke Program - Research Office, 8295-2775 Laurel Street, Vancouver,, BC, V5Z 1M9, Canada.

Background: Successful stroke trials require adequate recruitment. In this observational study, we assessed reasons for refusal to provide informed consent in eligible patients approached for clinical trial participation at the Vancouver Stroke Program.

Methods: We assessed screening logs from four trials that were actively recruiting at our center: three randomized trials, two of which investigated different antithrombotic strategies for secondary prevention (NAVIGATE-ESUS, NCT02313909 12/2014; DATAS-II, NCT02295826 11/2014) and one that investigated surgery plus medical management versus medical management alone for primary prevention (CREST-2, NCT02089217 03/2014). The fourth study was observational and non-randomized; all participants received an external monitoring device (PROPHECY, NCT03712865 10/2018). Screening logs from June 2015 to April 2017 were reviewed retrospectively. Subsequently, we used a prospective structured case report form for screening (May 2017-March 2018). We assessed and compared refusal rates between trials, demographics of those refusing consent, and their reasons for doing so. We used descriptive statistics, chi-square and Fisher's exact tests as appropriate for non-parametric data, and t-tests for parametric data. We examined likelihood of refusal by sex using multivariable logistic regression models including age and trial intervention as co-variables.

Results: A total of 235 patients (43% women) were approached for consent. More patients refused the surgical (59%) and antithrombotic trials (53%) compared with the non-randomized external monitoring device study (13%) (p < 0.001). Surgical trial refusals were primarily due to a desire for certainty in receiving a particular intervention (39%), with the majority of those patients wanting surgery. Refusals for the antithrombotic trials were mainly due to concerns with the potential side effects of the study drug (41%); refusals in the device trial were mainly due to disinterest (46%). Women refused participation more often than men (48% vs 33%). Women remained less likely to consent than men, even after adjustment for age and trial intervention (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.26-0.82, p = 0.009).

Conclusions: Concern surrounding drug safety, randomization, and disinterest were the chief deterrents to enrolment; there were also differences in rates of consent by gender. A better understanding of why patients refuse participation in stroke trials may help to develop future patient-directed communication strategies to improve enrolment. Further research is required to better understand the reasons underlying gender disparities in consent rates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-019-3434-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6545028PMC
May 2019

Branch atheromatous disease diagnosed as embolic stroke of undetermined source: A sub-analysis of NAVIGATE ESUS.

Int J Stroke 2019 12 27;14(9):915-922. Epub 2019 May 27.

Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, Canada.

Background: Branch atheromatous disease (BAD) is distinctive from large and small arterial diseases, which is single subcortical infarction larger than lacunar stroke in the territories of deep perforators without relevant arterial stenosis. BAD meets the current criteria of embolic stroke of undetermined source. We performed an exploratory analysis of BAD in patients recruited to NAVIGATE embolic stroke of undetermined source, a randomized controlled trial to compare rivaroxaban and aspirin in embolic stroke of undetermined source patients.

Methods And Results: Among 3972 stroke patients in cerebral hemispheres with intracranial arterial imaging, 502 (12.6%) patients met the criteria for BAD. BAD was associated with younger age (years; OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.96-0.98), race (Asian; OR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.44-2.21), region (Eastern Europe; OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.87-3.32), and higher National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.12-1.22) at randomization. During follow-up, stroke or systemic embolism (2.5%/year vs. 6.2%/year,  = 0.0022), stroke (2.1%/year vs. 6.2%/year,  = 0.0008), and ischemic stroke (2.1%/year vs. 5.9%/year,  = 0.0013) occurred less frequently in BAD than non-BAD patients. There were no differences in annual rates of stroke or systemic embolism (2.5%/year vs. 2.5%/year, HR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.33-3.14) or major bleeding (1.3%/year vs. 0.8%/year, HR: 1.51, 95% CI: 0.25-9.05) between rivaroxaban and aspirin groups among BAD patients.

Conclusions: BAD was relatively common, especially in Asian and from Eastern Europe among embolic stroke of undetermined source patients. Stroke severity was higher at randomization but recurrence of stroke was fewer in BAD than non-BAD patients. The efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban and aspirin did not differ among BAD patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493019852177DOI Listing
December 2019

Pantoprazole to Prevent Gastroduodenal Events in Patients Receiving Rivaroxaban and/or Aspirin in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Gastroenterology 2019 08 2;157(2):403-412.e5. Epub 2019 May 2.

University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Background & Aims: Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are associated with increased upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We evaluated whether proton pump inhibitor therapy could reduce this risk.

Methods: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole 40 mg daily or placebo, as well as rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily with aspirin 100 mg once daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, or aspirin 100 mg alone. The primary outcome was time to first upper gastrointestinal event, defined as a composite of overt bleeding, upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a gastroduodenal lesion or of unknown origin, occult bleeding, symptomatic gastroduodenal ulcer or ≥5 erosions, upper gastrointestinal obstruction, or perforation.

Results: There was no significant difference in upper gastrointestinal events between the pantoprazole group (102 of 8791 events) and the placebo group (116 of 8807 events) (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.15). Pantoprazole significantly reduced bleeding of gastroduodenal lesions (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.94; P = .03); this reduction was greater when we used a post-hoc definition of bleeding gastroduodenal lesion (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.74), although the number needed to treat still was high (n = 982; 95% confidence interval, 609-2528).

Conclusions: In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we found that routine use of proton pump inhibitors in patients receiving low-dose anticoagulation and/or aspirin for stable cardiovascular disease does not reduce upper gastrointestinal events, but may reduce bleeding from gastroduodenal lesions. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01776424.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.04.041DOI Listing
August 2019